Volume XVI · Autumn 1960 · Number 1
Stumping for Lincoln in 1860: Excerpts from the Diary of Fanny Seward
--Edited by PATRICIA C. JOHNSON
In some respects the mechanics of American politics have changed remarkably little in the last century. The candidates are different, of course, and the basic issue has shifted from the increase of slave territory in the United States to the increase in Soviet prestige throughout the world. The advent of radio and television has even altered the length and tenor of the traditional campaign speech. But the surest road to political success is still unimpeachable party loyalty. To break with the party or to fail, for personal reasons, to support it actively and generously led in 1860, as surely as it does now, to political oblivion. Another characteristic of nineteenth-century politics, the personal campaign tour, is returning with renewed vigor. In many ways the tours are the same, too—brass bands, parades, bunting, and speech after speech. But one hundred years ago it was considered good form for the presidential aspirant to remain quietly and humbly at home and let his fellow party members beat the bushes and the whistle stops for votes. On these tours it has remained a nice note for the speaker to be accompanied by his wife and family. Women may not have voted for Abraham Lincoln but they helped to influence their husbands and sons, and the human and personal side of a man's life was always of paramount interest to the fair if unenfranchised sex.
Throughout the late spring and early summer of 1860 the most prominent figure in the Republican Party had a very good personal reason for refusing his support in the coming election. He was bitterly and profoundly disappointed. William Henry Seward had expected his party's nomination for the presidency, and his expectation was shared by the rest of the country. Yet the candidate was a relatively unknown local politician and lawyer from Illinois. Finally, spurred on by his basically generous nature, his own belief in party loyalty, his firm adherence to the platform of the Republican Party, and the admonitions of his intimate friend, Thurlow Weed, Seward decided to " take the stump." He campaigned in his own New York State and then traveled out to the "Lincoln country" itself.
There was no possibility of Mrs. Seward joining her husband on the trip. She was a semi-invalid who hated crowds, parties, travel and, most of all, the political limelight. She agreed, though, when Seward decided to substitute their fifteen-year-old daughter, Fanny. The motive for taking the young girl was not solely or even mainly political. Seward intended that his beloved only daughter should have a wide, liberal education and the campaign provided an opportunity for her to glimpse much of the Midwest. The parents also hoped that it would improve her health. She was a delicate child, subject especially to coughs, colds, and fevers and there was a chance that the exercise, fresh air, and change of climate would bolster her weak constitution.
The following is Fanny Seward's account of what she saw and did that summer. She was in the habit of making notes in a small pocket diary and then transferring them in expanded form to a larger one. Unfortunately, the completed diary is no longer extant and only the little notebook remains to describe what it was like " stumping" for Lincoln in that fateful election of 1860.
[Mr. Ralph Seward Allen has very kindly granted permission to publish this section of Fanny Seward's diary. All errors of spelling and punctuation and all crossed-out words have been retained, although misspellings have been indicated. Identification of persons, places and events has been made wherever possible. In those cases where a proper name is not footnoted, no information is available.]
August, Friday, 31, 1860. Sick this A-M — From crying last night — Concluded not to go — Father proposed to take some of my friends, proposed Ellen Perry he seemed anxious to take me — Mother & I went to ask her. she will go — Afternoon packed. Felt right homesick about going —. . . . . . . Gen Nye1 called, seems very pleasant. His daughter is to be of the party —
Sept., Saturday, 1, 1860. Started on Campaining [sic] tour — to return probably from Milwaukee — Party — Father, Ellen Perry — Mr Baker.2 & self — Louisa to be left at St. Catherine's — and John 3 — At Syracuse General Nye met us with his daughter. Niagara at eight — International hotel — Splendid torch light procession — brought Father — Roman candles — Speaking. Father, Gen Nye, Gov King 4 Gov Chase 5 — At Lockport & Albion 6 Father called out — by crowds cannons etc
Sept., Sunday, 2, 1860. Mr Kirkpatrick 7 joined us here
Breakfast at 9. Meet [sic] the Spaulding's, Miss Spaulding.8 The Weeds,9 the Davidsons'10 Miss Frothingham11— Grapes in from Mrs Spauldings Father Gen Nye H. White 12 went [sic] church. Rest went to walk — goat Island terrapin tower. Wrote to Mother. Dinner Gen Nyes arm. Miss Spaulding & self Evening in parl called on Mrs Governer [sic] King 13 at Cataract. Packed —. . . . . .
Sept., Monday, 3, 1860. Left Niagara, early this A. M. at 10. Walked over Suspension bridge — Canada R. R. Mr Glenn [?] left. Messrs Hayes, Woodhouse & Adams of Alabama — & Mr. Orr brother of Speaker 14 joined us. Left Louisa at St Catherines — Father met Toombs [?] coachman. 15 Saw something like praries [sic] — Much dust — Mr Hosmer 16 & others met us on road. Mr Chandler 17 heartily welcomed us at Windsor. Ferry boat — Rockets — Evergreen trimmings. Introduction [?] at Milwaukee depot 18 — crowds — Frightened horses arrived at Mr Chandlers — Father brough [sic] [?] up soon after by a long procession of Wide Awakes 19 —
columns by gate. Speaking — large crowd Supper
Sept., Tuesday, 4, 1860. Miss Redfield joined us
Breakfast at ten 8. after a little while Father, Mrs Chandler 20 and Ellen & I went to make some calls — made three, 2 Howards 21 — Dinner—2 Misses Douglass [sic?]22—Minnie Chandler,23 Mr Chandler Drove around city — beautiful place of Mr Jones, Fine churches. Procession more than mile long — Wide awakes — Sister States — etc —Father in midst — Cheering of each company at house —
Went with Mrs C. to hear speaking — in milwaukee depot
Sept., Wednesday, 5, 1860. Early this A. M. Left Detroit — cars as far as St. John's — at Owasso [sic]24 we ate dinner — & cannon wide awakes and speakers — At St John's the military and Wide Awakes met us — a dinner was prepared there for a large number of guest [sic] several hundred I should imagine — So we sat down at the table and got up again — Leaving the band and people to a hearty meal — Resumed our carriages and drove to De Witt — 9 miles from Lansing — there met by 200 mountd horsemen — and band — Escorted us to Lansing — where a great crowd had gathered — From the gate of the Capitol Mr_________ addressed [sic] welcome [?] to Father & Gen Nye —both responded — went to Mr Hosmers house-he came from Detroit with us [two illegible words written vertically on the right hand margin]
Sept., Thursday, 6, 1860. Rose rather late. Visited the State Reform School — Interesting and humane much pleased with it, State Agricultural college men deliverd adress [sic] to Father. Procession formed, Took in our carriages — it was between two and three miles long. Girls dressed as States, wideawakes etc. Paraded through city — Speaking at a public common, covered stage. Father's lap [?] — He began speaking stage began to give way - we off all right — he spoke — Gen Nye followed — Company dinner — Torchlight and roman candles evening
were gay with the Hosmers such nice people
Mr Howard 25 joined
Sept., Friday, 7, 1860.
Left Lansing 9 A. M. in carriages — dined at " Onondaga" 26 — having passed thro [sic] Eaton Rapids — Reached Jackson about sunset, a distance of 43 miles — Supped & stayed with Mr & Mrs Seaton, Agent resident of State's Prison — At Jackson the Wide Awakes escorted us to depot, 11 A M. Inspect[or]'s car, saloon.
Arrd 2 two A. M. One or two thousand, men women & children, wide awakes, band bonfire to welcome us —
Ethusiastic [sic] Repub[lican]s — Beautiful county [sic?] — [one word illegible]
Sept., Saturday, 8, 1860. Kalamazoo: Mich
Rose at seven. Band of little boys, fifty in number, as wide awakes, called 'Little Giant Killers",27 saluted us with cheers and drum & fifes, Republican Wigwam is opposite this house, this is the residence of Mr Walbridge, 28 a great deal of company, a reception in fact, this A.M. Father spoke in a public park — Crowd 20 thousand Very fine procession, log houses, etc — Richland Delegation of ladies ho 40, mounted — presented him with bouquet — Drove round Kalamazoo— Saw Sen Stuart 29 & met Sen Chandler again. . . . .
Sept., Sunday, 9, 1860.*
Left at 2 or 3 oclock — Directors car — Splendid sleeping room — Reached Chicago at eight — Drove up Michigan Avenue — The most magnificent residences — splendid street fronts on lake — Took tea with Mr & Mrs William Brown 32 — They live very elegantly in a very elegant house.
Reached (Cars at nine
Messrs Hayes and Adams of Miss — fixed the seats for us to sleep on laid cushions cross ways of the others — Slept nicely — Reached Milwaukee at Half past one — There was no public reception, as the whole city is in grief — having lost three hundred excursionists on the Lady Elgin, which was run into by schooner Augusta —
Nearly all Irish, some germans — First ward[?] an hundred orphans—Staid at the house of Mr Mitchell an Irish ge Scotch gentleman —. . . .
Sunday — Sick all day —
Mrs King and Miss Bartlett at dinner, I prima donna
Sept., Monday, 10, 1860. Went down to Newhall house — all rest of party there except Mr & Miss Barnes 33 of Detroit who go no farther
— Saw several of party, E[llen]. Mr Baker & self drove out sightseeng [sic] Beautiful bay on Lake Michigan, . . . . Dinner at Mrs Mitchell Several gentlemen — Mrs King General Rufus King 34 presided [continued on the page for September eleventh] as she did yesterday — I prima Donna again,
Sept., Tuesday, 11, 1860. Left Milwaukie [sic] at 11. Mr Mitchell gave us pretty bouquets we have fine everlastings, from his gardens —
Father was called out on the road — Several times — once cannon shattered window glass in cars — Reached Madison at 4 oclock a very handsome procession, Natural park round[?] State Capitol, drove around this square Left Father at Capitol [?] house (hotel) where a reception speech was made to him — We drove to the house of Mr Hopkins, Stay there — Father E[llen]. & I — Mr H. of Chataque [sic] Co. vey[sic] pleasant Speeches, torchlight procession
Sept., Wednesday, 12, 1860. Morning, whole party drove to Mr Robbins model farm. Well worth visiting — A long description in my home letter makes one here unnescesary [sic].35 Afternoon, the Mass Meeting Party had seats on the stage so heard speaking perfectly — After dinner in the evening Went [sic] do a little shopping — Bought large sun shade — and this pencil, & Bayard Taylor's Knapsack travels in Europe.36 There were a great many in the streets — I would not like to venture out again — after dark — without older company— The children a boy & a girl went with me[?]
Sept., Thursday, 13, 1860. A. M. After breakfast Mr Hopkins drove Ellen and I up to " ascension hill" so called from the fact that many ambitious build there very fine houses & then fail — Some elegant residences — Sand stone yellow. Prarie [sic] Du Chien stone cream colored — State University buildings — Oak park, Stereoscopic view — Sandstone — fine view on either side of the porch, of the two lakes — Capitol of Sand stone & the other also — Left at four — Mr [blank in Ms.] gave me a beautiful bouquet. he accompanied us to Prarie [sic] Du Chien. Cousin Henry Seward 37 goes with us —
P-M— There was a torchlight procession — but they did not visit the this house [continued on page for September fourteenth] took steamer at ten oclock at Prarie [sic] Du Chien — some [sic] like Hudson river boat —
Sept., Friday, 14, 1860. Woke on the Missisippi [sic]. Breakfast — Ellen, Henry Seward & I went up in the pilot house Looked at scenery & piloting until we came near La Crosse. Cannons firing on board and on shore. Took a long drive, over the praries [sic] of La Crosse Wisconsin — Bluffs and praries [sic] — Father said if one of these praries [sic] was so exceedingly like the vale of Sharon — Covered with flowers — We gathered many specimens — Father E[llen]. Mr. Baker, The Adams, & self dined at Mr Washburnes [sic]38 — thunder Storm kept until 12 at night — [two words illegible]
Sept., Saturday, 15, 1860. After breakfast Hurricaine [sic] Decke [ sic] And before dinner went to lie down. The scenery is magnificent — the bluffs, are so bold and distinct — and the shores, so varied — After dinner E[llen]. & I, walked on h[urrican]e, deck — Sat by window etc — We have a cannon on board — often fired — Mrs King Miss Bartlett and Mr Butrick [?] & Mr Redfield have joined. (no relation of Mrs R) At sunset a storm Fathers " beautiful upholstery" ) Sky curtains — rich & rare tints — very beautiful —
Sept., Sunday, 16, 1860. Arrived a [sic] St Pauls [sic] this A. M. At seven — We five young ladies & Gen. Nye — are staying at the house of Col Oaks [sic].39 A beautiful place — Kind, western people — From Vermont in 50 — Father stays at International A little blue. Very nice kind people Mrs Oaks [sic] French & Chippewa American born & educated —
Sept., Monday, 17, 1860. Whole party went to dinner — ha-haDescription in letter home — Also to St Anthony's falls 40 —. . . .
When we came home Gen Nye was very sick. Neuralgia in shoulder, reasons why it was dangerous docters [sic] — Evening — A party for us at Goy Ramsay's [sic]41 — Description in letter
Retired at 1/2 past One
Sept., Tuesday, 18, 1860. A. M. Wrote home — Gen Nye better. Able to be about — Afternoon went to a few stores — Did not see St Paul much — P. M. A party of an hundred guests — given for us by Mrs Oaks [sic] — Mr _______ asked me to dance, I refused for evening — thus obliged to forego the pleasure of a dance with Gen Nye & Mr Corcoran — A very pleasant party. People left at half past one — I had packing, and got into bed at 20 min of 4 this A. M., A. M.
Sept., Wednesday, 19, 1860. Rose at 1/2 past 6. Soon left the Oaks [sic], Mrs O. gave us some beautiful agates from Superior. Took the Steamer Alhambra — small and inelegant — State rooms clean however, & table not bad.
Miss Redfield was not at all well today — Scenery early not very fine — afternoon beautiful goregeous sunset on Lake Pepin.42 Red thro[sic] the blue clouds, sunset on Winonas rock—
Speeches at some places —
Evening played whist with Gen Nye — against Father & Miss Nye—four games, equal luck.
Sept., Thursday, 20, 1860. On Mississippi. Miss Redfield quite sick — Saw some beautiful scenery — Bluffs and villages under the hills —
Reached Dubuque at a trifle after 10— Very fine procession of Wide Awakes — Speeches of Father Gen Nye, C. F. Adams and Goy Patterson 43. . . . .
Retired at 2.
Staying at Julien House.
Sept., Friday, 21, 1860. Breakfast at 1/4 of 10. After breakfast went went [sic] to drive with Ellen, Henry Seward & Mr Childs of Dubuque & I went to drive. [sic] Did not visit lead mines but something similar fine views of Dubuque — letters home give description.
Left Dubuque at 7— P. M. Crossed Ferry, Took slepping [sic] car—at Freeport 44 there was a magnificent demonstration.
Sept., Saturday, 22, 1860. At one in the night changed cars, at Mendota. Messrs Baker & Goodrich 45 were left. Messrs Adams senior & Kirkpatrick left to go home. Changed cars again at 5 A. M. Met the Marcy's 46 on the cars — Changed again at Quincy — left Messrs Adams of Alabama & Woodhouse here. Travelled all day — same old Missouri experience — Reach [sic] St Joseph at half past 9. Demonstration.
Sept., Sunday, 23, 1860. Did not go out at all being very tired. Miss Redfield still ill — she remained with Mrs Marcy while we go to Kansas —
Sept., Monday, 24, 1860. Rose at 1/2 past 4 — left at six — Cars —
Boat from Atchinson [sic] to Leavenworth. Celebration described in letters home. Afternoon drove to Fort L. Also described in the letters.
Sept., Tuesday, 25, 1860. Rode to Laurence [sic] — Full particulars in letters — Lovely time —
Sept., Wednesday, 26, 1860. Visited Fort Laurence [sic]. ) Eveni Afternoon Speaking — Evening — Balls. All in letters.
Sept., Thursday, 27, 1860. Returned to Leavenworth,
Drove to the Fort Leavenworth —
Sept., Friday, 28, 1860. Left Leavenworth at 11. A-M-
Reached St Joseph at 7 or 8.
Miss Redfield has had a serious time — She is somewhat weak.
Sept. Saturday, 29, 1860 Rose at 1,4 pas [sic] 4. Dinner at eating house at ½ past ten.
Gatherings [?] along the road full.
Reached St Louis at nine or ten —
Father spoke to an assemblage off serenaders —
Sept., Sunday, 30, 1860. It rained all day — So we saw nothing of St Louis —
A German Gardener sent me the most rare & exquisite bouquet of hot house flowers — I ever saw.
A german Confectioner sent a box of exquisite french candies & bon bons to the ladies of Governer [sic] Sewards party. Wrote home. Dinner, went in with Gen' King.
October, Monday, 1, 1860. Left St Louis at 1/2 past 6. Ferry — & cars — Slept almost all day on cars — Lived on delicious Catawba grapes — Reached Chicago at about eight. Enormous crowd — Wide Awakes Music Etc. Fatherspok escorted to Tremont house where whole party stopped — A very large collection of Wide Awakes — A great number mounted — Father spoke from Balcony —
October, Tuesday, 2, 1860. Breakfast at nine. Cousin Henry Seward, to accompanied by a friend of his — Mr Isham —took E[llen]. & I out to dive [sic] Chicago is a fine city — We drove a long time — Like Michigan Avenue. Went to the Wig Warm 47 —
[Here the section of the diary describing the tour ends.]
*The dates were printed at the top of each page of the diary and in this case Fanny simply drew a line through one to indicate that the material immediately following happened on the same day, Saturday, September eighth.
- James Warren Nye (June 10, 1814~Dec. 25, 1876), an influential lawyer from Syracuse, New York, and enthusiastic supporter of Lincoln as well as a powerful stump orator. He was rewarded for his services in the campaign by an appointment in 1861 as the first Governor of the newly created Nevada Territory. See Jeanne Elizabeth Wier, " James Warren Nye," Dictionary of American Biography, ed. Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 19281936), XIII, 600. Referred to below as DAB.
- George Ellis Baker, a New York shoe merchant and confidential friend and biographer of Seward. When the latter became Secretary of State, Baker was for a time his personal secretary and later Disbursing Agent for the State Department and administrator of the Secret Service Fund. Another close friend of the family, J. C. Derby, said of him: " To make Mr. Seward's principles known, became the ruling passion and has been the labor of Mr. Baker's life....As Boswell was to Johnson, so has Mr. Baker been to Seward...." Baker subsequently published five volumes of Seward's works and a brief biography of the Secretary. See J. C. Derby, Fifty Years Among Authors, Books and Publishers (New York: G. W. Carleton & Co., 1884), pp. 477480. See also "George Fisher Baker," The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: James T. White & Company, 1892-1958), XXIII, 75-76.
- Louisa and John were family servants. See Frederick William Seward, Reminiscences of a War-Time Statesman and Diplomat 1830-1915 (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1916), pp. 203, 264.
- John Alsop King (Jan. 3, 1788-July 7, 1867), the eldest son of the Federalist statesman, Rufus King. John A. King became an Anti-Mason, a National Republican, a Whig and finally a Republican, thus following roughly the same political course as Seward. Elected a Whig Congressman from New York in 1848 he joined Seward in opposition to the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Bill. In the New York State Whig Convention of 1855 he moved adoption of the name "Republican." He was a delegate to the first Republican National Convention in 1856 and the same year was elected Governor of New York. Fanny called him Governor King because it was customary to give a man that title even after he had, as in this case, left office. Her father, for example, was known as Governor Seward even after he became United States Senator and Secretary of State. See William Bristol Shaw, "John Alsop King," DAB, X, 394-395.
- Salmon Portland Chase (Jan. 13, 1808-May 7, 1873), one of the leaders of the extreme anti-slavery wing of the Republican Party. He had formerly been a Democrat and was elected Governor of Ohio in 1855 and 1857 as an Anti-Nebraska Democrat. He later became Secretary of the Treasury in Lincoln's cabinet and served until 1864, when he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was one of a group of "radicals" who were staunchly opposed to Seward's policies and power in me party. See James G. Randall, "Salmon Portland Chase," DAB, IV, 27-34.
- Two towns on the Erie Canal in Western New York. Lockport is the county seat of Niagara County, about 25 miles north northeast of Buffalo. Albion is the county seat of Orleans County, about 52 miles northeast of Buffalo. See Angelo Heilprin and Louis Heilprin (eds.), A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer or Geographical Dictionary of the World (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1937); pp. 1047, 33.
- Thomas Kirkpatrick, warden of the New York State Prison at Auburn. See Albany Evening Journal, Sept. 4, 1860, p. 2. See also Boyd's Auburn Directory. 1859-60 (New York: William H. Boyd, 1859), p. 67.
- Elbridge Gerry Spaulding (Feb. 24, 1809-May 5, 1897), and his third wife, Delia (Strong) Robinson. Miss Spaulding was his daughter by his second wife, Nancy Shelden Strong. Spaulding's second and third wives were sisters. He had been a Whig Congressman from New York, 1849-1851, and Treasurer of the State of New York, 1854-1855. In 1859 he ran for Congress on the "Union" ticket and won. He served 1859-1863. See Frederic Logan Paxson, "Elbridge Gerry Spaulding," DAB, XVII, 436-437.
- Edward Thurlow Weed (Nov. 15, 1797-Nov. 22, 1882) and his daughter Harriet. Weed was Seward's closest friend and confidant. As editor of the Albany Evening Journal and Whig and Republican boss of New York State, he, more than any other individual, advanced Seward's political career. See Glyndon G. Van Deusen, Thurlow Weed, Wizard of the Lobby (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1947), passim.
- Probably Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert C. Davidson of Albany, close friends of Thurlow Weed's. See ibid., pp. 302, 321, 324.
- Probably the daughter of William W. Frothingham, an Albany lawyer. See Munsell's Albany Directory and City Register,for 1855 (Albany, New York: J. Munsell, 1855), p. 126.
- Hollis White, a close family friend and political supporter of Seward. White himself held only one political office, that of New York Assemblyman in 1849. He was associated with the banking and exchange firm of Riddle & Co., Niagara Falls. See all of the following: New York Times, Sept. 5, 1860, p. 1; William Pool (ed.), Landmarks of Niagara County (Syracuse, New York: D. Mason & Company, 1897), p. 99; Letter from Hollis White to George D. Lamont, May 3, 1859 (Thurlow Weed Papers, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester).
- The former Mary Ray who married John Alsop King, January 10, 1810. See above, n. 4.
- Jehu Amaziah Orr (April 10, 1828-March 9, 1921), brother of James Lawrence Orr, Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives in the Thirty-fifth Congress. Both the Orr brothers were Democrats and Jehu was an active supporter of Stephen A. Douglas. His presence on the tour would therefore be somewhat strange except that he represented that qualified Unionist sentiment in the South which Seward vainly tried to cultivate down to the very firing on Fort Sumter. The Orrs eventually went with the Confederacy but quickly became open critics of Jefferson Davis. Jehu, from his position in the Confederate Congress, advocated a negotiated peace in 1864 and immediately after the war proposed partial enfranchisement of the Negro in his home state of Mississippi. James Orr was "reconstructed" so rapidly that he became Republican Governor of South Carolina in 1866. See Charles S. Sydnor, "Jehu Amaziah Orr," DAB, XIV, 60. For reference to his brother, see U. S., Congress, Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1927, 69th Cong., 2d Sess., 1928, H. R. 783, p. 1373.
- The Albany Evening Journal, Sept. 4, 1860, p. 2, gives the following account of the meeting: "At Chatham, where John Brown's famous convention was held, a runaway slave of Senator Toombs of Georgia, made himself known. . . . he declared himself greatly improved by the change; said he was now keeping a grocery store;. . . that he had not run away from his master, but from the institution of slavery. . . ."
- The State Printer of Michigan. See ibid.
- Zachariah Chandler (Dec. 10, 1813-Nov. 8, 1879), a power in the formation of the Republican Party in 1854. He was later a member of the Radical Republican group and Senator from Michigan, 18571875 and 1879. See William MacDonald, " Zachariah Chandler," DAB, III, 618.
- The Detroit station of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, See New York Times, Sept. 5, 1860, p. 1.
- " ...the Wide Awakes and kindred organizations, embodying and drilling hundreds of thousands of young men, were a spectacular feature of the contest. Hartford Republicans laid claim to originating these solid columns of marching men, who, in glazed capes of varying colors and smart military caps, bearing oil-burning torches and bright transparencies, swung down countless streets to the crash of brass bands and the roar of cadenced cheering. Nothing like them had been seen in America before. Their disciplined forces, lending fervor and enthusiasm to the Northern canvass, played no small part in the final result. They took pride in the military precision of their evolutions, and in developing a set of songs, salutes, and emblematic displays which were tumultuously stirring." See Allan Nevins, The Emergence of Lincoln, Vol. II: Prologue to Civil War 1859-1861 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950), P. 305.
- Letelia Grace Douglass who married Zachariah Chandler, December 10, 1844. See above, n. 17.
- Probably the family of Jacob M. Howard. See New York Times, Sept. 5, 1860, p. 1.
- Possibly relatives of Mrs. Chandler. If so, the spelling is correct. Mrs. Chandler was from New York, however, and there is no proof of the connection. See above, nn. 17, 20.
- Daughter of the Zachariah Chandlers. See above.
- The correct spelling is Owosso. It is a town on the Sheawassee River, 28 miles northeast of Lansing. See Heilprin and Heilprin, op. cit., p. 1385.
- Probably the same Howard referred to in n. 21. Jacob Merritt Howard (July 10, 1805-April 2, 1871). At that time (1855-1861) Attorney-General of Michigan. He later became a Republican Senator from Michigan and served 1862-1871. See U. S., Congress, op. cit., p. 1118.
- A village in Ingham Co., Michigan, 17 miles north northwest of Jackson. See Heilprin and Heilprin, op. cit., p. 1363.
- So called because the Democratic candidate in 1860, Stephen A. Douglas, was popularly known as the " Little Giant."
- David S. Waibridge, one of the founders of the Republican Party in Michigan and chairman of the "Under the Oaks" convention of "independents" held at Jackson, July 6, 1854. See George N. Fuller (ed.),Michigan, A Centennial History of the State and Its People (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1939), I, 309.
- Charles Edward Stuart (Nov. 25, 1810-May 9, 1887), like the Orr brothers, a Democrat. A native of Kalamazoo, he had been a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, 1847-1849 and 1851-1853, and a Democratic Senator from Michigan, 1853-1859. He was also a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1860. See U. S., Congress, op. cit., p. 1583.
- Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807-Nov. 21, 1886) began his career as a Democrat but soon became a "conscience Whig" as a result of the slavery controversy. He became a close associate and co-worker of Charles Sumner. In 1858 and 1860 he ran for Congress successfully on the Republican ticket. He was an active supporter of Seward for the nomination and was long dissatisfied with Lincoln as the party's choice. He and Seward steered a moderate course in Congress between the election and the inauguration. This action lost Adams Sumner's friendship. He was made Minister to England rather than a Cabinet member at Seward's insistence and held the post, 186l -1868. See Worthington Chauncy Ford, "Charles Francis Adams," DAB, I, 40-48.
- Charles Francis Adams (May 27, 1835-March 20, 1915) followed his father's course and formed close and admiring friendships with Sumner and later with Seward. On the campaign tour he was permitted to make a few speeches, which were well received. He had a creditable military record, especially as colonel of a Negro regiment, during the war. In peacetime he became noted as an authority on railroad reform and as president of the Union Pacific. See Worthington Chauncy Ford, "Charles Francis Adams," DAB, I, 48-52.
- William H. Brown was a wealthy and prominent resident of Chicago who played an important part in financing the Illinois Central Railroad. See Bessie Louise Pierce, A History of Chicago, Vol. II: From Town to City 1848-1871 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1940), pp. 148, 400.
- Mr. Barnes was a representative of the Detroit Tribune and Advertiser. See Albany Evening Journal, Sept. 4, 1860, p. 2.
- The former Susan Eliot, who married King in 1843 and was a sister of his first wife. See W. E. McPheeters, "Rufus King," DAB, X, 400.
- Unfortunately, none of Fanny's letters written during the trip are extant.
- Views A-Foot, or Europe Seen with Knapsack and Staff. First published in 1846 it was enormously successful partially because it was a brisk, breezy account of how to see Europe on very little money. It also re-enforced basic American prejudices by contrasting the uprightness of the young American author with the decadence of the Old World. It was the first of a series of books which, by 1860, had made Bayard Taylor one of the most successful authors and lecturers. See Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture 1840-1861 (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1959), pp. 223, 228-233.
- Probably William Henry Seward (Jan. 9, 1835-Jan. 5, 1925), the second child and eldest son of George Washington Seward, Senator Seward's younger brother. See Frederick Whittlesey Seward, Jr., Obadiah Seward of Long Island, New York and His Descendants (Goshen, New York: The Press of the Independent Republican, 1948), p. 138.
- Cadwallader Colden Washburn (April 22, 1818-May 15, 1882), Republican Congressman from Wisconsin, 1855-1861 and 1867-1871. He served in the Civil War as a Major General of Volunteers and from 1872 to 1874 as Governor of Wisconsin. The family name is correctly spelled without the "e" although a brother, Elihu Benjamin, of Illinois, added it to his name. See U. S., Congress, op. cit., pp. 1 670, 1671.
- Charles H. Oakes whose title of colonel derived from a command in the reorganized state militia of 1859. See William Watts Folwell, A History of Minnesota (Saint Paul, Minnesota : Minnesota Historical Society, 1924), II, 28.
- Eighteen-foot falls of the Mississippi River at Minneapolis, a famous location for flour mills. See Heilprin and Heilprin, op. cit., p. 2765.
- Alexander Ramsey (Sept. 8, 1815-April 22, 1903), first Territorial Governor of Minnesota, 1849-1853, and second State Governor, 1860-1864. He later served as Republican Senator from Minnesota until 1875 and as Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Hayes, 1879-1881. See U. S., Congress, op. cit., p. 1441.
- An expansion of the Mississippi River which forms part of the boundary between Wisconsin and Minnesota. About 28 miles long and 3 miles wide, it is perhaps the most picturesque and beautiful part of the Mississippi. Its shores are vertical limestone bluffs about 400 feet high and weathered into various fantastic forms, some of which resemble ruined castles. See Heilprin and Heilprin, op. cit., p. 1427.
- George Washington Patterson (Nov. 11 ‚ 1799-Oct. 1 5, 1879), connected with Seward in the Chautauqua County land office. His title derived from being elected Lieutenant Governor on the same ticket with Hamilton Fish in 1848. See Andrew W. Young (ed.), History of Chautauqua County, New York (Buffalo, New York: Matthews & Warren, 1875), pp. 607-608. And see also U. S., Congress, op. cit., p. 1390.
- The county seat of Stephenson County, Illinois, 121 miles west northwest of Chicago. Famous for the "Freeport Doctrine." See Heilprin and Heilprin, op. cit., p. 680.
- Aaron Goodrich, a native New Yorker who was a devoted follower of Seward. In 1849 he was appointed the first chief justice of the U. S. District Court for the Minnesota Territory. In 1861 Seward had him appointed Secretary of the U. S. Legation at Brussels. See New York World, Sept. 20, 1860, p. 3. See also U. S., Department of Interior, Register of Officers and Agents, Civil, Military, and Naval in the Service of the United States, on The Thirtieth September, 1861 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1862), p. 5.
- Randolph Barnes Marcy (April 9, 1812-Nov. 22, 1887), a career army officer. His wife was Mary A. Mann, daughter of General Jonas Mann of Syracuse, New York. The Marcys had three children—a son, who died in infancy; a daughter, Frances [Fanny], who married Edward Clarke; and an older daughter, Mary Ellen, who married George B. McClellan. Marcy later achieved to some prominence in the Civil War as McClellan's Chief of Staff. At the time of the Sewards' meeting with him in 1860 he was a major and paymaster to the regular army troops stationed in the Northwest. See Oliver L. Spaulding, Jr., "Randolph Barnes Marcy," DAB, XII, 273-274.
- The Wigwam was the name given to the temporary hail erected in Chicago for the Republican National Convention of 1860. The name caught on and was used to denote smaller buildings throughout the North where Republicans held.