University of Rochester Library Bulletin: Bibliography, The Anthony J. and Frances A. Guzzetta Collection of Leonardo da Vinci

Volume XXXXIV · 1994
Bibliography: The Anthony J. and Frances A. Guzzetta Collection of Leonardo da Vinci

Note to readers: The following bibliography includes a representative selection of the books, articles (off-prints), and journals that comprise the Anthony J. and Francis A. Guzzetta Collection of Leonardo da Vinci. The items are arranged by topic. Within each category, items are listed chronologically first and then alphabetically. The Guzzetta Collection contains a considerable number of off-prints from a variety of publications. When possible, I have indicated the original source. Articles are not described except when the title does not seem self-explanatory. Throughout, items that precisely correspond are identified by their catalogue numbers in Ettore Verga, Bibliografia Vinciana (No. 471) and Mauro Guerrini, Biblioteca Vinciana (No. 479). Editions of Leonardo'sTrattato della pittura are further identified by their number in Kate Steinitz, Leonardo da Vinci's Trattato della pittura (No. 475). Cross-references within the bibliography are indicated by: "No." The symbol ~ signifies items included in the exhibition.

Leonardo's Legacy


"This will be a collection without order, made up of many sheets which I have copied here, hoping afterwards to arrange them in order in their proper places according to the subjects of which they treat; and I believe that before I am at the end of this I shall have to repeat the same thing several times; and therefore, O reader, blame me not because the subjects are many, and the memory cannot retain them and say 'this I will not write because I have already written it. 'And if I wished to avoid falling into this mistake it would be necessary, in order to prevent repetition, that on every occasion when I wished to transcribe a passage I should always read over all the preceding portion, and this especially because long periods of time elapse between one time of writing and another."

British Museum (Codex ArundelIr

1.   SAGGIO DELLO OPERE DI LEONARDO DA VINCI (Milan: Ricordi, 1872). Verga 54; Guerrini 41

This book is considered the first modern study of Leonardo's manuscripts. It features twenty-four photolithographic facsimiles from the Codex Atlanticus as well as a biographical study by G. Mongeri; essays by Gilberto Govi on Leonardo as a scholar and scientist; and Camillo Boito on his artistic production. Giuseppe Colombo comments on the manuscripts.

2.   LES MANUSCRITS DE LÉONARD DE VINCI.. . DE LA BIBLIOTHÈQUE DE L'INSTITUT [DE FRANCE], transcribed and translated by Charles Ravaisson-Mollien, 6 vols. (Paris: Quantin, 1881-91). Verga 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61; Guerrini 44

Facsimilies of each sheet are faced with Ravaisson-Mollien's transcription and French translation of the texts: Vol. 1 (Ms. A); Vol. 2 (Mss. B, C); Vol.3 (Mss. C, E, K); Vol. 4 (Mss. F I); Vol. 5 (Mss. G, L, M); Vol. 6 (Mss. H and Ashburnham 2034, 2037 [Bibliothèque nationale]).

3.   IL CODICE DI LEONARDO DA VINCI NELLA BIBLIOTHECA DEL PRINCIPE TRIVULZIO IN MILANO, transcribed and annotated by Luca Beltrami (Milan: Pagnoni, 1891). Verga 62; Guerrini 54

Written between 1487 and 1490, the 102-page Notebook was acquired in about 1750 by Abate D. Carlo Trivulzio, whose heirs bequeathed it to the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, in 1935. The Notebook opens with a sheet of caricatures followed by pages with long columns of words, the purpose of which remains uncertain. In this edition, facsimilies of each page face Beltrami's critical transcription.

~  4.     CODICE SUL VOLO DEGLI UCCELLI E VARIE ALTRE MATERIA, transcribed and annotated by Giovanni Piumati, trans. Charles Ravisson-Mollien (Paris: Rouveyre, 1893). Verga 63; Guerrini 55

~  5.     IL CODICE ATLANTICO DI LEONARDO DA VINCI, NELLA BIBLIOTECA AMBROSIANA DI MILANO. . ., transcribed and annotated by Giovanni Piumati, 8 vols. (Milan: Hoepli, 1894-1904). Verga 64; Guerrini 64

Published under the auspices of the Accademia dei Lincei, this facsimile of the massive Codex Atlanticus contains a diplomatic transcription of the notes which date from 1483-1518, covering Leonardo's entire career.

6.   I MANOSCRITTI DI LEONARDO DA VINCI DELLA REALE BIBLIOTECA DI WINDSOR. DELL'ANATOMIA. FOGLI A, transcribed and annotated by Giovanni Piumati; French translation; and introduction by Mathias-Duval (Paris: Rouveyre, 1898). Verga 65; Guerrini 58

Publication of this facsimile was sponsored by the Russian Teodoro Sabachnikoff

7.   I MANOSCRITTI DI LEONARDO DA VINCI DELLA REALE BIBLIOTECA DI WINDSOR. DELL'ANATOMIA, FOGLI B, transcribed and annotated by Giovanni Piumati, French translation (Turin: Roux and Viarengo, 1901). Verga 66; Guerrini 60


Using photographic negatives commissioned by the Russian patron Teodoro Sabachnikoff, the publisher rushed this volume to press. Lacking any critical apparatus, it consists solely of mounted plates reproducing the folios of Codex Arundel 262.

9.   QUADERNI  D′ANATOMIA, 6 vols., Ove C. L. Vangensten, A. Fonahn, and H. Hopstock, eds. (Oslo: Dybwad, 1911-16). Verga 69-74; Guerrini 84

These volumes contain facsimiles of the anatomical folios in the Royal Library, Windsor. Overlays with outline clarify the explanatory texts. Leonardo's writings are translated into German and English.

10. IL CODICE ARUNDEL 263, Pietro Fidele and Enrico Carusi, eds., 4 vols. (Rome: Danesi, 1923-30). Verga 75; Guerrini 105

This facsimile of the manuscript in the British Library was the first volume published by the Reale Commissione Vinciana.


This volume reproduces four folios detached from the Codex on the Flight of Birds probably during the 1840s. On the history of this manuscript, see No. 13.


Under the auspices of the Reale Commissione Vinciana, Giovanni Gentile, Enrico Carusi, Roberto Marcolongo, and Mario Pelaez participated in the critical transcription that accompanies this facsimile of the three Forster codices.

13. IL CODICE SUL VOLO DEGLI UCCELLI, ed. Jotti da Badia Polesine (Milan: Giovene, 1946). Guerrini 165

The small Codex on the Flight of Birds was attached to Ms. B (see No. 14; Paris, Institut de France) at the time that Notebook was donated by Arconati to the Ambrosiana Library. It was detached after the the manuscript was taken to Paris in 1796, presumably in the 1840s by the kleptomanic scholar Gugliemlo Libri, from whom it was acquired by Count G. Manzoni. He sold it to Sabachnikoff, the Russian who sponsored publication of the Codex in 1893 (No. 4). Unfortunately, Libri had removed several folios which were eventually acquired in London by the collector Enrico Fatio. Through the generosity of Sabachnikoff and Fatio both portions were reunited in the Royal Library, Turin, in 1926, when the "lost" portions were published (No. 11). This is the first publication of the Codex in its entirety. An English translation appears in Hart, Mechanical Investigations (No. 257), pp. 194- 235.

14. MANUSCRIT B DE L'INSTITUTE DE FRANCE, intro. André Corbeau; transcription, Nando de Toni; trans. Francis Anthier (Grenoble: Roissard, 1960). Guerrini 238

~ 15.     THE MADRID CODICES, transcription, translation, and commentary by Ladislao Reti, 5 vols. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974). Guerrini 278

The two manuscripts were probably brought to Spain by Pompeo Leoni where they were acquired by Juan de Espina before 1629 when the efforts of the Earl of Arundel to buy them proved fruitless. Bequeathed to the King of Spain, they entered the Biblioteca Real in 1642 but were miscatalogued when the royal library was merged with the Biblioteca Nacional in 1830 and were not rediscovered until the Winter of 1964-65.

Written primarily between 1493 and 1495, Madrid Codex I focuses mainly on mechanical and technological matters. It contains drawings of devices of which preliminary sketches survive in theCodex Atlanticus ; other portions are more fully elaborated in the Forster Codices in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. More diverse in content, Madrid Codex II was mainly written between 1503 and 1505. Included are maps and landscapes associated with Leonardo's work as a military engineer during Florence's war with Pisa, nautical studies, notes on stereometry and on the flight of birds. There are also notes on painting, suggesting that this may have been one of the eighteen manuscripts used by Melzi in compiling the Codex Urbinas. Also bound in are seventeen folios from 1491 to 1494. They feature notes on casting which relate to the unrealized Sforza monument.

~ 16.     IL CODICI ATLANTICO DELLA BIBLIOTECA AMBROSIANA DI MILANO, trascrizione diplomatico e critica di Augusto Marinoni, 10 vols. (Firenze: Giunti-Barbèra, 1975-80). Guerrini  280

The conservation of the entire Codex culminated in this new facsimile edition complemented by a new annotated transcription of the text.

~ 17.    CORPUS OF THE ANATOMICAL STUDIES IN THE COLLECTION OF HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN AT WINDSOR CASTLE, trans. and commentary by Kenneth D. Keele and Carlo Pedretti, 2 vols. + solander box of facsimilies (London: Johnson Reprint, 1978-80).

Of the 600 drawings by Leonardo in the royal collection, 200 are devoted to anatomical studies. They constitute almost the only surviving evidence of Leonardo's research, but because they were created over a thirty-year span the Windsor studies suggest the scope of Leonardo's anatomical investigations. The volume includes essays on the history of the anatomical drawings themselves (by Jane Roberts) and their previous publications; on the historical context of the illustrations and Leonardo's methodology; and finally on a transcription, translation, and scientific analysis of the individual sheets. There is also a study by James E. McCabe of "The Geometrical Studies on the Anatomical Sheets." The most outstanding contribution of this volume lies in its reassembling of the corpus in chronological sequence and reconstructing the pagination of dismembered Notebooks. The authors' achievement offers unprecented insight into Leonardo's intellectual development and methodological progress over an extended period.


The natural desire of good men is knowledge.

   Codex Atlanticus 119 v

18. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Del Moto e Misura dell'Acqua. Libri nove ordinati da F. Luigi Maria Arconati, E. Carusi and A. Favora, eds. (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1923). Verga 43; Guerrini 106

The text is based on Codex Vaticanus Barbariniano 4332, a compilation of Leonardo's hydraulic studies made in the early seventeenth century by Fra Luigi Maria Arconati, who used the manuscripts in his father's collection.

19. GIACOMELLI, Raffaele, Gli Scritti di Leonardo sul Volo (Rome: Bardi, 1936). Guerrini 142

Giacomelli collects Leonardo's texts on various aspects of flight and related phenomena, such as his studies of wind. The volume is enriched by the editor's detailed annotations.

~ 20.     UCCELLI, Arturo, Leonardo da Vinci. I Libri di Meccanica (Milan: Hoepli, 1940). Guerrini 157

Introducing the volume with a discussion of possible classical and medieval influences, Uccelli compiles Leonardo's writings dealing with the elements, weight, gravity, force, motion, and percussion. Organized by topic, the texts are extensively annotated and made accessible by analytical indices. A similar effort appears in a Russian volume in the Guzzetta Collection: Matvei Aleksandrovich Gukovskii, Mekhanika Leonardo da Vinchi (Moscow: Izd-vo Akedemii nauk SSR, 1947; Guerrini 169).

~ 21.   UCCELLI, Arturo, I Libri del Volo di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Hoepli, 1952). Guerrini 190

All of Leonardo's scattered observations regarding wind, aerodynamics, and flight are gathered in this volume in which Uccelli attempts to reconstruct Leonardo's lost work.

.~ 22.    FUMAGALLI, Giuseppina, Leonardo omo sanza lettere (Firenze: Sansoni, 1952). Guerrini 189

First published in 1938, the passages in this anthology have been selected to emphasize the literary brilliance of this "man without letters."

~ 23.     O'MALLEY, Charles D. and J. B. de C. M. Saunders, Leonardo da Vinci On the Human Body (New York: Schuman, 1952). Guerrini 3144

Arguing (p. 15) that "among artists the important thing was detail; among anatomists it was System,"  the authors conclude that "Leonardo was never an anatomist since he . . . unsystematically followed only those aspects which interested him. However, he represents the closest approach of art to anatomy." They also note that his work helped establish the pedagogical value of correct illustration. The body of the volume includes reproductions of Leonardo's anatomical sheets arranged according to physical systems and within each system in chronological sequence. The texts are translated into English.

24. PAZZINI, Adalberto et al., Leonardo do Vinci. Il Trattato della Anatomia, 3 vols. (Rome: Istituto de Storia della Medicina dell'Università di Roma, 1962). Guerrini 252

Enlivened by occasional illustrations, the first two volumes include transcriptions of all Leonardo's anatomical writings arranged by topic. The third volume contains a valuable bibliography for the years 1550-1963, cross-referenced by author and subject.


I am fully aware that the fact of my not being a man of letters may cause certain arrogant persons to think that they may with reason censure me, alleging that I am a man ignorant of book-learning. . . . They will say that because of my lack of book-learning, I cannot properly express what I desire to treat of. Do they not know that my subjects require for their exposition experience rather than the words of others? And since experience has been the mistress of whoever has written well, I take her as my mistress, and to her in all points make my appeal.

Codex Atlanticus 119 v

~ 25.    SOLMI, Edmondo, ed., Frammenti letterari e filosofici (Firenze: Barbéra, 1904). Guerrini 65

First published in 1899 (Verga 78). this volume is the first popular collection of Leonardo's writings arranged topically. Directed toward the non-specialist and widely imitated, it emphasizes Leonardo's literary accomplishments by featuring his tales, allegories, and philosophical ruminations.

26. THE NOTEBOOKS OF LEONARDO DA VINCI, ed. and trans. Edward MacCurdy, 2 voIs. (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1938). Guerrini 146

MacCurdy has translated and arranged by topic a major portion of Leonardo's writings in what is perhaps the most accessible of all anthologies. Unlike Richter's edition (see No. 27), this lacks the illustrations Leonardo intended to accompany his words.

27. RICHTER, Jean Paul, The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1939).

This monumental anthology gives structure to texts scattered among the surviving Notebooks and as such may approximate Leonardo's original intentions. Richter reviewed the corpus of manuscripts and rearranged Leonardo's notes by topic. The original Italian is set in parallel columns with an English translation accompanied by a selection of the drawings with which Leonardo illustrated his ideas. The Guzzetta Collection also contains the first edition published in 1883 (Verga 77).

28. LES CARNETS DE LEONARD DE VINCI, trans. Louise Servicen, 2 vols. (Paris: Gallimard, 1942).

The topical arrangement of MacCurdy's anthology (No. 26) serves as the model for this French edition of Leonardo's writings.


Painting is concerned with all ten attributes of sight, namely darkness and brightness, substance and colour, form and place, remoteness and nearness, movement and rest; and it is with these attributes that this my small book will be interwoven, recalling to the painter by what rules and in what way he ought by his art to imitate all things that are the work of nature and the adornment of the world.

  Codex Ashburnham I, 13a

~ 29.     TRAITTÉ DE LA PEINTURE DE LEONARD DE VINCI, trans. Roland Fréart Sieur de Chambray (Paris: Langlois, 1651). Steinitz 2; Verga 2; Guerrini 1

30. TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LIONARDO DA VINCI, ed. Rafaelle du Fresne (Paris: Langlois, 1651). Steinitz 1; Verga 1; Guerrini 2

Having collated various apographs of Leonardo's Trattato and enlisted Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) to provide illustrations, the learned cleric Cassiano del Pozzo was largely responsible for the first printed editions of Leonardo's notes on painting. The academician Charles Errard (ca. 1606-1689) engraved the designs provided by Poussin, who was extremely dissatisfied with the results. On the priority of the French edition, see Victoria Steele, "The First Italian Printing of Leonardo da Vinci's Treatise on Painting, 1722 or 1733," Notiziario vinciano 1 (1980), pp. 11-13.

31. TRAITE DE LA PEINTURE, PAR LEONARD DE VINCI; REVU ET CORRIGE: NOUVELLE EDITION (Paris: Giffart, 1716). Steinitz 6; Verga 3; Guerrini 4

This convenient "pocket-size" edition was based on the French text of 1651 (No. 29), but improved with reference to the Italian text (No. 30). To lower the cost, Pierre-François Giffart reduced Errard's more elaborate illustrations to a simple linear format which was employed in most later editions through the nineteenth century. Mazenta's Memorie (see No. 212) is used as the introductory biography.

~ 32.     A TREATISE OF PAINTING BY LEONARDO DA VINCI (London: J. Senex and W. Taylor, 1721). Steinitz 7; Verga 4; Guerrini 5

This is the first English edition of Leonardo's Trattato. It is based on Du Fresne's Italian edition of 1651 (No. 30), but the anonymous translator explains that "the brevity, and abruptness of the Original, made a strict translation altogether unadvisable" so he endeavored to clarify the meaning with "the help of a little Penphrasis,"  but only "on the most urgent occasions." The volume includes a biography of Leonardo "done from the last edition of the French," referring presumably to Mazenta's Memorie included in Giffart's edition of 1716 (No. 31). The translator remains anonymous. In the Preface, Leonardo is praised as standing "not only above the greatest painters, but on a level with the greatest men."

~ 33.     DES VORTREFLICHEN FLORENTINIFCHEN MAHLERS LIONARDO DA VINCI HÖCHST-NÜSSLICHER TRACTAT VON DER MAHLEREN, trans. and ed. Johann Georg Böhm (Nurnberg: Weigel, 1724). Steinitz 9; Verga 6; Guerrini 7

In translating the Trattato for this first German edition, Böhm, an artist, collated the French and Italian editions of 1651 (Nos. 29, 30) and reordered the chapters. The illustrations are based on the line engravings in Giffart's 1716 edition (No. 31).

~ 34.     TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LIONARDO DA VINCI... (Naples: Francesco Ricciardo, 1733). Steinitz 10; Verga 7; Guerrini 9

This edition, which reprints Langlois's 1651 Italian edition, is the first edition printed in Italy. The plates originally produced by Charles Errand have been reproduced by two professional engravers, Filippo de Grado and Francesco Sesoni (see Giovanni Goni Gandellini, Notizie istoriche degl'intagliatori, 3 vols. [Siena, 1771],11, p.102 III, p.233). On the history of this edition, see Victoria Steele, "The First Italian Printing of Leonardo da Vinci's Treatise on Painting, 1722 or 1733," Notiziario vinciano 1 (1980), pp. 3-24. In this copy, page numbers 54 and 55 appear twice although the text is continuous.

35. GOEREE, Wilhelmus, Natuurlyk en Schilderkonstig Ontwerp der Mensch-kund: Lerende niet alleen der Kennis van de Gestalten, Proportie, Schoolheid, Muskele, Beweginge, Actien, Passien, en Weistand der Menschbeelden, 2nd. ed. (Amsterdam: Roman, 1753). Note: The letterpress title page is dated 1753 and the illustrated, extra title page is dated 1754.

Rather than compiling a complete edition of the Trattato, Goree paraphrases several chapters within his larger training manual for artists. In addition, sixteen engraved plates reproducing figures from the 1651 Langlois edition (No. 29) are included together with images from treatises by Dürer, Lomazzo, and Vesalius. The first edition of this book (Amsterdam, 1642; Steinitz 5) is exceedingly rare: one copy survives in the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana and there are two copies (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum; Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana) of a second printing dated 1730. The Guzzetta volume may be a unique copy of the second edition which differs only slightly, having 435 pages rather than 431, modernized spelling, a new title page, and pages that do not end in precisely the same way. In a letter to Dr. Anthony Guzzetta, Kate Steinitz refers to the copy of the first Dutch edition of the Trattato in the Belt Library (Steinitz 28) and notes, "it is amusing that your book of 1754 and our edition of 1827 must have been bound by the same bookbinder and belonged to the same collector" (April 22, 1955, Guzzetta Collection).

~36.     EL TRATADO DE LA PINTURA POR LEONARDO DE VINCI. . ., trans Don Diego Antonio Rejon de Silva (Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1784). Steinitz 13; Verga 10; Guerrini 14 (See illustration on page 32.)

An amended version of Du Fresne's text of 1651 (No. 30), this is the first Spanish edition of theTrattato. The illustrations are based on drawings by Joseph Castillo, who slightly modified the linear illustrations in Giffart's 1716 edition (No. 31) and provided the allegorical frontispiece. The accompanying explanation indicates that the editor intended Leonardo's precepts to serve as a manual for painters, who may perfect their art by reference to nature as well as theory:

Minerva, mother of arts and sciences, is at the side of a child devoted to Painting; and showing him a book with one hand and with the other indicating the open country, she points out to him that instruction from scientific writings and copying nature and her works will lead to the longed-for perfection. On the other side [of her] one sees a Genius, or Youth, with various Mathematical instruments, denoting the need Painting has for Geometry, Perspective, etc.  (translated by Evelyn A. Walker)

37. TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LIONARDO DA VINCI (Bologna: Instituto delle Scienze, 1786). Steinitz 14; Verga 11; Guerrini 18

The volume is a reprint of Du Fresne's Italian edition of 1651 (No. 30). The illustrations repeat those of the 1733 edition (No. 34) except that the figures are grouped - two to eight per sheet - in plates designed by Girolamo Contoli da Imola and engraved with heightened tonal contrasts by Giacomo Rosi.


In his preface, the publisher Francesco Fontani explained that he discovered in the library of the marchesi Riccadi the copy of Leonardo's precepts made and illustrated by "renowned engraver" Stefano della Bella (1610-1664). He decided to publish the manuscript because he considered Stefano's version to be superior to the text published by du Fresne (No. 30). Interspersed throughout the text are etchings by Fabbrini after Stefano's sketches. The volume includes biographies of Leonardo and Stefano as well as an essay by Giovanni Lami on Italian painters and sculptors active between 1000 and 1300. Stefano's manuscript, today in the Biblioteca Riccardiana, Florence (Codex Riccardianus 2275), is a copy of the Codex Pinellianus (Milan, Ambrosiana), a late sixteenth-century redaction written for the Paduan scholar Gian Vicenzo Pinelli (d. 1601).

39. A TREATISE ON PAINTING BY LEONARDO DA VINCI, trans. John Francis Rigaud (London: Taylor, 1802). Steinitz 19; Verga 16; Guerrini 22

Rigaud tried to improve the 1721 English edition (No. 32) by careful attention to the original Italian text. The illustrations are derived from those in the 1651 editions (Nos. 29, 30). Included as well is an extensive biography by the volume's editor, John Sidney Hawkins, who notes among his sources Venturi's landmark essay on Leonardo's scientific endeavors and translates from this book Mazenta's recollections regarding the history of the manuscripts, the varied content of which Hawkins characterizes as "an immense chaos of intelligence."

40. TRAITÉ DE LA PEINTURE, DE LÉONARD DE VINCI. . ., Pierre-Marie Gault de St. Germain, ed. (Paris: Perlet, 1803). Steinitz 20; Verga 17; Guerrini 23

Basing his illustrations and annotated text on the Giffart edition of 1716 (No. 31), Gault de St. Germain emended that version by consulting Ms. H228 inf. (Milan, Ambrosiana), which had been brought to France by Napoleon. This is presumably the autograph copy by Cassiano dal Pozzo, who had been instrumental in the publication of the editio princeps (No. 29). It is generally believed that it includes Poussin's original drawings on which Errard based his engravings for the first edition (see No. 30, and Steinitz, No. 229). Gault de St. Germain (1754/56-1842), a minor painter best known for his literary efforts, introduces the volume with a biography of Leonardo and a catalogue of his works.

41. TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LIONARDO DA VINCI (Milan: Società tipographica de'classici italiani, 1804). Steinitz 22; Verga 19; Guerrini 26

Based on the Italian edition of 1651 (No. 30), this edition is notable for its introduction, Carlo Amoretti's well-documented biography of Leonardo (see No. 58). The illustrations are derived from Gerli (see No. 57) and Stefano della Bella (No. 38).

42. TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LIONARDO DA VINCI, ed. Baldassarre Orsini, 2 vols. (Perugia: Carlo Baduel, 1805). Steinitz 23; Verga 20; Guerrini 27

Director of the Accademia del Disegno in Perugia, Orsini considered Leonardo's Trattato a valuable textbook for young artists. Basing his edition on Du Fresne's edition of 1651 (No. 30), he added in the second volume extensive annotations as well as original essays on perspective, bending and turning of the body, and equine motion. Reminiscent of sketches by Albrecht Dürer and Luca Cambiaso, the illustrations exemplify his advice that students should envision their figures as cubes to develop their sense of volume and three-dimensional design. Orsini's working manuscript is in the Biblioteca Estense, Modena (Steinitz, Trattato [No. 475], E, 4).

~ 43.     TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LIONARDO DA VINCI TRATTO DA UN CODICE DELLA BIBLIOTECA VATICANA, 2 vols. . . . (Rome: de Romanis, 1817). Verga 21; Guerrini 29

Edited by Guglielmo Manzi, this landmark edition is the first based directly on Codex Vaticanus Urbinas 1270. It includes for the first time the "prima parta," that is, Leonardo's comparison of the arts, which Manzi named "Paragone" in his introductory biography. The illustrations in the Codex are reproduced in engravings by Gherardo di Rossi, whose annotations are gathered in the Appendix.

44. EL TRATADO DE LA PINTURA POR LEONARDO DE VINCI . . . Taducidos é ilustrados con algunas notas por Don Diego Antonio Rejon de Silva (Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1827). Steinitz 27; Verga 24

This is a reprint of Rejon de Silva's 1784 edition of the Trattato (No. 36) and likewise includes Alberti's On Painting. The Guzzetta Collection also includes a modern reprint (Buenos Aires: Las Américas, 1945).

45. A TREATISE ON PAINTING BY LEONARDO DA VINCI, trans. John Francis Rigaud (London: J. B. Nichols and Son, 1835). Steinitz 29; Verga 26; Guerrini 34

This is a reprint of Rigaud's 1802 translation (No. 39). In this edition, the biography by Hawkins has been replaced by a more substantial discussion by John William Brown, which, though based on Amoretti's Life (see No. 58), incorporates his own research among the manuscripts in the private library of the grand duke of Tuscany. The volume also includes a biography of the translator, who was a respected academic painter. Brown's biography of Leonardo was originally published in 1828 (see No. 60).

46. TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LEONARDO DA VINCI CON AGGIUNTE TRATTE DAL CODICE VATICANO PUBLICATO DA GIUGLIELMO MANZI (Milan: Società tipografica de'classici italiani, 1859). Steinitz 31; Verga 28; Guerrini 38

The volume combines the text of Amoretti's 1804 edition (No. 41) with additions from Manzi's 1817 publication of the Codex Urbinas (No. 43). The Paragone has not been included, but there is an analytical essay. The illustrations are based on Gerli's designs (see No. 57).


Published over a century ago, Ludwig's scrupulous edition is still acknowledged as definitive. The first two volumes contain the full Italian text of Codex Urbinas 1270 with Ludwig's German translation on facing pages; the third volume contains Ludwig's extensive annotations. Ludwig published a fourth volume, Das Buch von der Malerie (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1885 [Verga 32; Guerrini 50]), in which the 944 chapters of the Trattato are arranged by subject.

48. TRATTATO DELLA PITTURA DI LEONARDO DA VINCI CONDOTTO SUL COD. VATICANO URBINATE 1270 (Rome: Unione Cooperative, 1890). Steinitz 36; Verga 34; Guerrini 53

This edition is based on Codex Urbinas Latinas 1270. Advances in printing technology enabled the publishers to reproduce the illustrations in the Vatican manuscript. The volume is introduced by Vasari's biography reprinted from Gaetano Milanese's richly annotated edition, Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, architettori, 9 vols. (Florence: Sansoni, 1878-85).

49. KNIGA O ŽIVOPISI MASTERA LEONARDO DA VINČI ŽIVOPI - SEA I SKULPTORA FLORENTINSKOGO, trans.A. A. Cuber and V. K. Silejko (Moscow: Ogiz-Izogiz, 1934). Steinitz 51

V. N. Lazareva provides the introduction for the first Russian translation of the Codex Urbinas Vaticanus (in Russian).

50. TRATADO DE LA PINTURA, trans. Manuel Abril (Madrid: Aguilar, 1944). Steinitz 57

This Spanish translation of the Codex Vaticanus Urbinas follows the more systematic paragraph order established by Josephin Péladan in his edition of 1910 (Steinitz 42; Verga 36).

~ 51.    TRAKTAT O SLIVKARSTVU (Belgrad: Kultura, 1953)

This is the first Serbo-Croatian translation of Leonardo's Treatise.

~ 52.    TREATISE ON PAINTING [CODEX URBINAS LATINUS 1270] BY LEONARDO DA VINCI, trans. A. Philip McMahon, 2 vols. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1956). Steinitz 62; Guerrini 219

McMahon provides a complete English translation of the Codex accompanied by a reproduction of the manuscript itself. The significance of the Codex is described in the "Introduction" by Ludwig Heydenreich.

53. TRAKTAT O MALARSTWIE, ed. Maria Rzepińska (Wrocław: Instytut sztuki polskiej akademii nauk, 1961). Guerrini 244 Based upon Ludwig's edition (No. 47), this is the first complete Polish translation of Leonardo'sTrattato.


When you have thoroughly learnt perspective, and have fixed in your memory all the various parts and forms of things, you should often amuse yourself when you take a walk for recreation, in watching and taking note of the attitudes and actions of men as they talk and dispute, or laugh or come to blows one with another, both their actions and those of the bystanders who either intervene or stand looking on at these things; noting these down with rapid strokes . . . in a little pocket-book . . . And let this be of tinted paper . . . for these are not things to be rubbed out but preserved with the utmost diligence; for there is such an infinite number of forms and actions of things that the memory is incapable of preserving them, and therefore you must keep these [sketches] as your patterns and teachers.

    Codex Ashburnham I, Sa


Opening with a sensitive and insightful discussion of Leonardo's work by the connoisseur and art dealer Jean Pierre Manette (see No. 156), the volume features Caylus's fifty-five engravings reproducing Leonardo's extraordinary "grotesque" faces. Also included is a catalogue (pp. 22-23) listing earlier reproductive engravings after Leonardo's paintings and drawings. Claude Philippe de Tubières, Comte de Caylus (1692-1765), was a bon vivant, passionate collector and student of classical antiquities, and reproductive engraver by profession.


While he was employed by Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, the Bohemian printmaker Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) documented portions of the Earl's extensive collection. These engravings include reproductions of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. Additional engravings after Leonardo are dated in the 1660s, after Arundel's collection was dispersed, suggesting that Hollar had made drawings to serve as models. However, no such drawings by Hollar are listed in the catalogue of the "Portland Museum," that is, the collection of Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Portland, which was dispersed in a monumental thirty-eight-day sale (A Catalogue of the Portland Museum[London: Skinner and Company, 1786]). It is more likely that the grotesques and caricatures published by Clarke reproduce Hollar's Diversae probae (1645), a popular set of engravings that was reprinted in England where it was advertised as "Leonardy [sic] his Drawing-Book." The Portland collection was indeed a rich source of Hollar prints: Lot 2714 is described as "54 etchings by Hollar, some scarce"; Lot 2918, "the work of Hollar-13 folios," is described as "the most compleat and capital assemblage in the world . . . adorned with a great number of exceedingly scarce etchings." According to the annotated copy in the Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester, Lot 2918 sold for £385. On the Portland collection, see Horace Walpole, The Duchess of Portland's Museum (New York: Grolier Club, 1936).

56. CHAMBERLAINE, John, Imitations of Original Designs by Leonardo da Vinci (London: Bulmer, 1796). Verga 52

Introduced by a brief biography and an account of the discovery of Leonardo's Notebooks at Windsor Castle, the volume features a sampling of the drawings engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi and others. Marking their first publication, the selection includes "single figure heads, compositions, horses, and other animals; optics, perspective, gunnery, hydraulics, mechanics; and in particular of very accurate delineations, with a most spirited pen, of a variety of anatomical subjects."

~ 57.   GERLI, Carlo Giuseppe, Disegni di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Pietro and Giuseppe Vallardi, 1830). Verga 53

Having acquired Gerli's copperplates in 1829, Vallardi republished Gerli's volume of 1784 (Verga 49) with commentary. The sixty-one plates reproduce drawings in the Codex Atlanticus and other manuscripts donated to the Ambrosian Library by Arconati as well as sixteen which had passed from Venanzio de Pagaye to Giuseppe Bossi before being acquired in 1830 by the Accademia, Venice. The majority of the engravings reproduce human figures, but there is sufficient variety to suggest the scope of Leonardo's activity. Vallardi also republished the introduction by Carlo Amoretti, "Ragionamento intorno ai disgni di Leonardo da Vinci," in which he summarizes (p. 1) the value of the drawings for instructing artists, shedding light on the history of the human spirit, bringing glory to the city of Milan. Gerli's reproductions proved durable and influential and were adapted in editions of the Trattato and other books devoted to Leonardo.

Critical Studies


While I thought I was learning how to live, I have been learning how to die.

Codex Atlanticus, 252 r

As a day well spent procures a happy sleep, so a life well employed procures a happy death.

Codex Trivulziano, 32

~ 58.   AMORETTI, Carlo, Memorie storiche su la vita gli studj e le opera di Lionardo da Vinci si aggiungono le memorie intorno all vita del Ch. Baldassare Oltrocchi già Perfetto della stessa Biblio     teca scritte dal suo successore Pietro Cighera (Milan, 1804). Verga  286; Guerrini 396

Because it incorporates information from Leonardo's manuscripts as well as archival sources, this is generally considered to be the first modern biography of Leonardo. Much of the new documentation Amoretti includes was gathered by his predecessor at the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Baldassare Oltrocchi (see No. 101), and by Venazio de Pagaye, a collector whose notes are now in the Biblioteca Melzi, Milan. Amoretti's biography was published simultaneously as the introduction to the 1804 edition of the Trattato dell Pittura (No. 41).

~ 59.     BRAUN, Georg Christian, Das Leonardo da Vincis Leben und Kunst (Halle: Hendel, 1819). Verga 327; Guerrini 415

The first critical study of Leonardo published in Germany, the volume includes a biography and analysis of Leonardo's character and studies of the Last Supper and Battle of Anghiari. Included as well are a poetic dialogue on art, a selection of Leonardo's statements on art, and a catalogue of his works.

~ 60.    BROWN, John William, The Life of Leonardo da Vinci with aCritical Account of His Works (London: William Pickering,   1828). Verga 352; Guerrini 429

Admiring his work as "the very poetry of painting," Brown considers Leonardo to be the painter who "first reconciled minute finishing with grandeur of design and harmony of expression" (p. 176). Brown maintains (p. 46) that Leonardo actually established an academy in Milan and disagrees with Amoretti (see No. 58), who was among the scholars who "attempt to deprive Leonardo of the honor of having died in the arms of Francis I" (pp. 171-72). The volume includes an essay by J. Saunders, 'A Critical Description of Leonardo da Vinci's Celebrated Picture of the Lord's Supper." Brown's biography was also published in the second edition of Rigaud's translation of the Treatise on Painting (No. 45).

61. HOUSSAYE, Arsène, Histoire de Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Didier, 1869). Verga 644; Guerrini 548

This fluent and influential biography includes the author's account of his attempt to locate Leonardo's tomb at Amboise.

62. FERRI, Luigi, Leonardo da Vinci e la filosofia dell'arte (Torino: Unione tipografico, 1871). Verga 664; Guerrini 562

Ferri discusses the development of Leonardo's artistic doctrine as a union of art and science arising from his profound and diverse studies. Leonardo's empirical genius aligns him with other intellectual pioneers such as Francis Bacon and Galileo.

63. RICCARDI, Giuseppe, Intorno a Leonardo da Vinci studio storico (Milan: Le prime letture, 1872). Verga 675; Guerrini 569

The unveiling of Pietro Magni's monument to Leonardo in the Piazza della Scala, Milan (see No. 489) provided the occasion for publishing this concise, popular account of Leonardo's career.

64. UZIELLI, Gustavo, Ricerche intorno a Leonardo da Vinci (Florence: Pellas, 1872). Verga 678; Guerrini 575

A detailed study of Leonardo's family and early career based on archival discoveries.

65. FERRI, Luigi, "Leonardo da Vinci scienziato e filosofo," Nuova Antologia 23 (1873), pp. 294-334. Verga 682; Guerrini 585

~ 66.    HEATON, Mrs. Charles W., Leonardo da Vinci and His Works (London: Macmillan, 1874). Verga 699; Guerrini 596

Heaton's biography is complemented by Charles Christopher Black's essay on Leonardo's scientific and literary work (which is largely derived from Govi's Saggio (see No. 170). The volume includes a catalogue of Leonardo's paintings and selected drawings.

67. RICHTER, Jean Paul, Leonardo da Vinci, trans. Percy E. Pinkerton (London: Sampson, Low, Marston [1880]). Guerrini 639

Richter, the editor of the most comprehensive compendium of Leonardo's writings (No. 27), offers a concise account of Leonardo's life. He refers to documents to confirm the authenticity of surviving works.

68. SEAILLES, Gabriel, Léonard de Vinci. L 'Artiste et le savant. Essai de Biographie Psychologique (Paris: Perrin, 1892). Verga 1090; Guerrini 773

Séailles, who sees Leonardo as a forerunner of modern empiricism, follows his summary of Leonardo's life and work with an analysis of Leonardo's character. For Séailles, the clue to Leonardo's genius lies in his recognition of the fundamental compatibility of art and science. From this perspective, Leonardo's diverse activities may be understood as an expression of his belief that science enables man to understand and imitate nature's methods in order to equal and surpass her creations. Offering a comprehensive assessment of a mysterious and compelling individual, Séailles' interpretation proved very influential. The Guzzetta Collection contains a Russian translation of the volume (St. Petersburg: Pantaleev, 1898; Guerrini 871).

69. UZIELLI, Gustavo, Richerche intorno a Leonardo da Vinci. Serie I (Turin: Loescher, 1896). Verga 1210; Guerrini 840

In this considerably amplified version of his 1872 publication (No. 64), Uzielli provides a detailed analysis of Leonardo's activities between 1452-99, focusing on his sojourn in Milan. Extensive archival research enables the author to verify, correct, or clarify the opinions of earlier biographers.

70. MÜNTZ, Eugène, Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science, 2 vols. (New York: Scribners, 1898). Verga 1264

Published simultaneously in French (Verga 1263) and English, this comprehensive and popular survey examines Leonardo's life and work, analyzing his character, his career as an artist, and his accomplishments as a scientist and engineer. The study concludes with a catalogue of his paintings.

71. WOLYŃSKI, Achim Leo, Leonardo da Vinči (St. Petersburg: Marks, 1899). Guerrini 894

A massive survey of Leonardo's life and works (in Russian).

72. MAZZONI, Guido, "Leonardo da Vinci scrittore," Nuova antologia 1 (January, 1900), pp. 63-76. Verga 1332; Guerrini 942

73. HUBBARD, Elbert, Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Artists: Leonardo (East Aurora, New York: Roycrofters, 1902). Verga 1418

Best known as the founder of the Roycroft colony in East Aurora, New York, the author was a leading figure in the American Arts and Crafts movement. He was also a prolific writer and this booklet offers a characteristically personal view of its subject. Hubbard concludes (p. 29) that "Leonardo da Vinci invented more useful appliances than any man who ever lived, excepting our own Edison.

74. MAZZATINTI, Giuseppe, Per Leonardo da Vinci (Ascoli Piceno: Premiate, 1902; from Rassagna bibliografica dell'arte italiana 5 [1902]). Verga 1428; Guerrini 1002

Text of a speech celebrating Leonardo's visit to Casenatico, September 6, 1502, while in the service of Cesare Borgia.

75. MUTHER, Richard, Leonardo da Vinci (Berlin: Bard, 1903). Verga 1486; Guerrini 1017

This volume in the popular "Die Kunst" series provides a succinct account of Leonardo's life and artistic work.

76. PIUMATI, Alessandro, Leonardo da Vinci filosofo e letterato (Carmagnola: Scolastica, 1905). Verga 1555; Guerrini 1083

Piumati, one of the editors of Leonardo's Notebooks (Nos. 4-7), suggests in this survey that Leonardo's unremitting attention to natural phenomena was the crucial element underlying his unique accomplishments.

77. SOLMI, Edmondo, "Leonardo da Vinci ad Ivrea,"from Bollettino storico bibliografico subalpino 17 (1907). Verga 1726; Guerrini 1185

78. CUST, R. H. Hobart, Leonardo da Vinci (London: Bell, 1908). Guerrini 1236

This concise biography summarizes Leonardo's career and influence.

79. FRIZZONI, Gustavo, "Leonardo da Vinci rammentato da uno scrittore contemporaneo," Nuovo Antologia 16 (1909), pp. 63137. Verga 1844; Guerrini 1290

Discusses references to Leonardo in the diary of Antonio de Beatis.

~ 80.    FREUD, Sigmund, Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci (Vienna: Deuticke, 1910). Verga 1922

In his most extended attempt to apply his methods to the analysis of an historical individual, Freud attributes Leonardo's development as an artist and scientist to the circumstances of his illegitimate birth. Leonardo's statement- "in the earliest recollections of my infancy it seemed to me that when I was in the cradle that a kite came and opened my mouth with its tail and struck me within upon the lips with its tail many times" (Codex Atlanticus, 66v [MacCurdy, p. 1122]) - provides Freud with a key for analyzing the artist's emotional and sexual development and accounting for peculiarities in his St. Anne, Virgin, and the Infant Christ (Paris, Louvre).

In addition to this first edition, the Guzzetta Collection contains a French edition, Un souvenird'enfance de Léonard de Vinci, trans. Marie Bonaparte (Paris: Gallimard, 1927); the first English translation by A. A. Brill, Leonardo da Vinci: A Study in Psychosexuality (New York: Random House, 1947), originally published in 1916; a Spanish edition, Leonardo da Vinci Un Estudio dipsicosexualidad, trans. C. F. Galán (Palma: Azteca, 1955); and a second English edition, Leonardoda Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood, trans. Alan Tyson (New York: Norton, 1964).

81. GRIFONE, Domenico, Leonardo da Vinci pensatore e scrittore (Ostuni: Tamborrini, 1910). Verga 1929; Guerrini 1335

Surveying Leonardo's literary production, Grifone outlines the literary ambiance in which Leonardo worked and discusses his allegories and letters. The Trattato is considered from the point of view of its literary style.

82. LUNGO, Isidoro del, "Leonardo scrittori" from Leonardo da Vinci, Conferenze florentine, pp. 259-92. Verga 1938; Guerrini 1328

For full citation, see No. 165.

83. PÉLADAN, Joséphin Aimé, La philosophie de Léonard de Vinci d'apres ses manuscripts (Paris: Alcan, 1910). Verga 1938; Guerrini 1348

Basing his discussion on a careful reading of the manuscripts, the author characterizes Leonardo's emphasis on experimentation and reasoning by analogy as a unique and crucial step in the development of the human spirit.

84. SOLMI, Edmondo, Leonardo da Vinci nella guerra di Luigi XII contro Venezia (Venice: Ferrari, 1912; fromNuovo Archivio Veneto, n.s. 23 [1912], pp. 318-50). Verga 2113; Guerrini 1431.

85. MODIGLIANI, Gino, Psicologia Vinciana (Milan: Treves, 1913). Verga 2170; Guerrini 1487

The author examines Leonardo's emotional and spiritual character in attempting to explain his analytical approach to all phenomena.

86. MAZZI, Angelo, Leonardo da Vinci nella guerra di Luigi XII (Bergamo: Bolis, 1914). Verga 2257; Guerrini 1519

With reference to Leonardo's involvement in the campaign of Louis XII of France against Venice, and his movements after the battle of Agnadello, Mazzi refutes arguments offered by Edmondo Solmi in 1912 (No. 84).

87. MALAGUZZI-VALERI, Francesco, La Corte di Lodovico il Moro . . . II: Bramante e Leonardo (Milan: Hoepli, 1915). Verga 2304

Holding the view that Leonardo was a young "unknown" who rose to prominence in Ludovico's court, the author describes the artist's life and work during his first Milanese period within the context of a lavish four-volume history (Milan: Hoeple, 1913-23) of private life and art in Milan during the later fifteenth century. Malaguzzi enters into the spirited controversy regarding attributions and concludes by discussing Leonardo's followers and influence in Milan.

88. BELTRAMI, Luca, Leonardo da Vinci e Cesare Borgia (Milan: Allegretti, 1916). Verga 2318; Guerrini 1570

Discovery of the original contract in the Melzi archives, Milan, is the basis for Beltrami's appraisal of Leonardo's activity on behalf of Cesare Borgia in 1502, notably regarding designs for a canalport at Cesenatico. Beltrami also reviews Leonardo's thoughts on war.

~ 89.     BELTRAMI, Luca, ed., Documenti e memorie riguardanti la vita e le opera di Leonardo da Vinci in ordine cronologico (Milano: Fratelli Treves, 1919). Verga 2406; Guerrini 1633

Beltrami's extensive compendium provides a documentary basis for establishing the sequence of Leonardo's life and works and for tracing his reputation. The volume contains most early documentary and literary references to Leonardo cited in chronological order.

90. BODRERO, Emilio, "La posizione spirituale di Leonardo," Rivista d'Italia 22 (April, 1919), pp. 377-88. Verga 2420; Guerrini 1743

91. CERMENATI, Mario, "Leonardo a Roma," Nuova antologia 101 (May, 1919), pp. 306-31. Guerrini 1672

92. DELLA SETA, Ugo, "La visione morale della vita in Leonardo da Vinci," Bilychnis 8 (October, 1919), pp. 82-94; (November, 1919), pp. 216-28. Verga 2437; Guerrini 1769

93. LESCA, Giuseppe, Leonardo da VinciSaggio sulla vita e le opere (Bergamo: Istituto Italiano d'arti grafiche [1919]). Guerrini 1682

A survey of Leonardo's life and work. Verga 2471 refers to another edition.

94. POGGI, Giovanni, ed., Leonardo da Vinci. La "Vita" di Giorgio Vasari nuovamente commentata.. . (Florence: Pampaloni, 1919). Verga 2487; Guerrini 1681

Poggi provides a richly illustrated and annotated edition of Vasari's biography, noting differences between the 1550 and fuller and revised 1568 edition.

~ 95.   SOLMI, Edmondo, Leonardo (1452-1519) (Florence: Barbèra, 1919). Guerrini 1671

First published in 1900 (Verga 1347), this biography proved to be both popular and durable. Solmi surveys Leonardo's career, thought, and character, documenting his observations with apposite references to the Notebooks. In his Bibliografia Vinciana (No. 471) Verga considered it among the best informed and most informative among numerous biographies. The Guzzetta Collection also includes a German translation by Emmi Hirschberg (Berlin: Hoffmann, 1908; Verga 1803).

96. VENTURI, Lionello, La critica e l'arte di Leonardo da Vinci (Bologna Zanichelli, 1919). Verga 2509; Guerrini 1624

Venturi examines Leonardo's theory of art in its historical context and then evaluates his critical fortunes from Giovanni Santi's Cronaca rimata (ca. 1482) through the late nineteenth century.

97. LUNGO, Carlo del, Leonardo uomo del rinascimento e precursore (Bologna: Zanichelli [1920]). Verga 2536; Guerrini 1802

The author compares the methods and goals of Leonardo and Galileo.

98. PAULI, Vincenzo, Leonardo da Vinci (Catenia: Giannotta, 1920). Verga 2552; Guerrini 1793

The author of this popular biography has little original to say regarding Leonardo's life or works.

99. PFISTER, Kurt, Leonardo da Vinci (Munich: Recht, 1923). Verga 2658; Guerrini 1876

A simplified, popular survey of Leonardo's career.

100.     MAUCLAIR, Camille, Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Nilsson [1924]). Verga 2687; Guerrini 1906

The author offers a concise, laudatory account of Leonardo's life and works, emphasizing his significance as a precursor of modern art and thought.

101.      RITTER, S., Baldassarre Oltrocchi e le sue Memorie storiche su la vita di Leonardo da Vinci (Rome: Maglione and Strini, 1925). Verga 2727; Guerrini 1920

Ritter concludes his discussion of Oltrocchi's (1714-1797) career by identifying him as the first modern Leonardo scholar because of his conscientious use of the manuscripts and other documentary sources. Annotating the text, Ritter publishes for the first time Oltrocchi's Memorie, which was acknowledged by Carlo Amoretti as the basis for the biography he published in 1804 (No. 58).

102.     HILDEBRANDT, Edmund, Leonardo da VinciDer Künstler und sein Werk (Berlin: Grote, 1927). Verga 2787; Guerrini 2005

In this speculative work, the author analyzes the spiritual and philosophical essence of Leonardo's creative process. Specific works are discussed in terms of these intangible ideals.

~ 103. TAYLOR, Rachel Anne, Leonardo the Florentine: A Study in Personality (London: Richards, 1927). Verga 2772; Guerrini 2009

Taylor's spirited biography places Leonardo dramatically in historical and geographic context. Her effusive prose effectively suggests "the full tide of Renaissance energy as it sweeps around his art."

104.     MacCURDY, Edward, The Mind of Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1928). Verga 2813; Guerrini 2041

This biography includes an appraisal of Leonardo's manuscripts and a survey of his paintings and sculpture.

105.     OBERDORFER, Aldo, Leonardo da Vinci (Turin: Paravia, 1928). Verga 2818;

Guerrini 2033

Surveys Leonardo's life and art.

106.     FAVARO, Giuseppe, La mano "stanco" di Leonardo (Modena: tipographia Modenese, 1930, from Annuario della Reale Università di Modena [1929-30]). Verga 2849; Guerrini 2071

107.     FERRERO, Léo, Leonardo o dell'Art (Torino: Buratti, 1929). Guerrini 2067

Using the Trattato, Ferrero examines the factors distinguishing Leonardo from contemporary artists. The author suggests that Leonardo developed laws" from his studies of nature and rather than imitate mere appearances, Leonardo depicts what he "knows" about nature. The volume features an Introduction by Paul Valéry.

108.      REINACH, Salomon, "An Unedited Portrait of Leonardo," International Studio 94 (November, 1929), pp. 47-49.

Concerns a portrait of Leonardo in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Cherbourg.

109.      VALERY, Paul, Introduction to the Method of Leonardo da Vinci, trans. Thomas McGreevy (London: Rodeker, 1929). Verga 2847

Having worked as librarian for the Countess de Béhague, Valéry was familiar with Leonardo's drawings and related manuscripts in her collection and developed an abiding fascination for the artist. Appearing originally in 1895, this lengthy essay is the poet's first

major publication. Rather than describing his character or his works, Valéry speculates on the mental processes underlying

Leonardo's universality:

"He is so made that he misses nothing... . He learns the habits

and organizations of nature, works on them from every angle.

And he comes to be the only man who constructs, calculates,

sets in motion. He leaves behind him churches and fortresses;

he fashions ornaments - full of sweetness and strength - and a

thousand machines; and he makes rigorous calculation among

many unsurveyed lines. He leaves the remains of no one knows

what great playthings. In these pastimes mixed up with his

scientific studies - themselves constituting something not dis-

tinguishable from a passion - he has the charm of always seem-

ing to be thinking of something else."

110.      FREUND, Frank E. Washburn, "Leonardo's Portraits and Aristotle," International Studio (July, 1927), pp. 28-36f. Verga 2793

A translation and addendum to the article by Leo Planiscig, "Leonardo's Porträte und Aristoteles" in Festschrift für Julius Schlosser, Arpad Weixlgartner and Leo Planiscig, eds. (Leipzig: Amalthea, 1927), pp. 137-43. Concerns the resemblance between a portrait bust inscribed "Aristotle" and Leonardo's profile self-portrait at Windsor. Today, this drawing (Windsor 12726) is no longer considered to be autograph (cf. Clark and Pedretti [No.

426], I, p. 185).

111.     KLINGSOR, Tristan, Léonardo de Vinci (Paris: Rieder, 1930). Verga 2898; Guerrini 2113

Brief review of Leonardo's life and art with a personal reading of selected paintings, among them the Last Supper.

112.     BAYER, Raymond, Léonard de Vinci: La grâce (Paris: Alcan,

1933). Guerrini 2188

Analyzing the concept of grace as it evolved in the quattro- and cinquecento, Bayer discovers an increasing presence of Neoplatonism in Leonardo's later manuscripts. He argues (p. 146) that by degrees the artist incorporated metaphysical elements in his concrete study of the world.

113.     BONGIOANNI, Fausto, Leonardo pensatore (Piacenza: Porta, 1935). Guerrini 2253

The author offers an analysis of Leonardo's philosophy of art and nature.

114.     CALVI, Girolamo, Leonardo da Vinci (Brescia: Morcelliani, 1936).

This thorough biography includes a bibliography of Calvi's writings on Leonardo.

115.      FAGGI, Adolfo, "Leonardo e la laude del sole," Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino 72 (1936-37). Guerrini 2271

Examines Leonardo's classification of the senses and his familiarity with Dante's classification.

116.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, Leonardo da Vinci nella poesia Latina (Modena: Società tipografica modenese, 1936). Guerrini 2270

Favoro augments Beltrami, Documenti (No. 89) with additional contemporary references discovered among a variety of literary sources.

117.      LAZAREV, V. N., Leonardo da Vinci (Leningrad: Leningradskij Oblastnyj Sojuza Sovietskih Hudožnikov, 1936). Guerrini 2269

Survey of Leonardo's life and works (in Russian).

118.      BARONI, Constantino, "Una rettifica in tema di Biografia Vinciana: Leonardo da Vinci fu ingegnere ducale in Milan?" Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienza e Lettere 70 (1937). Guerrini 2309

Based on a review of the documents, Baroni corrects the misapprehension that Leonardo enjoyed official status as a ducal engineer in Milan.

119.      FAGGI, Adolf o, "Ancora su Leonardo," Atti della Reale Academia delle Scienze di Torino 74 (1938-39), pp. 3-18. Guerrini 2320

Continues (from No. 115) the author's discussion of Leonardo's familiarity with the Divine Comedy.

120.      VALLENTIN, Antonina, Leonardo da Vinci: The Tragic Pursuit of Perfection, trans. E. W. Dickes (New York: Viking, 1938). Guerrini 2352.

Though lacking in analytical insights, this biography offers a full-scale account of the events in Leonardo's life. The Guzzetta Collection also has an Italian edition, trans. G. Cavolloti (Milan: Cavolloti, 1949) and a Polish edition, trans. Stanisław Sielski (Warsaw:

Państwow Instytut Wydawniczy [1959]).

121.     VENTURI, Adolfo, "Note sulla vita di Leonardo da Vinci, "L'Arte 41 (October, 1938), pp. 344-48. Guerrini 2379

122.     HEVESY, André de, Pélerinage avec Léonard de Vincis (Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1939). Guerrini 2520

Basing his work upon a careful reading of early authors, Hevesy produced a sound, popular account of Leonardo's career complemented by a catalogue of his works.

123.      MARCOLONGO, Roberto, Leonardo da Vinci artista-scienziato (Milan: Hoepli, 1939). Guerrini 2471

Marcolongo assesses Leonardo's life and work, emphasizing his involvement in studying the natural world and physical phenomena. Included is a brief history of the treatises. The volume was revised in 1943 and the Guzzetta Collection includes a reprint (Milan: Hoepli, 1950) of this second edition.

124.     ROGGERO, Egisto, Leonardo (Milan: Corticelli, 1939). Guerrini 2452

An enthusiastic evaluation of Leonardo as a scientist and artist.

125.     MARCUS, Aage, Leonardo da Vinci (Amsterdam: Becht, 194[?]). Guerrini 2543

Leonardo's life and work (in Dutch).

126.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, Conobbe Leonardo i libri De Imitatione Christ? (Modena: Soliani, 1941, from Atti e memorie della Reale Accademia di Scienza, lettere ed arti di Modena [1941]). Guerrini 2578

Inquires whether Leonardo may have been familiar with the influential devotional manual by Thomas à Kempis,Imitation of Christ (ca. 1418).

127.     GENTILE, Giovanni, Il Pensiero di Leonardo (Florence: Sansoni, 1941). Guerrini 2590

The volume reprints Gentile's contribution to a 1939 conference (see Baroni et al. [No. 195], pp. 163-74). Gentile sees Leonardo's artistic genius as the embodiment of the humanist confidence in the "freedom of the spirit as capable of building its world for itself."

128.     CONCA, Betti, Leonardo (Torino: Società editrice internazionale, 1942). Guerrini 2604

A popular biography lacking critical apparatus.

129.      FUSERO, Clemente, Leonardo (Varese: Corbaccio [1943]). This popular biography first appeared in 1939 (Guerrini 2619).

130.     MAZZUCCONI, Ridolfo, Leonardo da Vinci (Florence: Vallecchi, 1943). Guerrini 2623

This general account of Leonardo's life and work is a reprint of the original 1932 edition.

131.      GIGLIOLI, Odoardo H., Leonardo iniziazione all conoscenza di lui e delle questioni Vinciane (Florence: Arnaud, 1944). Guerrini 2623

Surveys all aspects of Leonardo's life and works.

132.      VULLIAUD, Paul, La pensée ésotérique de Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Lieutier, 1945). Guerrini 2650

Considers Leonardo within the context of the hermetic tradition.

133.     FLORA, Francesco, Leonardo e il rinascimento (Milan: Malfasi, 1948). Guerrini 2715

In his thesis for the Università Bocconi, Flora analyzes Leonardo's language,

philosophy, and artistic theory.

134.     WEISMANTEL, Leo, Lionardo da Vinci (Cologne: Staufen, 1949). Guerrini 2690

General survey of Leonardo's career.

135.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Leonardo a Bologna," La Mercanzia 3 (March, 1950), pp. 31-43. Guerrini 2787

136.     CASAGRANDE, Linda, Leonardo profilo (Turin: Chiere [1952]).

Surveys Leonardo's life.

137.      CASTLEFRANCO, Giorgio, "Introduzione a Leonardo," Nuova antologia 371 (April, 1952), pp. 339-57. Guerrini 2998

138.     COLOMBO, Alfred, Ecco Leonardo (Novara: De Agostini, 1952). Guerrini 2956

Designed for a popular audience, this well-illustrated volume surveys Leonardo's artistic and scientific activities.

139.     FUMAGALLI, Giuseppina, Eros di Leonardo (Milan: Garzanti, 1952). Guerrini 2960

To more closely define Leonardo's character, Fumagalli scrutinizes Leonardo's writings and paintings for clues regarding his emotional life, character, and motivations.

140.     LEBEL, Robert, Léonardo de Vinci ou la fin de l'humilité (Paris: Livre français, 1952). Guerrini 3030

Commentary on Leonardo's character and on selected works.

141.      LÜDECKE, Heinz, Leonardo da Vinci im spiegel seiner zeit (Berlin: Rütten & Loening, 1952). Guerrini 3505

This anthology contains annotated German translations of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century sources referring to Leonardo and his works.

142.      PIERACCI, Gaetano, Leonardo da Vinci studiato nella sua genetica (Rome: Instituto di medicina sociale, 1952). Guerrini 3147

The author studies Leonardo's family for traces of ingenuity and genius.

143.     TEA, Eva, "Medievalità di Leonardo," Vita e pensiero 35 (April,

1952), pp. 195-98.

144.      CONSTANTINI, Celso, "Leonardo e la sua fede religione,"  Fede e Arte 1 (January, 1953), pp. 6-20.

. ~ 145. JASPERS, Karl, Lionardo als philosoph (Bern: Francke, 1953). Guerrini 3532

The existentialist philosopher addresses the question of whether Leonardo is an artist, scientist, philosopher, "or something that cannot be subsumed under any of these established categories of intellectual endeavor?" Jaspers concludes that Leonardo's greatness transcends the traditional distinctions: "There have been several poet philosophers, but Leonardo is the only artist philosopher of high order." Jaspers acknowledges the limits of Leonardo's method ("radically committed to observation, he could not go beyond it"), but argues that even the uncompleted projects must be appreciated as part of a totality encompassed in Leonardo's "superhuman effort to specialize in everything."

    The Guzzetta Collection also includes a Spanish translation by Jorge Oscar Pickenhagen, Leonardo como filósofo (Buenos Aires: Sur, 1956); an Italian translation by Ferruccio Masini, Leonardo filosofo (Florence: Philosophia, 1960); and an English translation by Ralph Mannheim in Three Essays: Leonardo, Descartes, Max Weber (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964), pp. 3-58.

146.     LUPORINI, Cesare, Le mente di Leonardo (Florence: Sansoni,

1953). Guerrini 3538

Citing Leonardo's emphasis on experience as central to the understanding of the world, Luporini offers a revisionist interpretation of Leonardo as anti-philosophical and anti-formalist.

147.     LUGARESI, Manlio, Leonardo umanista (Siena: Maia, 1954). Guerrini 3669

An encomium celebrating Leonardo as a "poet of the imagination" whose speculative genius marks him today as the embodiment of the highest human aspirations.

148.      TROILO, Erminio, Ricostruzione e interpretazione del pensiero filosofico di Leonardo da Vinci (Venice: Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 1954). Guerrini 3714

Arguing that Leonardo rejected dogma and maintained an independent stance toward fashionable philosophies, Troilo examines the artist's cosmological, aesthetiç and moral views.

149.      NEDELJOKVIĆ, Dusan, Léonard de Vinci: Philosophe et Moraliste (Belgrad: Académie Serbe des Sciences, 1957)

(Title in French; text in Serbo-Croatian.)

150.      NEDELJOKVIĆ Dusan, Léonard de Vinci: Artiste et esthéticien (Belgrad: Académie Serbe des Sciences, 1957). Guerrini 3927

(Title in French; text in Serbo-Croatian.)

~151.    GUKOVSKII, Matvei Aleksandrovich, Leonardo da Vinci:tvorčeskajabiografija

(Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1958). Guerrini 4005

Leonardo's life and work (in Russian).

152.      DITRAKIN, Valantin Tikhomovich, Leonardo da Vinci (Moscow: Demiuz, 1959). Guerrini 4085

A survey of Leonardo's life and work (in Russian).

153.      EISSLER, K. R., Leonardo da Vinci: Psychoanalytic Notes on the Enigma (London: Hogarth, 1962).

Sparked by Meyer Shapiro's emphatic critique ("Leonardo and Freud: An Art Historical Study," Journal of the History of Ideas 15 [1954], pp. 147-78) of both the method and content of Freud's essay (No. 80), Eissler reviews the controversy and offers an extended psychoanalytic evaluation of Leonardo's personality and development. Guerrini 4228 refers to an American edition.

154.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Leonardo at Lyon," Raccolta Vinciana 19 (1964), pp. 267-72. Guerrini 4284

155.     CALDER, RITCHIE, Leonardo, trans. Adele Airoldi (Milan: Sperling & Kupfer, 1971). Guerrini 4696

A general survey of Leonardo's career, focusing on his artistic activities.

156.      STEINITZ, Kate Trauman, Pierre-Jean Manette and Le Comte de Caylus and Their Concept of Leonardo da Vinci in the Eighteenth Century (Los Angeles: Zeitlin & VerBrugge, 1974).

Steinitz examines eighteenth-century interest in Leonardo and the taste for his grotesques as reflected in Mariette's Lettre sur Léonard de Vinci peintre florentine. A famous connoisseur, Manette was a collector and dealer in prints and drawings. His Lettre served as the introduction to Caylus's Recueil de testes (1730; No. 54) which reproduced drawings in the Album de Caricatures (Paris, Louvre) that Mariette's father had acquired from the collection of the Earl of Arundel. These drawings are now recognized as copies after Leonardo by a close follower. Unfortunately, neither the text of the Lettre nor a translation are included in this volume.

157.     PAYNE, Robert, Leonardo (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978).

A considerable portion of this biography is devoted to speculations regarding Leonardo's sexual proclivities. Included as well is an English translation of Mazenta's Memoria (see No. 212).

158.      KEMP, Martin, Leonardo da Vinci. The Marvellous Works of Nature and Man (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981). Guerrini 5281

Kemp offers a unified view of Leonardo's career in which scientific research and artistic creation are not seen as disparate activities but rather as impelled by the same preoccupations. Leonardo's anatomical studies constitute a search for scientific rules governing the microcosm of man; his investigations in the physical sciences constitute a parallel search in the realm of the macrocosm of nature. These studies served as the basis for the imaginative reconstruction of nature in Leonardo's works of art and for the manipulation of nature's forces in his machines. According to Kemp, Leonardo's observation that "the human race in its marvelous and varied works seems to reveal itself as a second nature in this world" (B.L.151v) summarizes the belief underlying his practice.

159.     WinterNITZ, Emanuel, Leonardo da Vinci as a Musician (New Haven:  Yale University Press, 1982). Guerrini 5410

Leonardo enjoyed a considerable reputation as a musical performer; in his comparison of the arts (Paragone) music occupied the highest place after painting. These facts provide the occasion for an examination of Leonardo's manuscripts and career as Winternitz traces his involvement in this art and its place in his theories. The volume includes chapters on the musical environment in fifteenth-century Milan, on Leonardo as an improvisor on the lira da braccio (with an excursus on the history of this instrument), on his work as a designer of musical instruments, and on his theatrical projects.

160.     FRANZINI, Elio, Il mito di Leonardo. Sulla fenomenologia della creazione artistica (Milan: Unicopli, 1987). Guerrini 6071

Drawing on the critical ideas of Ernst Cassirer and other philosophers, Franzini offers a critical interpretation of Leonardo's artistic practice and aesthetics in relation to his view of science and nature.

~ 161. MAIORINO, Giancarlo, Leonardo da Vinci: The Daedalian Mythmaker (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992).

Defines Leonardo's career as a critique of humanism, contrasting Leonardo's blend of empiricism and abstraction with the humanist devotion to theoretical knowledge.


Words which fail to satisfy the ear of the listener always either fatigue or weary him; and you may often see a sign of this when such listeners are frequently yawning. Consequently when addressing men whose good opinion you desire, either cut short your speech when you see these evident signs of impatience, or else change the subject; for if you take any other course, then in place of the approbation you desire you will win dislike and ill-will.

   Ms. G 49r

162.     BARATTA, Mario, Curiosità Vinciane (Torino: Fratelli Bocca, 1905). Verga 1549; Guerinni 1070

The three essays in this volume examine Leonardo's mirror writing, his verbal-pictorial puzzles (rebuses), and his invention of underwater diving gear.

163.      SOLMI, Edmondo, Nuovi studi sulla filoso fia naturale di Leonardo da Vinci (Mantua: Mondovi [1905]). Verga 1596; Guerrini 1092

The volume includes three essays, the first on Leonardo's experimental methods, which Solmi identifies as depending upon observation, experimentation, hypothesis, deduction, and mathematics. The second essay considers Leonardo's astronomical studies. The third essay concerns Leonardo's theory of vision and its relation to his ideas regarding the nature of light, the structure and function of the eye, and the nature of visual perception.

164.     KLAIBER, Hans, Leonardostudien (Strassburg: Heitz, 1907). Verga 1692; Guerrini 1191

The volume includes three essays. In the first, Leonardo's study of statics and mechanics is related to the principles for representing motion and expression in the Trattato della Pittura. The second essay examines the vexed question of Leonardo's relationship with the antique. Klaiber speculates on Leonardo's creative method in the final essay.

165.     LEONARDO DA VINCI (Milan: Treves, 1910). Verga 1938; Guerrini 1328

This important anthology contains ten essays by leading scholars. In addition to essays by Angelo Conti and Vittorio Spinazzola on Leonardo as a painter and as an architect, there are studies by Edmondo Solmi on the history of Leonardo's manuscripts; Marcel Reymond on Leonardo's education; Antonio Favaro on Leonardo's place in the history of experimental science; Filippo Bottazzi on Leonardo's contributions to biology and anatomy; Benedetto Croce on Leonardo's philosophical activity; Isadoro Del Lungo on his status as a writer; and Luca Beltrami on Leonardo's aeronautical research. The Guzzetta Collection also contains a reprint of this volume (Milan: Garzanti, 1938).

166.     EMPORIUM 49 (May, 1919)

The three articles in this special issue include a succinct biography by Luca Beltrami; Antonio Favaro on Leonardo's hydraulic studies; and Giuseppe Favaro on his anatomical research.

167.      FAVARO, Antonio, Note Vinciane (Venice: Ferrari, 1920, from Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti 79 [1920], pp. 405-32). Verga 2540; Guerrini 1720

The volume includes brief notes on "La madre di Leonardo," "Leonardo da Vinci e Cecilia Gallerani," "Il compilatore del Trattato del moto e misura dell'acqua," and "Correzione e cancellature nei mss. vinciani."

~168.    NOUVELLE REVUE D'ITALIE 16 (May, 1919). Verga 2466

This special volume contains twelve articles, including Mario Cermenati on François I's efforts to export the Last Supper to France; Adolfo Venturi on Leonardo at the end of his first Florentine period; G. de Lorenzo on the philosophical pessimism of Leonardo and Michelangelo; and Giambattista de Toni on Leonardo and the clock at Chiaravalle.

~ 169.   BODE, Wilhelm von, Studien über Leonardo da Vinci (Berlin: G. Grote, 1921). Verga 2568; Guerrini 1841

Bode's great admiration for Leonardo's artistry is evident in this collection of essays. Bode views Leonardo's early work as the culmination of quattrocento developments, his mature work as introducing cinquecento developments, and his late work as foreshadowing the seventeenth-century Baroque style. In republishing "Leonardos Florakomposition und ihr einfluss auf das Weibliche halbfigurenbild der italienischen Renaissance,"  Bode asserts his belief in Leonardo's authorship of the Flora, a statue Bode acquired as director of the Berlin museum, and discusses its influence on Renaissance portraiture. On the debate over the authenticity of this statue, see also Nos. 439, 441.

170.      FAVARO, Antonio, Gilberto Govi (1826-1889) ed i suoi scritti intorno a Leonardo da Vinci (Rome: Miglione and Strini, 1923). Verga 2646; Guerrini 1872

Favaro introduces this anthology with a critical analysis of Govi's contributions to the study of Leonardo. Reprinted in the volume are Govi's essay on Leonardo as a writer and scientist; his study of Antiquarie prospettiche romane composte per Prospettivo milanese dipintore, an anonymous fifteenth-century treatise on the antiquities of Rome dedicated to Leonardo; Govi's annotated edition of Giovanni Mazzenta's Memorie, which describes the early provenance of Leonardo's manuscripts; a note of Leonardo's geographical studies; and a technical note on Leonardo's adaptation of the screw as a means of propulsion.

171.     SOLMI, Edmondo, Scritti Vinciani (Florence: La Voce, 1924). Verga 2695; Guerrini 1917

This posthumous anthology features Solmi's important studies of Leonardo's philosophical and scientific doctrines, his intellectual sources, his architectural and anatomical endeavors, relationship with contemporaries, and work as a linguist. The volume also includes a bibliography of Solmi's publications on Leonardo.

172.      DE TONI, Giambattista, Giambattista Venturi e la sua opera vinciana. Scritti inediti e 1' "Essai" (Rome: Meglione and Strini, 1924). Verga 2674; Guerrini 1902

This useful volume begins with a critical biography of Venturi (1746-1822), evaluating the accomplishments of this early student of Leonardo. The bulk of the volume is comprised of Venturi's unpublished notes (Reggio Emilia, Biblioteca communale) relating to Leonardo's biography and his manuscripts, including those on "Cose militari" and optics. De Toni also provides an annotated edition of Venturi's Essai sur les ouvrages physico-mathématiques de Léonard de Vinciand a generous selection of documents and letters relating to Venturi's career and research on Leonardo.

173.     EMPORIUM 89 (May, 1939)

Contains eight essays, including Stefano Bottari on Leonardo's development as an artist; Luigi Sorrento on his language studies; Ignazio Calvi on military architecture; Ciro Caversazzi on his investigations into geometry; and Sandra Guy on his view of nature.

174.     FAVARO, Giuseppe, "Scampoli Vinciani," Reale Accademia di Scienze, lettere ed arti di Modena 4 (1939). Guerrini 2526

Includes notes on Boltraffio and Gabriele d'Annunzio's response to Leonardo's anatomical drawings.

175.     BURLINGTON MAGAZINE, 94 (October, 1952)

This special Leonardo number contains four articles: Ludwig Heydenreich, "Leonardo da Vinci, Architect of Francis I"; R. Holland, 'A Note on La Vierge aux Rochers"; W. G. Hiscock, "The Charles I Collection of Drawings by Leonardo and Others"; and Cecil Gould, "Leonardo's Neptune Drawing."

176.      LÉONARD DE VINCI ET L'EXPÉRIENCE SCIENTIFIQUE AU XVIe  SIÈCLE, PARIS, 4 - 7 JUILLET 1952 (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1953). Guerrini 3478

The seventeen essays gathered in this volume deal with a variety of Leonardo's scientific investigations. In "Leonardo, Inventor and Scientist," George Sarton speculates that Leonardo's failure to publish resulted from his lack of a literary education. Among the other essays are Pierre Francastle's examination of Leonardo's perspective system; P. Sergescu on Leonardo's fascination with mathematics; F. S. Bodenheimer reviews Leonardo's work in biology; and Elmer Belt discusses Leonardo's contribution to the development of anatomical dissection. Additional studies focus on Leonardo's physics and mechanical research.

177.     LEONARDO DE VINCI E PAVIA (Pavia: Società Pavese di Storia Patria, 1952).

Published in conjunction with the exhibition 'Arte e ambiente pavesi al tempo di Leonardo," the volume includes a list of the objects in the exhibition preceded by an anthology of Leonardo's writings relating to Pavia and three introductory essays. Pietro Vaccari, "Leonardo a Pavia" summarizes Leonardo's contact with the city and his work in its environs; in "Leonardo e l'Università di Pavia," Edmondo Solmi considers Leonardo's relations with such scholars as the anatomist Marc Antonio della Torre; Gaetano Panazza's contribution, "La Pavia e in Lomellina," concerns Leonardo's relations with Pavese artists and architects.

178.     LO SMERALDO 6 (May, 1952)

The special number contains eight articles, including Marziano Bernardi on Leonardo's painting; Nicola Abbagnano on his philosophy; Anna Maria Brizio on his drawings; and Loris Premuda on Leonardo in relation to the Presocratic philosophers.

179.     LEONARDO NEL V CENTENARJO DELLA SUA NASCITA, ed. Liceo scientifico "Leonardo da Vinci" di Firenze (Firenze: Giuntina, 1953). Guerrini 3523

The twelve essays examine a variety of topics including Leonardo's method, his erudition, and his knowledge of classical sources. M. Luzi examines the responses of Italian critics to his paintings; A. Heinselmann reviews his contributions to the physical sciences; and A. Procissi reviews his botanical research. Leonardo's reputation in England and Russia is considered by A. Minicucci and A. M. Crino respectively.


Introduced by Jean Alezard's survey of "Leonardo e France," the twenty-four essays in this collection focus on Leonardo's life, work, and influence in France. Included are technical notes on his paintings by Madelaine Hours and a study of his pictorial technique by Jean Rudel. Reymond Lebéque surveys the critical tradition of Italian artists and French writers and Antonia Vallentin discusses Leonardo's relationship with the Tuscan mannerists.

181.     ATTI DEL CONVEGNO DI STUDI VINCIANI (Firenze: Olschki, 1953). Guerrini 3429

Leonardo's art, education and writings, philosophy, and endeavors in the physical and biological sciences are examined from a variety of perspectives in this substantial volume's twenty-nine perceptive essays. For example, Fernanda Wittgens describes conservation efforts following damage to the Last Supper during World War II; A. E. Popham summarizes the history of the drawings at Windsor; Augusto Marinoni describes the principles that guided him in preparing his edition of Leonardo's writings; Giuseppe Saitta characterizes Leonardo's rejection of metaphysics as a life-affirming response to the flux he recognized in nature; Alberico Benedicenti summarizes medical knowledge at the time Leonardo began his investigations; A. Signorini concludes that Leonardo surpassed his predecessors and contemporaries in the systematic application of the experimental method; Leopold Infeld argues that Leonardo's empiricism, though based on a contempt for detached speculation, is still tied to Scholastic reasoning.

182.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, Documenti e memorie riguardanti Leonardo da Vinci a Bologna e in Emilia (Bologna: Fiammenghi, 1953). Guerrini 3455

Published in conjunction with a quinticentenary exhibition, the essays in this anthology examine all aspects of Leonardo's contact with Bologna, its environs, and its citizens. Pedretti discusses Leonardo's contact with the Bolognese poet Girolamo Casio, who wrote a sonnet on his St. Annealtarpiece, and Leonardo's possible contribution to an altarpiece commissioned by Casio's family from Leonardo's pupil, Giovanni Antonio Boltrafflo. Pedretti also discusses the response to Leonardo recorded by notable Emilian artists and writers (1516-1893) and the impetus given to Leonardo studies by various Bolognese citizens, notably the eighteenth-century governor of Parma, Giuseppe Antonio Rezzonico, who encouraged Oltrocchi's research (see No. 101). Leonardo's mechanical devices and their influence are reconsidered in relation to Libro di Machine. . . (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Ms. 5363), a recently discovered manuscript by Leonardo's contemporary, Benvenuto di Lorenzo della Golpaja.

183.      PLOCHMANN, George Kimball, ed., The Resources of Leonardo da Vinci. Papers delivered at Southern Illinois University November 12-15, 1952 (Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University, 1953). Guerrini 3576

This mimeographed anthology includes abstracts and texts of eighteen diverse lectures delivered in celebration of Leonardo's quinticentenary.

184.      LEONARDO: SAGGI E RICHERCHE, COMITATO NAZIONALE PER LE ONORANZE A LEONARDO DA VINCI (Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, 1954). Guerrini 3644

Representing the international scope of Leonardo scholarship, the twenty-three essays in this monumental volume celebrate the diversity of Leonardo's activities on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of his birth. Among others, Emmanuele Djalna Vitali reviews Leonardo's study of anatomy and physiology; Vasco Ronchi examines Leonardo's investigation of optics; the history of connoisseurship of Leonardo's drawings is reviewed by Cecil Gould; Ernst Gombrich provides an influential interpretation of Leonardo's grotesque heads; Wilhelm Suida offers an uncommonly positive view of Leonardo's artistic productivity by considering the activity of his shop; Maria Vittoria Brugnoli examines Leonardo's career as a sculptor.

185.      MARINONI, Augusto, I rebus di Leonardo da Vinci raccolte e interpretati (Firenze: Olschki, 1954) . Guerrini 211

The first essay, "Il mito di Leonardo,"  offers a balanced interpretation of Leonardo's character and accomplishments based upon documentary sources. In "Una virtù spiritual" Marinoni examines the poetic components of Leonardo's accomplishment, reflecting his affirmation of the essential unity of philosophy and painting. The essay concludes (pp. 97-120) with an extended response to Cesare Luporini, La mente de Leonardo da Vinci (No. 146). The final essay analyzes the verbal-visual puzzles to which Leonardo devoted considerable attention in his Notebooks.

186.     PEDRETTI, Carlo, Studi Vinciani (Geneva: Droz, 1957). Guerrini 3967

Originally published between 1950 and 1957, the twenty-five essays included in this anthology discuss such topics as Leonardo's engineering projects, the significance and history of the Mona Lisa, newly discovered drawings and manuscripts, and Leonardo's Trattato della pittura.

187.     BRION, Marcel, ed., Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Hachette, 1959). Guerrini 4077

This anthology includes eight essays which focus on questions relating to Leonardo's philosophy and character.

188.     FUMAGALLI, Giuseppina, Leonardo ieri e oggi (Pisa: NistriLischi, 1959). Guerrini 4092

Fumagalli's eight essays concern Leonardo's personality and philosophy, his relationship with the hermetic tradition, and his literary stature and relations with poets. Review articles are also included in this volume.

189.     CASTLEFRANCO, Giorgio, Studi Vinciani (Roma: De Luca, 1966). Guerrini 4510

This anthology of essays (published originally between 1937-55) includes Castlefranco's reviews of  various publications on Leonardo as well as original studies on such topics as Leonardo's aesthetics, landscapes, canal design and hydraulics, and geology.

190.      PHILIPSON, Morris, ed., Leonardo da Vinci: Aspects of the Renaissance Genius (New York: Braziller, 1966). Guerrini 4493

Arnold Hauser, Wilhelm Valentiner, Alexander Koyré, Giorgio de Santillana, Paul Valéry, and Roger Shattock are among the authors who contributed to this collection of thirteen essays which address questions regarding Leonardo's reputation and influence.

191.      O'MALLEY, C. D., ed., Leonardo's Legacy: An International Symposium (Berkeley: University of California, 1969). Guerrini 4635

The volume is comprised of papers delivered at a symposium celebrating the donation to the University of California of the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana. Discussing various aspects of Leonardo's accomplishments, the nine essays include Kenneth Clark on Leonardo's connection with classical art; Kenneth Keele on his studies of the mechanism of the senses; Ladislao Reti on technological innovations; Bern Dibner on Leonardo as a prophet of automation; Carlo Pedretti onBelt 35, an important apograph of the Trattato della Pittura; Ernst Gombrich on Leonardo's study of movement; and James Ackerman on the analogies between Leonardo's scientific and artistic endeavors.

~ 192.   RETI, Ladislao and Bern Dibner, Leonardo the Technologist (Norwalk, Conn.: Burndy Library, 1969).

The volume reprints articles by Reti on the Madrid Codices and on "The Problem of the Prime Movers,"  and Dibner's article, "Leonardo as the Prophet of Automation."

193.     RETI, Ladislao, ed., The Unknown Leonardo (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974).

Anna Maria Brizio's overview of Leonardo's artistic career is the first of eleven essays in this compendium. Augusto Marinoni discusses the history of the manuscripts as a prelude to his analysis of Leonardo as a writer. The Sforza monument is treated by Maria Vittoria Brugnoli. Other contributions include Emanuel Winternitz on "Leonardo and Music"; Ludwig Heydenreich on Leonardo as a military architect; Bern Dibner on Leonardo's designs for machines and weaponry; and Carlo Zammattio on Leonardo's analysis of the mechanics of water and stone. The Treatise onPainting is discussed by André Chastel; Leonardo's contributions to horology are the subject of an essay by Silvio Bedini and Ladislao Reti. Reti's discussion of Leonardo's mechanical theories is complemented by Marinoni's note on the design for a bicycle discovered in the Madrid Codices. Guerrini 4827 refers to the Italian edition.

194.     OST, Hans, Leonardo-studien (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1975).

The volume includes two essays. In the first, Ost examines the structure, sources, perspective devices, physiognomy, and iconography of Leonardo's unfinished St. Jerome in the Vatican Pinacoteca. Focusing on the Phaeton cameo in the Cadez collection, the second essay examines the iconography of this motif, its relationship with the Battle of Anghiari, and hypothesizes about the transmission of Leonardo's design to gem engravers and other artists, such as Moderno, who adopted the design on a plaquette.

195.     BARONI, Constantino et al., Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Reynal, 1980). Guerrini 5189

Publication of the first edition of this massive volume was planned to coincide with an elaborate exhibition that was disbanded because ofltaly's entry into World War II. In this updated, richly illustrated edition, Augusto Marinoni's essay on "Da Vinci's Philology" replaces (and corrects) the study by Luigi Sorrento in the 1939 edition. Marco Rosci's note on the Madrid Codices was added to the original thirty-nine essays in which authorities discuss each aspect of Leonardo's life and work. The Guzzetta Collection also possesses the original Italian edition (Novara: De Agostini [1939]) and editions in French (1958) and German (1960).

196.      BELLONE, Enrico and Paolo Rossi, eds., Leonardo e l'età della ragione (Milan: Scienta, 1982). Guerrini 5420

This stout volume contains eighteen essays analyzing various aspects of Leonardo's activity. They include Martin Kemp on Leonardo's late work and Cesare Vasoli on Leonardo and alchemy; Pietro Marani discusses Leonardo's military architecture; Ernst Gombrich examines the Trattato "to exemplify the method Leonardo adopted to overcome the limitations of the eye and to achieve what he calls 'the certainty of mathematical demonstrations' "; Kim Veltman discusses Leonardo's perspective studies; Aldo Scaglia examines Leonardo's relationship with his Sienese colleague Francesco di Giorgio; Donald Strong offers an interpretation of the Mona Lisa; and Clifford Truesdell examines Leonardo's mechanical studies in the Madrid Codices.

197.     LEONARDO E LE VIE D'ACQUA (Florence: Giunti Barbèra, 1983). Guerrini 5605

One of several volumes published in conjunction with the commemorative celebration, "Leonardo a Milano 1482-1982," this anthology includes five essays analyzing aspects of Leonardo's accomplishments as hydraulic engineer and cartographer. The volume includes a generous selection of reproductions.

198.     CARPICECI, Marco, Leonardo: La misura e il segno (Roma: Kappa, 1986). Guerrini 5979

The six essays on mensuration include studies of Leonardo's designs for an odometer and for compasses.

199.     LEONARDO DA VINCI: ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT, exhibition catalogue, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Montreal: Museum of Fine Arts, 1987). Guerrini 6057

Designed to accompany an exhibition celebrating Leonardo's technical accomplishments, the volume is comprised of an introduction by Carlo Pedretti and nine authoritative essays. In "Leonardo's Career as Technologist," Paolo Galuzzi surveys the artist's achievements as a designer of complex machines and simple technical devices, and discusses his relationship with contemporary engineers. Galuzzi emphasizes the biological analogue in considering the originality of Leonardo's methods in developing technical solutions to mechanical and architectural problems. Augusto Marinoni's essay on "Leonardo's Impossible Machines" analyzes Leonardo's most technologically ambitious and grandiose schemes. Examining the relationship between the human inventor and nature in "The Inventions of Nature and the Nature of Invention," Martin Kemp reviews Leonardo's discussion of the human machine and his application of the mechanical principles he discovered. Giustina Scalia's 'A Typology of Leonardo's Mechanisms and Machines" demonstrates that Leonardo's "exploded" views improved upon the schematic pictures introduced during the first half of the quattrocento by enabling craftsmen to understand the interplay of the parts. Scaglia also provides a machine-type index to Leonardo's manuscripts (pp. 153-61). Salvatore Di Pasquale, "Leonardo, Brunelleschi and the Machinery of the Construction Site," considers Leonardo's relationship with his contemporaries. In "The Problem of Leonardo's Architecture in the Context of His Scientific Theories," André Chastel demonstrates a consistent dualism in Leonardo's approach to his work as a theoretician and as a practical engineer. Jean Guillaume, "Leonardo and Architecture," examines Leonardo's role in the history of Italian and French architecture; Luigi Firpo analyzes the creative process underlying Leonardo's approach to urban planing. The connection between Leonardo's military architecture and his research in other fields is the subject of Pietro Mariani's "Leonardo, Fortified Architecture and Its Structural Problems."

200.     HEYDENREICH, Ludwig H., Leonardo-studien (Munich: Prestel, 1988). Guerrini 6144

Originally published between 1931-77, the sixteen essays in this collection include Heydenreich's studies of Leonardo's Virgin and St. Anne; his Salvator Mundi and copies which reveal the composition of this lost painting; and the unrealized Trivulzio monument. An important leitmotif in the essays is the relationship in Leonardo's work between art and science.


The acquisition of any knowledge whatsoever is always useful to the intellect, because it will be able to banish the useless things and retain those which are good. For nothing can be either loved or hated unless it is first known.

Codex Atlanticus 226 y

201.      DOZIO, Giovanni, Degli scritti e disegni di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Agnelli, 1871). Verga 663; Guerrini 561

Focusing on the manuscripts that relate to the Trattato della Pittura in the Ambrosiana, Milan, Dozio provides a history of Leonardo's manuscripts with reference to later copies and compilations.

202.      LOMBARDI, Eliodoro, Due precetti di Lionardo di Vinci (Verona: Minerva, 1878). Verga 744; Guerrini 617

Lombardi offers a detailed examination of two passages from the Trattato della Pittura - chapters 8 and 25 (McMahon [No. 52], chapters 73 and 77) - as the keys to Leonardo's artistic principles.

203.      BELTRAMI, Luca, Una corsa attraverso il Codice Atlantico, from La lettura (June, 1904). Verga 1499

Beltrami describes the fabrication of the Codex Atlanticus by Pompeo Leoni.

204.      MORANDI, Luigi, Lorenzo il Magnifico, Leonardo da Vinci e la prima grammatica italiana (Città di Castello: Lapi, 1908). Verga 1778; Guerrini 1244

As part of the trend that saw Leonardo as fundamentally a precursor, Morandi argues that the vocabulary lists and other verbal exercises in the Notebooks mark tentative efforts to formulate a dictionary and the first Italian grammar.

205.      CALVI, Gerolamo, Introduzione al Codice di Leonardo da Vinci della Biblioteca di Lord Leicester in Holkham Hall. . . (Milan: Cogliati, 1909). Verga, 68; Guerrini 1280.

The Guzzetta Collection has only Calvi's introduction and lacks the folio volume with facsimiles of the thirty-six manuscript sheets which he dates to about 1506-08. Calvi describes the provenance and content which is primarily concerned with the motion of water and the influence of the sun and moon on tidal activity. (Acquired in 1980 by Armand Hammer, the manuscript was transferred to the Armand Hammer Foundation, Los Angeles, and renamed the Codex Hammer; see No. 241.)

206.      MORANDI, Luigi, "Per Leonardo da Vinci e par la Grammatica di Lorenzo de'Medici," Nuovo antologia 10 (1909), pp. 429-49. Verga 1867; Guerrini 1299

Summarizes arguments in No. 204.

207.      SOLMI, Edmondo, "Niccolò Perotti, Luigi Pulci e gli studi autodidattici di Leonardo da Vinci sulla lingua latina ed italiana," Rivista d'Italia 13 (March, 1910), pp. 390-447. Verga 1966; Guerrini 1343

Refutes the opinions of Morandi (No. 204) by demonstrating that word lists in the CodicesAtlanticus and Trivuizianus reflect texts by Perotti and Pulci that Leonardo used for teaching himself Latin and expanding his Italian vocabulary. On this issue, see Marinoni, No. 224.

208.      SOLMI, Edmondo, "Nuovi contributi alle fonte dei manoscritti di Leonardo da Vinci," Giornale storico della letturatura Italiana 58 (1911), pp. 297-357. Verga 2052; Guerrini 1396

209.      BELTRAMI, Luca, La "Destra Mana" di Leonardo da Vinci e le lacune nella edizione del Codice Atlantico(Milan: Alfieri and Lacroix [1919]). Verga 2408; Guerrini 1628

In this important critique of the Edizione nationale publication of the Codex Atlanticus, Beltrami demonstrates that Leonardo was ambidextrous. The editors of the facsimile edition were therefore mistaken in deleting Leonardo's letter to Ludovico il Moro and other significant texts which are in fact autograph.

210.      POLIFILO [Beltrami, Luca], "Le vicende dei manoscritti di Leonardo e l'attesa edizione nationale,"Emporium 49 (February, 1919), pp. 59-74. Verga 2413; Guerrini 1767

Barbed critique of the facsimile editions of Leonardo's manuscripts published by the Reale Commissione.

211.      FAVARO, Antonio, "Passato, presente e avvenire delle edizioni vinciane," Raccolta Vinciana 10(1919), pp. 165-218. Verga 2488, Guerrini 1730

212.     GRAMATICA, Luigi, Le Memorie su Leonardo da Vinci di Don Ambrogio Mazenta (Milan: Alfieri & Lacroix, 1919). Verga 2475; Guerrini 1710

Mazenta's Memorie was written about 1635 for his friend Cassiano del Pozzo, who was actively gathering materials in preparation for the publication of Leonardo's Treatise on Painting. TheMemorie describes the dispersal of Leonardo's manuscripts that began about 1588. Gramatica provides a detailed introduction to the document, of which there are three copies. Gramatica determines that the copies in Codex H 228 (Milan, Ambrosiana) and in the Béhague collection, Paris (which was used for the 1651 edition of the Trattato [No. 29]), are del Pozzo's copies. Gramatica reproduces Mazenta's autograph version in Codex H 227 inf. (Milan, Ambrosiana) with elaborate notes that enhance the commentary of Govi (see No. 170), who published the Béhague version. For an English translation of the memorandum, see Payne (No. 157), pp. 311-317.

213.      PIERANTONI, Amalia Clelia, Studi sul Libro della Pittura di Leonardo da Vinci (Rome: Scotti, 1921). Verga 2589; Guerrini 1840

Pierantoni offers a history of Leonardo's Treatise on Painting, comparing the published editions and tracing published texts to their manuscript sources. In her discussion of the apographs and the appearance of Leonardesque statements in various manuscripts, she notes in particular the late seventeenth-century Codex Corsini 402 (Rome, Accademia dei Lincei; Steinitz [No. 474], B, 5), especially folios 90r-94r on human proportions, which she publishes in the appendix with the dialogue Gl'Hippocentauri, o'vero La Novità mostruosa della Pittura, Scuoltura, et ArchitetturaModerna (ff. 81r-90v) with its interesting quotations from classical authors.

214.      CALVI, Girolamo, I rnanoscritti di Leonardo da Vinci dal punto di vista cronologico storico e bio graphico(Bologna: Zanichelli, 1925). Verga 2709; Guerrini 1932

Although he recognizes the value of topical arrangements such as Richter's (No. 27), Calvi asserts that reestablishing the chronological order of Leonardo's notes provides insight into the progress of specific projects as well as the evolution of his thoughts. With dated sheets as an anchor, Calvi makes meticulous use of internal and epigraphical evidence to reorder the dismembered and fragmentary documents.

215.      GIACOMELLI, Raffaele, "Il volo degli uccelli in due recenti pubblicazioni vinciane," Rivista aeronautica 3 (June, 1927). Verga 2782; Guerrini 2021

Reviews recently published editions of Codex Arundel 263 (No. 10) and the Codex on the Flight of Birds (No. 26).

216.      DE TONI, Nando, Frarnrnenti Vinciani I: Saggio di onornastica Vinciana (Milan: Allegretti, 1934; from Raccolta Vinciana 14 [1930-34]). Guerrini 127

217.      DE TONI, Nando, Frarnrnenti Vinciani II: Repertorio dei passi leonardeschi ai quali attinse frate Luigi Maria Arconati per la compilazione del trattato 'Del Moto e Misura dell'acqua' (Brescia: Morcelliana, 1934). Guerrini 259, 4422

Examines Arconati's use of Leonardo's manuscripts in composing his treatise (No. 17) and provides a concordance to the manuscript sources.

218.      DE TONI, Nando, Frammenti Vinciani III: L'idraulica in Leonardo da Vinci (Brescia: Morcelliana, 1934). Guerrini 131

Includes a concordance for Arconati's Del Moto e Misura dell'acqua (No. 17) and Leonardo's manuscripts in the Institute de France (see No. 2).

219.     UCCELLI, Arturo, "Vicende e metodi delle ricostruzioni vinciane," Politechnica 55 (1937), pp. 327-46. Guerrini 2315

Critical review of the methods employed in studying and reconstructing Leonardo's manuscripts for publication.

220.      GALBIATI, Giovanni, Dizionario Leonardesco repertorio generale delle voci e cosi contenute nel Codice Atlantico (Milan: Hoepli, 1939). Guerrini 151

Fulfilling the plans of Luca Beltrami, this volume provides indices to the Hoepli edition of the Codex Atlanticus published by the Accademia dei Lincei, Rome (No. 5).

221.      MARCOLONGO, Roberto, Indici per materia ed alfabetico del Codici Atlantico di Leonardo da Vinci(Milan: Hoepli, 1939). Guerrini 153

Using material gathered by Guido Semenza, Marcolongo provides a subject index keyed to the Hoepli edition of the Codex Atlanticus (No. 5).

222.      BUSCAPÉ, Giacomo, "La scrittura di Leonardo: noterello paleografiche,"  Raccolta Vinciana 17-18 (1940-42), pp. 129-49. Guerrini 3719

Examines Leonardo's handwriting.

223.      PANOFSKY, Erwin, The Codex Huygens and Leonardo da Vinci's Theory of Art (London: Warburg Institute, 1940). Guerrini 2550

Considered to be the work of Leonardo when it was acquired in 1690 by Constantine Huygens, secretary to King William III of England, this 128-page illustrated manuscript (Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, M.A. 1139) is now considered to be the mid sixteenth-century work by a Lombard artist, who had access to Leonardo's writings. Representing the first five books of a larger, projected treatise on the theory of art, "Le Regole del Disegno," the Morgan manuscript deals with proportion and perspective "in a very uneven and somewhat confused form" (p. 16). In addition to summarizing the history of the Codex, Panofsky offers a detailed analysis of the text, discusses its relationship to Leonardo's writings and contemporary art theory, and proposes Aurelio Luini (1530-1593) as its author. On this Codex, see also Pedretti, Commentary (No. 238), I, pp. 48-75, where Girolamo Figino, a miniature painter who studied with Francesco Melzi, is proposed as the author. More recently, the history of the authorship controversy is reviewed by Sergio Marinelli, who adduces new documentary evidence identifying Carlo Urbino (active 1553-1585) as the author ("The Author of the Codex Huygens," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes44 [1981], pp. 214-20).

224.      MARINONI, Augusto, Gli appunti grammaticali e lessicali di Leonardo da Vinci, 2 vols. (Milan: Istituto nationale di studi sul rinascimento, sezione Lombarda, 1944-52). Guerrini 2530

These two dense volumes offer a detailed analysis of Leonardo's activities as a linguist. Marinoni discusses the formation of Leonardo's literary style, his different modes of expression, and his relationship with classical and medieval authors. Refuting earlier theories regarding Leonardo's philological activities, Marinoni traces the sources of Leonardo's word lists in the enigmatic CodexTrivulzianus and demonstrates that he was not working towards the creation of the first vernacular grammar or dictionary; rather, he was enriching his expressive capabilities through the adoption of "Latinisms" to expand his technical vocabulary. Marinoni's complex analysis is summarized in his essay "Da Vinci's Philology" in Baroni et al. (No. 195), pp. 215-226. For an English translation of the Codex Trivulzianus, see No. 236.

225.     FAVARO, Giuseppe, Alberto Magno ed Alberto di Sassonia nei manoscritti di Leonardo (Modena: Soliani, 1943, from Atti e Memorie delle Reale Accademia di scienze, lettere ed arti di Modena [1943]). Guerrini 2598

226.     RICHTER, Irma, trans. and intro., Paragone. A Comparison of the Arts by Leonardo da Vinci (London: Oxford University Press, 1949). Guerrini 175

The compilers of the Codex Urbinas Latinus followed humanist conventions by introducing Leonardo's precepts with his comments on the virtues of painting and its status relative to its sister arts of sculpture, poetry, and music. Common at the court of Ludovico Sforza and other centers of of the new learning, such rhetorical exercises became quite popular among sixteenth-century humanists. In addition to providing an English translation, Richter analyzes Leonardo's ideas and places this portion of the Trattato in its historical and philosophical context.

227.      FERRERO, Nino, "Leonardo da Vinci: Of the Eye. An original new translation from Codex D," American Journal of Ophthalmology 35 (April, 1952), pp. 507-21. Guerrini 188, 1343.

228.     PEDRETTI, Carlo, Un apografo del "Trattato della Pittura" di Leonardo da Vinci conservato nella Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio di Bologna (Bologna: ASCA, 1953).

A study of the seventeenth-century apograph of Leonardo's Trattato preserved in Bologna.

229.      STEINITZ, Kate Trauman, "Poussin, Illustrator of Leonardo da Vinci and the Problem of Replicas in Poussin's Studio," Art Quarterly 16 (Spring, 1953), pp. 40-55. Guerrini 3567

Discusses Poussin's illustrations for the first edition of the Trattato, the production of illustrated apographs, and attempts to determine which manuscript has Poussin's original drawings.

~ 230.   PEDRETTI, Carlo, Leonardo da Vinci: Fragments at Windsor Castle from the Codex Atlanticus (London: Phaidon, 1957). Guerrini 227

Having acquired several manuscripts from the Mazenta brothers and an unspecified mass of material from the Melzi family, Pompeo Leoni attempted to order his collection. He seems to have kept bound Notebooks intact, but was more ruthless in his treatment of loose folios, cutting pages to mount the scientific notes in the Codex Atlanticus and the anatomical drawings and those of purely artistic interest in the volume now in the British royal collection. In a fascinating demonstration of scholarly detective work, Pedretti describes Leoni's procedure, demonstrates that fifty-five drawings at Windsor were cut from the Codex Atlanticus, and illustrates reconstructions of the plundered pages. Among other benefits, tracing the fragments to their "parent sheets" provides clues to a more precise dating of the manuscripts.

231.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Un nuovo apografo del Trattato della Pittura di Leonardo da Vinci," Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 21 (1959), pp. 446-50.

232.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Note sulla cronologia del Trattato della Pittura," L'Arte n.s. 18 (January-June, 1959), pp. 25-39; n.s. 19 (January-June, 1960), pp. 16-89. Guerrini 4105, 4175

Determines that the notes combined in the Trattato date from three distinct periods: 1492, 1505-13, and 1513-15.

233.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, 'Allegorie nel Ms. H. Un frammento inedito di lettera al rovescio di un disegno di Leonardo," Raccolta Vinciana 18 (1960), pp. 163-65. Guerrini 4121

Interprets three allegories found on Ms. H, fol. 142v.

234.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Spigolature nel Codice Atlantico," Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 22 (1960), pp. 526-48.

Includes twenty brief notes addressing problems of dating and composition in the Codex Atlanticus.

235.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Copies of Leonardo's lost writings in the Ms. H227 inf. of the Ambrosiana Library, Milan," Raccolta Vincicina 19 (1962), pp. 61-94. Guerrini 248, 4268

Discusses the first anthology of Leonardo's writings made by Padre Antonio Gallo using manuscripts in the collection of Galeazzo Arconati. Provides a concordance of passages on light and shade missing from Ms. A.

236.     STITES, Raymond S., The Sublimations of Leonardo da Vinci with a Translation of the Codex Trivulzianus(Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1970). Guerrini 4684

Stites offers a translation of the Codex Trivulzianus. Employing word-association techniques popular among psychologists, Stites suggests that the juxtapositions in Leonardo's word lists possess a subliminal significance and uses them as a springboard for his analysis of Leonardo's character.

237.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, Leonardo da Vinci On Painting, A Lost Book (Libro A) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964). Guerrini 254

Of the eighteen manuscripts Francesco Melzi used in compiling the Codex Urbinas Latinas, only seven and a fragment are known today: Codex Trivulzianus (ca. 1487-90), Windsor l2,604 (a page from a lost Ms., ca. 1487-90); Ms. A and Codex Ashburnham (which were once joined; ca. 1492);Ms. L (ca. 1497-1502); Ms. F (1508); Ms. E (Libro B; 1513-14); Ms. G (1510-15); and CodexMadrid II(1504-05). In the present volume, Pedretti attempts to reconstruct the lost Libro A, which he determines to be the source of 107 passages in the Trattato.

~ 238.   PEDRETTI, Carlo, The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci: A Commentary to Jean Paul Richter's Edition, 2 vols. (Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977).

As significant as Richter's original achievement (see No. 27), Pedretti's extensive and detailed annotations offer new insights into Leonardo's sources and the significance of his writings. In addition, the book includes new information regarding the history of the Notebooks and their influence on such later theorists as Matteo Zaccolini.

239.     PEDRETTI, Carlo, The Codex Atlanticus of Leonardo da Vinci: A Catalogue of Its Newly Restored Sheets, 2 vols. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978). Guerrini 294

In his Introduction, Pedretti explains that Pompeo Leoni's practice of dismembering Leonardo's Notebooks and mounting up to ten folios or fragments on elephantine sheets secured their preservation but disrupted the original order which is essential for a contextual understanding of the manuscript. Furthermore, even though Leoni cut windows to reveal the recto and verso of doublesided manuscripts, edges which might contain clues to the original context remain masked where sheets are affixed to the support. According to Pedretti, these "lost" details were inadequately documented during conservation and Marinoni's edition (No. 16) fails to address contextual issues properly. Pedretti proposes reconstructions of fragmented pages and a reordering according to chronological sequence.

240.      STRONG, Donald Sanderson, Leonardo on the Eye. An English Translation and Critical Commentary onMs. D in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, with Studies on Leonardo' s Methodology and Theories on Optics(New York: Garland, 1979). Guerrini 5128

Strong offers a detailed analysis of Leonardo's optical theories, stressing their relationship with his pictorial theories.

241.     CODEX HAMMER FORMERLY THE CODEX LEICESTER, Jane Roberts, ed., exhibition catalogue. Royal Academy of Arts (Los Angeles: Armand Hammer Foundation, 1981). Guerrini 312

Roberts provides a brief insightful introduction that describes the significance of the Codex within the corpus of Leonardo's work. Reproductions of each page of the Codex are accompanied by entries summarizing its contents.

242.      FARAGO, Claire J., Leonardo da Vinci's "Paragone." A Critical Interpretation with a New Edition of the Text in the "Codex Urbinas" (Leiden: Brill, 1992).

Farago offers a detailed and fascinating analysis of Leonardo's "Paragone," the formal comparison of the arts that introduces the Trattato della Pittura. Farago also emends the work of Irma Richter (No. 226) with a new English translation enriched by extensive and wide-ranging commentary.



Physical Sciences, Engineering, Geography, and Mathematics

There is no certainty in sciences where one of the mathematical sciences cannot be applied, or which are not in relation with these mathematics.

   Ms. G, 95

Instrumental or mechanical science is the most noble and useful beyond all others, since by means of it all animate bodies that have motion perform their operations; and these motions have their origin at the center of their gravity, which is placed in the middle of unequal weights at its sides, and has scarcity or abundance of muscles, and also the lever and the counter-lever.

  Codex on the Flight of Birds, 3r

These are the marvels of mechanical invention.

  Madrid Codex I, 57r

243. HENRY, Major Richard, Memoir on a Mappemonde by Leonardo da Vinci, being the earliest Map hitherto known contaming the name America (London: Nichols, 1865). Verga 617 (incorrectly dated 1866)

Referring to a world map among Leonardo's papers at Windsor, Henry argues that the sheet dates from about 1514 and is the earliest map naming the New World as America. He supports his argument by citing Leonardo's association with Piero Soderini and through him with Amerigo Vespucci. For more on this sheet see Clark and Pedretti, Leonardo da Vinci Drawings in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen at Windsor Castle (No. 426), I, p. 188, cat. no. 01393.

~ 244. LOMBARDINI, Elia, Dell'origine e del progresso della scienza idraulica nel milanese e in altre parti d'Italia (Milan: Saldini, 1872). Verga 671; Guerrini 567

The author is concerned with Leonardo's canal projects in Lombardy. Also, basing his argument primarily on texts in the Codex Atlanticus and the compilation Trattato del moto e misura dell'acqua (see No. 17), Lombardini concludes that Leonardo is the founder of the science of hydraulics.

245. CIALDI, Alessandro, "Leonardo da Vinci fondatore della dottrina sul moto ondoso del mare," Rivista marittima 6 (1873), pp. 317-31. Verga 679; Guerrini 584

246. GUARDASONI, Alessandro, Della pittura, della stereoscopia, e di alcuni precetti di Leonardo da Vinci (Bologna: Azzoguido, 1880). Verga 776; Guerrini 635

Citing the Trattato for support, Guardasoni attempts to prove that Leonardo's prescient inventions included the stereoscope and that he used such an instrument to help create the effect of aerial perspective in his paintings.

247. PADELLETTI, Dino, Le opere scientifiche di Leonardo da Vinci (Naples: Accademia Reale della Scienze, 1885). Verga 897; Guerrini 696

Surveys some of Leonardo's scientific endeavors, but adds little new information.

248. UZIELLI, Gustavo, Leonardo e le alpi (Turin: Candeletti, 1890; from Bolletino del Club alpino italiano 23 [1889], pp. 81-156). Verga 1036; Guerrini 740

Examines Leonardo's involvement with questions of topography, cartography, and measurement related to his travels in the Alps (near Saluzzo) in 1506 and 1509-10.

249. FAVARO, Antonio, "Nuovo richerche sul matematico Leonardo Cremonese," Biblioteca mathematica 5 (January, 1905), pp. 326- 41. Verga 1569

Identifies the individual mentioned in Codex Atlanticus 247v as the Cremonese mathematician Leonardo di Antonii.

250. FAVARO, Antonio, "Archimede e Leonardo da Vinci" (Venice: Ferrari, 1912, from Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, lettere ed arte 71 [1911-12], pp. 953-75). Verga 2079; Guerrini 1405

Concerns Leonardo's efforts to solve the ancient problem of squaring the circle.

251. FAVARO, Antonio, Léonard de Vinci a't-il exercé une influence sur Galilée et son école? (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1916, a French translation of the article published in Scientia 20 [December, 1916], pp. 417-34; Verga 2327). Guerrini 1565

252. FAVARO, Antonio, La place de Léonard da Vinci dans l'historie des sciences (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1919, from Scientia 26 [1919], pp. 137-49). Verga 2445; Guerrini 1714

253. LORENZO, Giuseppe de, Leonardo de Vinci e la geologia (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1920). Verga 2537; Guerrini 1797

The author considers Leonardo as a precursor of modern geology and, in the light of his hydrographic and geological inquiries, examines Leonardo's view of the deluge.

~ 254. FELDHAUS, Franz M., Leonardo der Techniker und Erfinder (Jena: Diederichs, 1922). Verga 2606; Guerrini 1852

First published in 1913 (Verga 2145), this comprehensive volume focuses on Leonardo's work as a practical engineer, especially the techniques, methods, and devices he employed. Feldhaus illustrates designs for machines and discusses their mechanisms in terms relating to modern technology.

255. FAVARO, Giuseppe, Leonardo da Vinci: I medici e la medicina (Rome: Istituto di Studi Vinciani in Roma, 1923). Verga 2647; Guerrini 1877

Leonardo's relationships with various physicians are examined and his ideas concerning such phenomena as illness, aging, and the effects of diet are compared with ideas then prevalent among the medical community.

256. HART, Ivor B., The Mechanical Investigations of Leonardo da Vinci (London: Chapman, 1925). Verga 2717; Guerrini 1934

Focusing on Leonardo's work in the physical sciences, Hart examines the state of contemporary knowledge and Leonardo's sources. The core of the book is an analysis of Leonardo's study of dynamics and statics. Hart also considers Leonardo as a pioneer in the field of aviation and includes a translation of the Codex on the Flight of Birds (Turin, Royal Library; see Nos. 11, 13) of about 1505.

257. GIACOMELLI, Raffaele, La forma di migliore penetrazione secondo Leonardo da Vinci (Pisa: Mariotti, 1926, from Atti della Iº settimana aerotechnica, Rome, 23-29 November, 1925). Verga 2745; Guerrini 1959

Studies Leonardo's concept of aerodynamics and its relationship with modern dirigible designs.

258. BILANCIONI, Guglielmo, "Le leggi del volo regli uccelli secondo Leonardo" (Pisa: Pacini, 1927; from L'Aerotecnia 17 [19271). Verga 2774; Guerrini 2003

259. MARCOLONGO, Roberto, Il trattato di Leonardo da Vinci sulle trasformazioni dei solidi (Naples: Stabilimento Industrie Editoriah Meridionali, 1934). Guerrini 2232

Marcolongo offers a detailed study of Codex Forster I, analyzing Leonardo's contribution to the mathematical problem of transforming geometric figures from one form to another of equivalent volume. The second section deals with the sketches for hydraulic machines.

260. UCCELLI, Arturo, "Ricostruzione della meccanica Vinciana necessità e discussione del metodo," Raccolta Vinciana 15-16 (1934-39), pp. 23-66. Guerrini 2224

261. DE TONI, Nando, Frammenti Vinciani IV-IX: L'idraulica in Leonardo da Vinci (Brescia: Morcelliana, 1935). Guerrini 133-138

Studies on hydraulics in Mss. B-M in the Institute de France, Paris.

262. UCCELLI, Arturo, "Preludio alla resurrezione di Leonardo," Politechnico 54 (1936). Guerrini 2273

On flight and hydraulic engineering.

263. MARCOLONGO, Roberto, Memorie sulla geometria e la meccanica di Leonardo da Vinci (Naples: S.I.E.M., 1937). Guerrini 2304

These studies commence with a general appraisal of the amalgamation of art and science in Leonardo's work. His studies of geometry, statics, and dynamics are followed by an analysis of the transformation of solids in Ms. Forster I (London, Victoria and Albert Museum), a treatise dating from 1505 (with portions also dating from ca. 1489).

264. ARREDI, Filippo, "Gli studi di Leonardo da Vinci sul moto delle acqua" (1939?).

265. CANESTRINI, Giovanni, "Attrito e trazione nella meccanica di Leonardo," from Annali dei Layon Pubblici 39 (1939).

266. CANESTRINI, Giovanni, Leonardo construttore di macchine e di veicoli (Milano: Tumminelli, 1939). Guerrini 2460

The author uses models and schematic drawings to elucidate the mechanics of Leonardo's designs for machines and vehicles.

267. GIACOMELLI, Raffaele, "Macchine volanti e strumenti meteorologici e di volo in Leonardo da Vinci," Annali dei Lavori Pubblici 17 (1939), pp. 569-78. Guerrini 2501

268. ZAMMATTIO, Carlo, "Leonardo da Vinci e l'idraulica del rinascimento," Annali dei Lavori Pubblici 17 (1939), pp. 3-12.

269. ARREDI, Filippo, "Le origini dell'idrostatica," L'Acqua 20(1943).

270.     MIELE, Aldo, Leonardo da Vinci (Buenos Aires: Espana-Calpe, 1950). Guerrini 1685

Leonardo's scientific achievements are the subject of this survey.

271. NATUCCI, Alpinolo, "Leonardo geometria," Archimede 4 (July- October 1952), pp. 209-13. Guerrini 3196

272. RETI, Ladislao, "Le arti chimiche di Leonardo da Vinci," La chimica e l'industria 11 (1952), pp. 655-66; 12 (1952), pp. 721-42. Guerrini 2889, 2890

Examines Leonardo's understanding of distillation, discovery of acetone, and principles of combustion and its use for industrial processes. Includes an index of drugs, chemicals, and minerals mentioned in Leonardo's manuscripts.

273. RETI, Ladislao, "Leonardo da Vinci's Experiments on Combustion,"Journal of Chemical Education 29 (December, 1952). Guerrini 3153

Reti suggests that Leonardo discovered the necessity of air for combustion. The experimental proof, described in the Codex Atlanticus 237va and 270va, echoes an experiment described by Philo of Byzantium in his Pneumatica (ca. 250 A.D.), a book that Leonardo evidently owned (see Reti, The Library of Leonardo da Vinci [No. 476], cat. no. 106).

274. MOSTRA DELLA SCIENZA E TECNICA DI LEONARDO DA VINCI (Milan: Museo Nazionale della scienza e della tecnica, 1953)

In conjunction with this major exhibition, the museum published a series of booklets examining specific aspects of Leonardo's life and his work as a scientist and engineer:

  1. Titina Strano, Leonardo da Vinci: La Vita (Guerrini 3497)
  2. Ignazio Calvi, L'ingegneria militare di Leonardo (Guerrini 3471)
  3. Carlo Zammattio, La visione scientifica di Leonardo da Vinci (Guerrini 3595)
  4. Luigi Tursini, Le armi di Leonardo da Vinci (Guerrini 3425)
  5. Alessandro Bazardi, La Botanica nel pensiero di Leonardo (Guerrini 3436)
  6. Agostino Gianotti, Geografia e geologia negli scritti di Leonardo da Vinci (Guerrini 3463)
  7. Giovanni Strobino, Leonardo da Vinci e la meccanica tessile
  8. Mario Senaldi, L'anatomia e la fisiologia di Leonardo da Vinci (Guerrini 3415)
  9. Renzo Cianchi, Leonardo e la sua famiglia
  10. G. U. Arata, Leonardo architetto e urbanista (Guerrini 3487)

275. SCIENZA E TECNICA DI LEONARDO: ARTIGLIERIA- GENIO -    MARINA -AERONAUTICA (Rome: Aeronautica Militare [1953]). Guerrini 3580

Leonardo's drawings are juxtaposed with pictures of recently constructed models. The illustrations are accompanied by brief texts in this guide for the Museo della scienza e della tecnica, Milan.

276. PEDRETTI, Carlo, "La macchina idraulica costruita da Leonardo per conto di Bernardo Rucellai e i primi contatori d'acqua," Raccoite Vinciana 17 (1954), pp. 177-215. Guerrini 3676.

277. DUHEM, Pierre, Études sur Léonard de Vinci, 3 vols. (Paris: Nobele, 1955). Guerrini 3764

First published between 1906-13, the studies in these three stout volumes constitute a monument in the development of the history of science. Duhem offers a detailed examination of classical and medieval sources he maintains underlie Leonardo's scientific endeavors. The third volume focuses on the Parisian school.

278. ZUBOV, V. P., ed., Izbrannye estestvenno navčnye proizvedenija Leonardo da Vinči (Moscow: Izdatel′stvo Akademkji Nauk SSR, 1955). Guerrini 213

A study and reconstruction of Leonardo's books on mechanics (in Russian).

279. RETI, Ladislao, "Leonardo da Vinci nella storia della macchina a vapore," Rivista di Ingegneria (January, 1956). Guerrini 3856

Leonardo's pneumatic experiments as they relate to the development of steam power.

280. PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Un inedito di Leonardo a Oxford," L'Arte 57 (July-September, 1958), pp. 3-5. Guerrini 3996

Illustrates and discusses a previously unpublished mechanical device on the verso of a Madonna study at Oxford.

281. HART, Ivor B., The World of Leonardo da Vinci (London: Macdonald, 1961). Guerrini 4250

An examination of the late quattrocento political, intellectual, and technological environment precedes Hart's analysis of Leonardo's work in the physical sciences. Addressing the vexed question of Leonardo's influence, Hart considers Leonardo's study of mechanics and his accomplishments as an engineer.

282. COOPER, Margaret, The Inventions of Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Macmillan, 1965). Guerrini 4446

Celebrating Leonardo's exceptional ingenuity, the author illustrates and describes Leonardo's mechanical devices and other "inventions," focusing on those that foreshadow modern developments.

283. ZUBOV, V. P., Leonardo da Vinci, trans. David H. Kraus (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1968). Guerrini 4587

An historian of science, Zubov analyzes Leonardo's philosophical ideals and his scientific theory, focusing on his experimental method and practice of verifying by analogy. Zubov also examines Leonardo's theories of perception, work in theoretical and applied mechanics, geology, and time. The Guzzetta Collection also includes the original Russian edition (Moscow: Akademija Nauk SSR, 1961; Guerrini 4229).

284. MACAGNO, Enzo, "Hidrostatica vinciana en el Códice Hammer,"Anales de la Universidad de Chile 8(1985), pp. 71-96. Guerrini 5894

Analyzes Leonardo's research on the properties of fluids in the Codex Hammer (see No. 241), a manuscript dating from ca. 1504-1506.

285. MACAGNO, Enzo, Leonardian Fluid Mechanics, Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, vols. 100-111 (Iowa City: University of Iowa, 1986-89). Guerrini 5440, 5978, 6127-30, 6185-87

Macagno has extracted and analyzed Leonardo's comments and experiments relating to the physical behavior of fluids: Vols. 100, 105,107, 110(Codex Atlanticus); vol. 101 (Codex Hammer); vol. 102 (Codices Forster); vol. 103 (Ms. H); vol. 104 (Ms. C); vol. 106 (Codex Arundel 263); vol. 108 (Ms. L); vol. 109 (Ms. M); vol. 111 (Ms. I).

286. MACAGNO, Enzo, "Multichannel Tabulation of the Notes on the Flow in the French Manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci," Raccolta Vinciana 22 (1988), pp. 213-29. Guerrini 6072

Analyzes Leonardo's studies of the physical behavior of fluids, focusing on Ms. A (Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France), a Notebook dated 1492.

Anatomy, Botany, and Biology

And you, who say that it would be better to watch an anatomist at work than to see these drawings, you would be right if it were possible to observe all the things which are demonstrated in such drawings in a single figure, in which you, with all your cleverness, will not see nor obtain knowledge of more than some few veins, to obtain a true and more perfect knowledge of which I have dissected more than ten human beings, destroying all the other members, and removing the very minutest partides of the flesh by which these veins are surrounded, without causing them to bleed, excepting the insensible bleeding of the capillary veins; and as one single body would not last so long, since it was necessary to proceed with several bodies by degrees, until I came to an end and had a complete knowledge; this I repeated twice, to learn the differences.

    Windsor Anatomy IV, 167a

Though human ingenuity may make various inventions which, by the help of various machines answering the same end, it will never devise any inventions more beautiful, nor more simple, nor more to the purpose than Nature does; because in her inventions nothing is wanting, and nothing is superfluous. . .

Windsor Anatomy IV, 184a

287. PEDAVILLA, Aurelio, L'eclettismo e la notomia di Leonardo (Castrocaro: Barboni, 1899, from Rassagna Moderna). Verga 1309; Guerrini 887

288. HOLL, Moriz, Ein Biologe aus der Wende des XV Jahrhunderts. Leonardo da Vinci (Graz: Leuschner, 1905). Verga 1577; Guerrini 1067

Reviewing Leonardo's work as an anatomist, Holl suggests that the order of Leonardo's studies and structure of his proposed treatise - beginning with embryology, encompassing the anatomy of and physiology of children and adults, and concluding with psychology and physiognomy- foreshadows modern practice.

289. BOTTAZZI, Filippo, "Leonardo da Vinci naturalista," Rivista d'Italia 10 (December, 1907), pp. 1048-076. Verga 1663; Guerrini 1188

290. BIASIOLI, Umberto, Le conoscenza anatomiche di Leonardo da Vinci (Milano: Bracciforti [1913]). Verga 2126; Guerrini 1454

The text of a lecture delivered at the Scuola per l'arte dell Orafo, this essay surveys Leonardo's anatomical studies. Biasioli emphasizes Leonardo's originality in aligning scientific and artistic purposes.

291. FAVARO, Giuseppe, "La struttura del cuore nel quatro quaderno d'anatomia," Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arte 74 (1914-15), pp. 895-99. Verga 2228; Guerrini 1528

292.     FAVARO, Giuseppe, "Leonardo e l'embriologia degli uccelli," Raccolta Vinciana 10 (1919), pp. 141-51. Guerrini 1697

293. LESCA, Giuseppe, "Per Leonardo anatomista," Emporium 49 (March, 1919), pp. 115-28. Verga 2470; Guerrini 1733

294.     DE TONI, Giambattista, Le plante e gil animali in Leonardo da Vinci (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1922). Verga 2603; Guerrini 1858

The volume focuses on Leonardo's botanical observations. De Toni identifies the plants in Leonardo's paintings and drawings and gathers his comments on rendering them recorded in the Trattato. Applied botany in the preparation of colors and perfumes as well as Leonardo's observations concerning the morphology and physiology of plants are also examined. Literary references to animals, notably Leonardo's "bestiary" and animal symbols, are discussed, as are Leonardo's study of horses (in relation to his unrealized equestrian monuments), birds (flight), comparative anatomy, and embryology. Leonardo's allegories and tales featuring plants and animals are gathered in the conclusion.

295. FAVARO, Giuseppe, "Leonardo da Vinci e Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente nella storia delle scienze biologiche," Bolletino dell'Istituto storico italiano dell'arte sanitaria24 (July-August, 1925). Verga 2713; Guerrini 1929.

296. GARRISON, Fielding H., The Principles of Anatomic Illustration before Vesalius (New York: Hoebner, 1926). Verga 2744

The volume includes a chapter on Leonardo that places him in historical context as a major figure in the tradition of analytical observation.

297. FAVARO, Giuseppe, Come scrivera Leonardo (Siena: San Bernardino, 1930, from Atti dell'VIII Congresso Internazionale di Storia della Medicina [1930]). Guerrini 2101

298. FAVARO, Giuseppe, Intorno al nuovo foglio anatomico vinciano del Castello di Weimar (Venice: Ferrari, 1930, from Atti del Reale ist it uto veneto discienze, lettere ed arte 89 [1929-30], pp. 765-80). Guerrini 2109

299. McMURRICH, J. Playfair, Leonardo the Anatomist (1452 -1519) (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution, 1930). Guerrini 2117

McMurrich considers Andreas Vesalius to be the founder of modern anatomy, but characterizes Leonardo as a Saint John, his forerunner. In support of this view, McMurrich offers a minute examination of Leonardo's sources, analytical methods, and studies of proportion, body structure and systems, embryology, and comparative anatomy. McMurrich concludes that Leonardo's studies are confirmation of his precociously modern conviction that biological phenomena are explicable by natural rather than supernatural causes.

300. VACCARO, Leopold, "Leonardo, Precursor of Modern Medicine," Medical Life, n.s. 137 (February, 1932), pp. 172-80.

301. BOTTAZZI, Filippo, "Osservazioni e pensieri di Leonardo sulla nutrizione," Rassagna medica 18 (June, 1938), pp. 53-69.

302. FAVARO, Giuseppe, Gli studi anatomici di Leonardo nei Regesti Vinciani (Modena: Società ipografica modenese, 1938). Guerrini 2395

Documentary records, for example the notice in Luca Landucci's diary for January 24, 1505 concerning the use of a criminal's body by students, serve as evidence for a discussion of Leonardo's work as an anatomist.

303. ARGENTIERI, Domenico, "L'Ottica di Leonardo" (Rome: Civile, 1939; reprinted from Baroni et al., Leonardo da Vinci; see No. 195).

304. IMPERATORI, Charles J., "Leonardo da Vinci's Contribution to Laryngology, Rhinology, and Phonetics," Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 50 (December, 1941), pp. 974-94.

305. TAVIANI, Siro, Il moto umano in Lionardo da Vinci (Florence: Classica, 1942, from Società italiana di Storia delle scienze mediche e naturali [July, 1942]).

306.     PANCONCELLI-CALZIA, Giulio, Leonardo als Phonetiker (Hamburg: Heitmann, 1943).

Following a brief history of ancient and medieval phonetics, the author examines Leonardo's writings on speech and his anatomical research into the structures associated with vocalization. The author's theories are summarized in his essay "Leonardo's Work in Phonetics and Linguistics" in Baroni et al., Leonardo da Vinci (No. 195), pp. 399-404.

307. BELT, Elmer, "Leonardo da Vinci's Studies of the Aging Process," Geriatrics 7 (May-June, 1952), pp. 205-10. Guerrini 3155

~ 308. KEELE, Kenneth, Leonardo da Vinci on the Movement of the Heart and Blood (London: Harvey & Blyth, 1952). Guerrini 3142

There are today only 190 pages on anatomy and fifty on the cardiovascular system of the 120 books on anatomy to which Leonardo refers elsewhere in his Notebooks. Keele organizes the surviving material on the heart, blood vessels, and the movement of the blood to present Leonardo's views in a clear sequence.

309. TAVIANI, Siro, "L'attrezzatura muscolare perionale e le sue relazioni con la mimica facciale nell'anatomia di Leonardo da Vinci," Clinica odontoiatrica 12 (December, 1952), pp. 373-86.

310. BAVETTA, Lucien and Kate Steinitz, "Nutritional Concepts of Leonardo da Vinci," Bulletin of the National Institute of Nutrition 3 (May-June, 1953). Guerrini 3548

~ 311. ESCHE, Sigrid, Leonardo da Vinci: Das Anatomische Werke (Basel: Holbein, 1954). Guerrini 3652

Esche provides a detailed analysis of Leonardo's anatomical studies. The drawings at Windsor and those scattered in six other codices are described with particular emphasis on the techniques Leonardo gradually developed to enhance the informative capacity of his scientific illustrations.

312. BELT, Elmer, Leonardo the Anatomist (Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press, 1955). Guerrini 3787

A renowned urologist and founder of the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana at the University of California, Los Angeles, Belt discusses the originality of Leonardo's anatomical observations and his innovations in the design of scientific illustrations.

313. TIKOTIN, M. A., Leonardo da Vinci y istorii anatomii i fiziologii (Leningrad: Medicinskaja literatura, 1957). Guerrini 3928

Leonardo in the history of anatomy and physiology (in Russian).

314. KEELE, Kenneth, Leonardo's "Anatomia naturale," Fulton Lecture, Yale School of Medicine (New Haven: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 1979).

Keele traces the evolution of Leonardo's anatomical investigations. Taking the ancient authorities as a starting point, Leonardo's earliest drawings are purely descriptive. As his interest shifted from static anatomical shapes to patterns of movement in living bodies, he creates more imaginative compositions - "bodyscapes" or "composite anatomies" - which encompass interrelated physiological processes. Between 1469-1506, Leonardo's interests shifted to the physical sciences. He developed the theory that changes in earth, air, fire, and water are impelled by four fundamental powers - movement, weight, force, and percussion - which function upon a basic geometrical principle he called the "pyramidal law." These principles were applied to his anatomical studies. Mechanisms of movement are revealed in "exploded" views and the principles of hydrodynamics that he discovered in lakes and rivers are employed to explain the movement of fluids in the intestinal and urinary tracts.

315. KEELE, Kenneth D., Leonardo da Vinci's Elements of the Science of Man (New York: Academic Press, 1983). Guerrini 5599

In this thorough and important study, Keele analyzes Leonardo's method of investigation and the physical and physiological principles he discovered. Keele demonstrates the manner in which the study of physical science - especially mechanics - was integrated with Leonardo's analysis of movement in men and animals and how anatomical investigation was employed to reveal the mechanisms of the body. The ideas Keele sketched in his 1979 Yale lecture (No. 314) are fully elucidated.

~ 316. TODD, Edwin M., The Neuroanatomy of Leonardo da Vinci (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra, 1983). Guerrini 5632

A trained neurologist, Todd studies Leonardo's anatomical research relating to the skull and nervous system. The author cites Leonardo's emphasis on experimentation as the crucial factor that enabled him to overcome medieval methodological deficiencies. Todd also discusses the relationship between Leonardo's anatomical discoveries and his theories of perception.

~ 317. EMBODEN, William A., Leonardo da Vinci on Plants and Gardens (Portland, Oregon: Dioscordes, 1987).

A botanist, Emboden compensates for the loss of Leonardo's projected book on botany in this detailed examination of Leonardo's plant studies. He discusses the drawings in their historical and cultural context and examines the natural laws that Leonardo derived from his observations.


Painting, Drawing, and General Studies

If you disparage painting, which alone can portray faithfully all the visible works of nature, you certainly disparage a discovery which considers all manner of forms with subtle and philosophic attention: the sea, places on land, plants, animals, grass, flowers, all of which are surrounded by shadow and light. Truly this is a science and the legitimate daughter of nature, since painting is born of nature. To speak more accurately, we would say the grandchild of nature, for all visible things are born of nature, and painting is born of these. Therefore, we rightly call painting the grandchild of nature and related to God.

  Codex Urbinas Latinus 1270, 4v-5
  (Codex Ashburnham 2038 20v)

~ 318.   BOSSI, Giuseppi, Del "Cenacolo" di Leonardo da Vinci. Libri quattro (Milan: Stamperia reale, 1810). Verga 298; Guerrini 410

In 1807, Bossi was asked by Eugène de Beauharnais to make a copy of the Last Supper to serve as a modello for a mosaic version. (The mosaic was completed by Giacomo and Vincenzo Raffaelli in 1818 and is now in the Minoritenkirche, Vienna.) An outgrowth of the commission was this historical and critical study which is the first monograph on a work by Leonardo and a landmark in the evolution of art history. The first section is a compendium of earlier references to the fresco - from those of Leonardo's colleague, the mathematician Luca Paciolo, to the eighteenth-century art historian Luigi Lanzi; section two offers a detailed description and analysis of the fresco; section three deals with the various copies; section four studies Leonardo's aesthetics, focusing on his theories regarding human proportions and "history" (i.e., narrative) painting. Because Bossi was a notable painter, writer, and collector who was in contact with the leading artists and intellectuals of his day, this volume exerted a considerable impact, on which see Nos. 496, 498.

319.         BOSSI, Giuseppi, Delle opinioni di Leonardo da Vinci intorno alla simmetria de'Corpi Umani (Milan: Stamperia Reale, 1811). Verga 302; Guerrini 403

Dedicated by the author to his friend, the neoclassical sculptor Antonio Canova, this discussion of Leonardo's theory of human proportions is extracted from Bossi monograph on the Last Supper, pp. 202-26 (No. 318).

320.      GUILLON, abbé Aimé, Le "Cénacle" de Léonard de Vinci rendu aux amis des beaux arts dans le tableau qu'on voit aujourdhui chez un citoyen de Milan et qui etoit ci'devant dans le refectoire de l'insigne Chartreuse de Pavia (Milan: Dumolard and Artaria; Lyon: Maire, 1811). Verga 305; Guerrini 402

This work deals with the same subject as Bossi's study (No. 319) and was published almost simultaneously; there was some controversy over priority. Guillon describes the history of the fresco and its physical condition, documenting its progressive deterioration through the observations of earlier writers. He discusses the composition and individual figures in detail, referring to the copy in the Certosa at Pavia for clarification. This copy-which Guillon attributed in large part to Leonardo, but which is now ascribed to Giampetrino - is today in the Royal Academy, London.

321.      VERRI, Carlo, Osservazioni sul volume intitolato "Del Cenacolo" di Leonardo da Vincilibri quattro di Giuseppe Bossi pittore (Milan: Pirotta, 1812). Verga 309; Guerrini 407

Verri offers a critique of Bossi's Cenacolo (No. 318), focusing on his analysis of Leonardo's theory of human proportions. Bound with this volume are further episodes in the controversy initiated by Verri: 1) the response of Giuseppe Bossi, Postille alle "osservazioni sul volume intitolato: 'Del Cenacolo' di Leonardo da Vinci . . ." (Milan: Stamperia reale, 1812 [Verga 307; Guerrini 408]); 2) B. S. [Salvatore Betti?], Lettere confidenziali all΄estensore delle "Postille alle osservazioni sul volume intitolato 'Del Cenacolo'di Leonardo da Vinci. . . "(Milano: Pirotta, 1812 [Verga 308; Guerrini 406]).

322.      RANALLI, Ferdinando, Alcune considerazione intorno a Lionardo da Vinci (Florence: Piatti, 1843). Verga 428; Guerrini 458

In his discussion of the Trattato, the author reflects the concerns of mid nineteenth-century painters. Ranalli contrasts Leonardo, who received his inspiration wholly and directly from nature, with others who imitated the antique rather than recording the "immediate and spontaneous acts of living nature."

323.      DELÉCLUZE, Étienne Jean, Saggio intorno a Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), trans. C. P. and C. M. (Siena: Porn, 1844). Verga 434; Guerrini 460

Originally published in L'Artiste (1841; Verga 413), this critical biography is notable for the comparisons made among Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

324.      RIO, Antonio Francesco, Leonardo da Vinci e la sua scuola, trans. V. G. de Castro (Milan: Brasca, 1856). Verga 526; Guerrini 492

This is a translation of Rio's innovative study published the previous year in Paris (Verga 517). Rio places Leonardo in context, examining the Lombard artistic tradition prior to Leonardo's arrival in Milan and then tracing his impact by examining the work of his associates and followers. Rio also discusses Leonardo's attitude toward sculpture and assesses Leonardo's influence on Milanese art theory in terms of the academy he believes Leonardo established. The Guzzetta Collection also includes a second edition of this book with a new, annotated translation and an essay by Felix Turotti, "Intorno ai dipinti autentici di Leonardo dal Vasari non rammentati e di altri a lui attributi," in which he reconsiders Leonardo's oeuvre (Leonardo da Vinci e la sua scuola, trans. Felix Turotti [Milan: Sanvito, 1857]; Verga 539; Guerrini 495).

325.      PICOZZI, Carlo, Sulla "Cena degli Apostoli" dipinta da Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Lamperti, 1861). Verga 571; Guerrini 515

The pamphlet presumably served as a guidebook for visitors to Santa Maria della Grazia.

326.     WAAGEN, Gustav Friedrich, Leonardo da Vinci (Berlin: Schauer [1861]). Verga 574

A renowned connoisseur, Waagen distinguishes Leonardo's works from his students and followers and from those of Verrocchio and his studio.

327.      NIESSEN, John, The Lord's Supper. Christ and His Twelve Desciples [sic] from the Original Crayon Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci in the Possession of Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar (London: Bruckmann, 1872). Verga 631

The introduction by J. Sighart relates the sad history of the Last Supper which is characterized as "a pitiable ruin of the once incomparable and enchantingly beautiful creation of Leonardo." Sighart also announces the discovery of the original drawings of the apostles: "These are eleven sheets of greyish paper. . . drawn in coloured crayons with marvelous delicacy." He gives their provenance as having passed from Count Galeazzo Arconati to the Segrado family in Venice from whom they were acquired by the British Consul, who sent them to England. The eight acquired by the painter Thomas Lawrence were purchased at his estate sale by the dealer Samuel Woodburn for the King of Holland, who bequeathed them to his daughter, the Grand Duchess of Weimar. The other three are in the possession of  "a high family in England."  The drawings reproduced in this volume are based on copies by Johannes Niessen, who "with admirable precision reproduced this work of Leonardo, and with very few additions." Today, the so-called cartoons are considered to be "school works made in preparation for copies of the Last Supper" (Carlo Pedretti, Studies for the "Last Supper" from the Royal Library at Windsor, exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. [Milan: Electa, 1983], p. 49; see also No. 404).

328.     BOITO, Camillo, "Leonardo scultore e pittore," (Turin: Bona, 1873, from L'Arte in Italia 5 [1873]).

329.      CLÉMENT, Charles, Michel-Ange, Léonard de Vinci, Raphaël, avec une étude sur l'art en Italie avant le XVI siècle et des catalogues raisonnés historiques e biblìographiques (Paris: Hetzel [1881]). Verga 785; Guerrini 652

A prolific and popular writer on art, Clément describes Leonardo's life and works (pp. 201-87) in relation to the accomplishments of his major contemporaries and provides an expansive catalogue of his works in painting and sculpture (pp. 419-40).

330.      BOITO, Camillo, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Andrea Palladio, 2nd ed. (Milan: Hoepli, 1883). Verga 831; Guerrini 666

The portion of this volume devoted to Leonardo examines his accomplishments as a painter and sculptor.

331.      MÜLLER-WALDE, Paul, Leonardo da Vinci. Lebenskizze und Forschungen über sein Verhältniss zum Florentiner Kunst und zu Raphael (Munich: Hirth, 1889). Verga 991; Guerrini 739

Concentrating on Leonardo's early career in Florence, Müller-Walde examines the intellectual and artistic environment in which Leonardo developed. The author offers detailed analyses of his works from this period, relating paintings to the drawings as he traces the development of Leonardo's ideas and style.

332.      SÉAILLES, Gabriel, "L′esthétique et l′art de Léonard de Vinci," Revue des deux monds 3(1892), pp. 302-30. Verga 1089; Guerrini 770

333.     MÜLLER-WALDE, Paul, "Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Leonardo da Vinci." Jahrbuch der Königlich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 18 (1897), pp. 1-68; 20 (1899), pp. 81-116. Verga 1230, 1306; Guerrini 843, 884

This offprint contains three from a series of seven important articles which have as their underlying theme the more precise dating of Leonardo's drawings. The first, "Ein neues dokument zur Geschichte der Reiterdenkmale für Francesco Sforza . . ." distinguishes drawings for the Sforza monument from those relating to the Trivulzio monument. The second article addresses the problem of Leonardo's lost Leda. Müller-Walde divides the surviving drawings and copies into two groups - the standing Leda, which originated in Florence between 1501-06, and the kneeling version, which he asserts was designed in France for François I between 1516-19. The last article, "Leonardo da Vinci und die antike Reiterstatue de Regisole," examines drawings at Windsor inspired by the antique Regisole monument in Pavia (destroyed 1796) which  Müller-Walde maintains influenced Leonardo's designs for the Trivulzio monument.

334.      ANTONIEWJCZ, Jan Boloz, Światynici ragadkowa Lionarda da Vinci (Lwów: [privately printed], 1900). Verga 1318; Guerrini 949

Originally published in a volume celebrating the jubilee of the University of Cracow and reprinted by the author, this Polish text reevaluates Leonardo's oeuvre, attributing only a severely restricted number of paintings (and one sculpture) to Leonardo. These include the controversial Portrait of a Lady with an Ermine(Cracow, Czartoryski Gallery). Antoniewicz identifies the sitter as Cecilia Gallerani (b. ca. 1465), the young mistress of Lodovico Sforza.

335.     COOK, Theodore Andrea, Spirals in Nature and Art (London: Murray, 1903). Verga 1465; Guerrini 1027

Focusing on mollusks and referring to spiral motifs in the Notebooks, the author concludes that the famous outdoor stairway of the château at Blois (Touraine) is based on designs by Leonardo.

336.     ROSENBERG, Adolf, Leonardo da Vinci, trans. J. Lohse (Bielefeld and Leipzig: Welhagen & Klasing, 1903). Verga 1489

First published in 1898 (Verga 1272), this volume offers a judicious survey of Leonardo's paintings with an emphasis on questions of attribution. For example, he accepts Leonardo's authorship of La Belle Féronnière (Paris, Louvre) but harshly rejects the Warsaw Lady with an Ermine.

337.     FRIZZONI, Gustavo, "L'arte del disegno in Leonardo da Vinci e Raffaello Sanzio," Nuova Antologia 1 (1904), pp. 151-59. Verga 1517; Guerrini 1032.

Includes a review of Groneau (see No. 351).

338.      LE VICENDE DEL "CENACOLO" DI LEONARDO DA VINCI NEL SECOLO XIX (Milan: Ufficio regionale per la conservatione dei monumenti della Lombardia, 1906). Verga 1633; Guerrini 1155

The booklet describes the condition and recent conservation history of the Last Supper beginning with the depredations of French troops in 1796 and the observations of Andrea Appiani until Luigi Cavenaghi initiated his conservation campaign in 1904.

339.     HOERTH, Otto, Das Abendmahl des Leonardo da Vinci. Ein beitrag zur frage seiner Künstlerischen rekonstruktion (Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1907). Verga 1689; Guerrini 1158

To postulate the original character of Leonardo's Last Supper, Hoerth methodically studies the fresco itself as well as all known preliminary drawings and the various copies of Leonardo's composition.

340.      KONSTANTINOWA, Alexandra, Die entwickelung des Madonnentypus bei Leonardo da Vinci (Strassburg: Heitz, 1907). Verga 1693; Guerrini 1175

The author analyzes Leonardo's transformation of the Madonna figure from a purely religious figure to one that is profoundly human.

341.      BELTRAMI, Luca, Vicende del cenacolo vinciano dall anno MCCCXCV all′anno MCM VIII (Milano: Allegretti [1908]). Verga 1742; Guerrini 1266

Beltrami surveys the history of Leonardo's Last Supper from its inception in 1495 until 1908. The volume includes Luigi Cavenaghi's description of his efforts to conserve the fresco: "Relazione sul consolidamento eseguito al dipinto nel MCM VIII." (See also No. 338.)

342.      BROCKWELL, Maurice, Leonardo da Vinci (London: Jack, [1908]). Verga 1748; Guerrini 1237

Brockwell's brief discussion of Leonardo's life and work is typical of the surveys that disseminated Leonardo's reputation and made his name a by-word in popular culture.

343.      MICHEL, Émile, "Le dessin chez Léonard de Vinci" in Nouvelles études sur l'histoire de l'art (Paris: Hachette, 1908), pp. 342-75. Verga 1777; Guerrini 1249

344.      LANGE, Julius, Studien über Leonardo de Vinci, trans. Ida JacobAnders (Strassburg: Heitz, 1911). Verga 2015; Guerrini 1403

The author examines the development of the composition of the Last Supper and the progressive refinement of the facial expressions of the Apostles.

345.     TAGLIALATELA, Pietro Gioacchino, Leonardo da Vinci e il suo quadro per Monna Lisa del Giocando (Naples: D'Auria, 1912). Guerrini 1416

The author offers a brief history of the Mona Lisa (Paris, Louvre), relating it to Leonardo's Trattato. Included as well is a compendium of texts by such writers as George Sand, Charles Baudelaire, Hippolyte Tame, and Gabriele D′Annunzio responding to the portrait. On the identity of the sitter, see the recent discussion by Frank Zöllner, "Leonardo's Portrait of  Mona Lisa del Giocondo," Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6e ser., 121 (March, 1993), pp. 115-138.

346.      DE TONI, Giambattista, "Frammenti Vinciani, V: Intorno il Codice Sforzesco. De divina proportione di Luca Pacioli ei disgeni geometrici di quest′opera attribuiti a Leonardo da Vinci," Atti della Società dei naturalisti e matematici di Modena 13 (1911), pp. 52-80. Verga 1997; Guerrini 1378

For Leonardo's illustrations, see No. 505.

347.      LITTLEFIELD, Walter, "The Two Mona Lisas," Century Magazine 87 (1914), pp. 525-30. Verga 2251

Contrasts the Louvre portrait with a version in the Prado, Madrid, the provenance of which is traced to the emperor Charles V, who purportedly acquired it from Leonardo's heirs.

348.      SESTINI, Giovacchino, Leonardo da Vinci e la Gioconda (Florence: Union editrice artistica Italiana di Firenze, 1914). Verga 2271

The pamphlet includes a brief discussion of the famous portrait followed by a description of its theft in August, 1911, its recovery, and the subsequent trial of Vincenzo Peruggia.

349.      THIIS, Jens, Leonardo da Vinci. The Florentine Years of Leonardo and Verrocchio, trans. Jessie Muir (London: Jenkins [1914]). Verga 2277; Guerrini 1517

This sumptuous volume focuses on Leonardo's early career. Through incisive analysis of individual objects, Thus tries to distinguish genuine works and "thus place the characterisation of the artist's style upon a firm basis" (p. 24). Much of the text is taken up with questions of attribution.

350.      EYRE, John R., Monograph of Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" (London: Grevel, 1915). Verga 2291; Guerrini 1548

Eyre discusses the Isleworth Mona Lisa, one of several versions of the portrait in the Louvre, Paris. He argues that the bust, face, and hands are autograph. For more on this controversial painting, see Henry E Pulitzer, Where Is the Mona Lisa? (London: Pulitzer [1967]).

351.      GRONAU, Georg, Leonardo da Vinci, trans. Frederic Pledge (New York: Rand McNally, 1915). Verga 2295; Guerrini 1016

Noting the interplay of minute observation and the free play of fancy in Leonardo's work, Gronau offers a brief, but insightful analysis of Leonardo's oeuvre. The volume reprints the 1903 edition (Verga 1473).

352.      MARX, Friedrich, Über die Caritas des Leonardo da Vinci in der Kurfürstlichen Galerie zu Kassel (Leipzig: Teubner, 1916). Verga 2334; Guerrini 1581

Marx believes that he has discovered in the Kassel museum a fragment of the Caritas attributed to Leonardo, which had been admired by Goethe (1806) but lost after it was taken to France by one of Napoleon's generals. The painting is now attributed to Joos van Cleve (Erich Herzog, Die gemäldegalerie der staatlischen Kunstsammlungen Kassel [Hanau: Peters, 1969], p. 80, cat. no. 15).

353.      SIRÉN, Oswald, Leonardo da Vinci. The Artist and the Man (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1916). Verga 2243; Guerrini 1567

A revised version of the 1911 Swedish edition (Verga 2046), this volume offers a detailed study of Leonardo as an artist. Sirén places his accomplishments in perspective by comparing Leonardo to his contemporaries and offers a detailed review of his oeuvre. The Guzzetta Collection also contains the expanded French edition, trans. Jean Buhot, 3 vols. (Paris: Van Oest, 1928; Verga 2824; Guerrini 2032).

354.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, Il Canone di Leonardo sulle proporzioni del corpo umano (Venizia: Ferrari, 1917, from Atti del Reale Istituo veneto di scienze, lettere ed art 77 [1917]). Verga 2353; Guerrini 1582

Favaro has culled from the Notebooks all references to human proportions in order to analyze Leonardo's theory.

355.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, "Misure e proporzione del corpo umano," Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arte 78 (1918- 19), pp. 109-90. Verga 2379; Guerrini 1609

356.      ANGELUCCI, Arnaldo, "La Maniera in Pittura e le leggi ottiche di luci e colori scoperte da Leonardo da Vinci," Giornale di Medicina militare 67(1919), pp. 1191-1217. Verga 2369; Guerrini 1708

357.      POLIFOLO [Beltrami, Luca], Madonna Cecilia di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Umberto Alegretti, 1919). Verga 2414; Guerrini 1707

To discuss the beautiful profile Portrait of a Woman in the Ambrosiana, Milan, Beltrami adopts the archaic form of a dialogue. He criticizes the methodological connoisseurship of Giovanni Morelli and rejects the identification of the sitter as Bianca Maria Sforza in favor of Cecilia Gallerani. Today, the portrait is generally attributed to Leonardo's sometime associate, Ambrogio de Predis (ca. 1455-ca. 1522); the identity of the sitter remains uncertain. Recently, John Pope-Hennessy has described the painting as a collaborative work and provides a summary of its critical history in The Portrait in the Renaissance, Bollingen series 35:12 (New York: Pantheon, 1966), p. 162, n. 11. The Guzzetta Collection also possesses Beltrami's amplification of his arguments, Leonardo, Cecilia ela "destra mano" (Milan: Allegretti, 1920); Verga 2524; Guerrini 1792.

358.     BELTRAMI, Luca, Leonardo e i disfattisti suoi (Milan: Treves, 1919). Verga 2412; Guerrini 1694

Stung by the negative assessment of Leonardo's contributions by Malaguzzi-Valeri (see No. 87) and others, Beltrami launched this polemic against the disfattisti, the detractors of Leonardo. Taking aim at the critical methods of Giovanni Morelli and his followers, Beltrami offers a positive reappraisal of Leonardo's accomplishments, particularly in architecture (pp. 179-206).

359.     BELTRAMI, Luca, "Il volto di Leonardo," Emporium 49 (January, 1919), pp. 3-17. Verga 2407; Guerrini 1771

On portaits and self-portraits of Leonardo.

360.     URBINI, Giulio, "Leonardo," Nuovo rivista storica 3 (MayAugust, 1919), pp. 257-90. Verga 2503; Guerrini 1670

General discussion centering on questions of attribution.

361.      VENTURI, Adolfo, "Leonardo da Vinci pittori," Nuovo antologia 55 (June, 1919), pp. 333-47. Verga 2507; Guerrini 1690

362.      BILANCIONI, Guglielmo, L'orecchio e il naso nel sistema antropometrico di Leonardo da Vinci (Rome: Nardecchi, 1920). Verga 2525; Guerrini 1806

Using the Trattato della Pittura as his basic source, Bilancioni discusses canons of beauty and Renaissance proportional systems in analyzing the theory and practice of Leonardo. He determines that the ear and nose are primary modules, though Leonardo is flexible in the actual application of his theory.

363.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, "L'orecchio e il naso nel sistema antropometico di Leonardo da Vinci," Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arte 80 (1920-21), pp. 47-48. Verga 2542; Guerrini 1837.

Critical review of Bilancioni (No. 362).

364.      VENTURI, Adolfo, Leonardo pittori (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1920). Verga 2559; Guerrini 1798

The volume is introduced by a biography and survey of Leonardo's artistic career. The third section offers a critical analysis of his oeuvre, focusing on securely documented paintings.

365.     CAROTTI, Giulio, Leonardo da Vinci Pittore - Scultore -Architetto (Torino: Celanza, 1921). Verga 2751; Guerrini 1832

A general survey of Leonardo's artistic career.

366.     SCHIAPARELLI, Attilio, Leonardo ritrattista (Milan: Treves, 1921). Verga 2591; Guerrini 1833

Basing his arguments primarily upon criteria of quality and coloring technique, Schiaparelli reevaluates the attributions of portraits traditionally associated with Leonardo.

367.     DEMONTS, Louis, Musée du Louvre. Les dessins de Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Morancé [1922]). Verga 2601; Guerrini 103

Demonts catalogues twenty-five drawings by Leonardo in the collection of the Louvre, Paris.

368.     ROGER-MILÉS, Léon, Léonard de Vinci et les "Jocondes" (Paris: Floury, 1923). Verga 2659; Guerrini 1874

The author's general study of Leonardo and the Mona Lisa is oriented to demonstrate the autograph status of a version of the famous portrait in the collection of Jean Charpentier.

369.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, Il peso del corpo umano negli studi di Leonardo (Siena: San Bernardino, 1926, from Atti del III Congresso nationale della Società Italiana di Storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, Venice, 1925). Verga 2742; Guerrini 1949

370.      FAVARO, Giuseppe, L′equilibrio del corpo umano negli studi di Leonardo (Venice: Ferrari, 1926, from Atti del Reale Istituto veneto discienze, lettere ed arte, 86 [1926-27], pp. 227-54). Verga 2743; Guerrini 1957

371.      RINALDIS, Aldo de, Storia dell′opera pittorica di Leonardo da Vinci (Bologna: Zanichelli [1926]). Verga 2741; Guerrini 1987

De Rinaldis summarizes current opinions regarding the chronology and content of Leonardo's pictorial oeuvre. The survey includes an iconographical index.

372.      SALMI, Mario, The "Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci and the Church of "Le Grazia" in Milan, trans. Lily E. Marshall (Milan: Treves [1926?]).

Translated from the Italian (Verga 2761), this booklet is designed to provide tourists with an historical introduction to the convent and Leonardo's Last Supperin its refectory.

~373. MÖLLER, Emil, "Salaí und Leonardo da Vinci," Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wein 16 (1928), pp. 139-61. Verga 2815; Guerrini 2048

Touching on Leonardo's workshop practices, this important essay examines Leonardo's relationship with his assistant and student and discusses Salaì's artistic activity, particularly his role in disseminating Leonardo's designs.

374.      POPP, Anny E., Leonardo da Vinci Zeichnungen (Munich: Piper, 1928). Verga 2804; Guerrini 2037

This is among the first monographs devoted to the connoisseurship of Leonardo's drawings; Popp analyzes a modest selection of eighty-nine sheets. Her emphasis upon chronology is a significant contribution to the study of the drawings, but many of her specific conclusions have been questioned by later scholars.

375.      SUIDA, Wilhelm, Leonardo und sein Kreis (Munich: Bruckmann, 1929). Verga 2843; Guerrini 2069

The first portion of this substantial volume is devoted to the history and analysis of Leonardo's painted oeuvre. Tracing his influence though the study of replicas and variants, the second portion examines works by Leonardo's students and followers in Lombardy, Tuscany, Spain, Germany, and the Lowlands. The great value of this important study is enhanced by the multitude of reproductions illustrating works not easily accessible in private and public collections.

376.      BODMER, Heinrich, Leonardo. Des meisters gemälde und zeichnungen (New York: E. Weyhe, 1931). Guerrini 2148

A cautious connoisseur, Bodmer offers a thoughtful catalogue of Leonardo's paintings and a discussion of characteristic drawings.

377.      GILLES DE LA TOURETTE, François, Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Michel, 1932). Guerrini 2171

Surveys Leonardo's artistic career; analyzes his paintings.

378.      DROMARD-MAIROT, M. T, Le Fond de la Joconde et l'esthétique de Léonard de Vinci (Besançon: Jacques and Demontrond, 1933). Guerrini 2186

The author dates Leonardo's Mona Lisa to 1505-07 and analyzes the painting in relation to its artistic context. See also No. 345.

379.     DOUGLAS, R. Langton, Leonardo da Vinci: His "San Donato of Arezzo and the Tax Collector" (London: Chiswick [1933]).

Douglas attributes this painting to Leonardo, arguing that it dates from 1475 and was part of the predella of the altarpiece in the oratory of the Madonna di Piazza in the cathedral of Pistoia. The panel now belongs to the Worcester (Mass.) Museum of Art, where it is ascribed to Lorenzo di Credi (see the entry by Martin Davies in Louisa Dresser, ed., European Paintings in the Collection of the Worcester Art Museum, 2 vols. [Worcester, Mass.: Worcester Museum of Art, 1974], I, pp. 381-86).

380.      PAULSON, John, "Unnoticed Inscriptions on Famous Paintings," Art and Architecture 34 (September-October, 1933), pp. 243-47.

The author claims to have discovered a heretofore unnoticed date -1487-plus the monograms of Ambrogio and Evangelista da Predis on the Louvre Virgin and the Rocks; also the monogram of Domenico Ghirlandaio on the Annunciation in the Uffizi.

381.     FAVARO, Giuseppe, Le proporzioni del corpo umano in un codice anomino del Quattrocento, postillato da Leonardo. . . (Roma: Reale Accademia d'Italia, 1934). Guerrini 2222

Continuing studies begun in 1917 (see Nos. 354, 355, 363), Favaro examines Leonardo's theory of human proportions in relation to ideas recorded in Ms. Ashburnham 361(Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana), a manuscript attributed to Francesco di Giorgio with annotations by Leonardo.

382.      STITES, Raymond S., "Mona Lisa-Mona Bella," Parnassus 8 (January, 1936), pp. 7-10, 22-23. Guerrini 2375

383.      BLUM, André, "Leonardo da Vinci as Engraver," Print Collector's Chronicle 2 (December, 1939), pp. 1-3ff.

Argues that Leonardo produced engravings and provides a catalogue of proposed attributions. This is a translation from Gazette des Beaux-Arts 74 (1932; Guerrini 2172).

384.     SEIDLITZ, Woldemar von, Leonardo da Vinci der Wendepunkt der Renaissance (Vienna: Phaidon, 1935). Guerrini 2249

Seidlitz traces Leonardo's career as a painter and the development of his scientific studies as an adjunct to his artistic endeavors. He is unusually conservative in his attributions, assigning such traditionally accepted works as the London Virgin of the Rocks and the portrait of Ginevera de'Benci to various followers and associates.

385.      S[MITH}, W[illiam} T[homas], A Rediscovered Painting by Leonardo (Missing since 1726). Its Purpose and Meaning Explained (typescript [London, 1936]).

This extremely idiosyncratic treatise centers on a composition known generally as The Merry Company which incorporates figures found among Leonardo's grotesques and is now associated with Quinten Massys (see Alison Stewart, Unequal Lovers [New York, 1977], cat. 72-76). Smith believes one version to be by Leonardo. Identifying the figures as members of the Sforza court, Smith proceeds with an abstruse (not to say bizarre) interpretation of its allegorical, political, moral and astrological significance.

386. SMITH, William Thomas, The Astronomical Aspect of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper and Other Works Explained by His Notes and Sketches (typescript [London, ca. 1936])

Like Smith's study of The Merry Company (No. 385), this treatise is distinctly odd. Smith explains in his introduction that "these researches deal with aspects that all previous papers and volumes on Leonardo da Vinci have failed to notice, disclosing for the first time facts apparently forgotten." His interpretion of individual paintings reflects his concept of Leonardo as purveyor of esoteric wisdom. Thus, for example, "Leonardo's celebrated Adoration [of the Magi], another of his poetic allegories. . . embracing a syllogistic argument, depicts the homage paid to a personification of the new born SUN by priest-astrologers" (p. 66).

387.      KNAPP, Fritz, Leonardo da Vinci, Kunstler-Monographien 33 (Bielefeld-Leipzig: Velhagen & Kiafing, 1938). Guerrini 2350

An account of Leonardo's life and artistic production.

388.      CLARK, Kenneth, Leonardo da Vinci: An Account of His Development as an Artist (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1939).

In this succinct and eloquent account of Leonardo's art, Clark describes its complex evolution and how it was enriched by Leonardo's intense study of the physical world.

389.     NICODEMI, Giorgio, Leonardo da Vinci: Gemälde zeichnungen studien (Zurich: Fretz and Wasmuth, 1939). Guerrini 2466

A survey of Leonardo's artistic production.

390.      NICODEMI, Giorgio, "La Madonna del Gatto di Leonardo ritrovata," Raccolta vinciana 15-16 (1939), pp. 277-85.

391.      PICA, Agnoldomenico, L'opera di Leonardo al Convento delle Grazia in Milano (Rome: Mediterranea, 1939). Guerrini 2448

An inquiry into Leonardo's architectural intervention in the construction of the convent is coupled with a popular discussion of the Last Supper.

392.     SOMARÉ, Enrico, L'opera di Leonardo (Milan: Rizzoli, 1939). Guerrini 2517

Somaré surveys Leonardo's life and work as an artist. Following a brief analysis of his aesthetics and literary style is a compendium of statements revealing Leonardo's critical fortune.

393.     VENTURI, Adolfo, Leonardo e la sua scuola (Novara: De Agostini, 1941). Guerrini 2586

To demonstrate Leonardo's influence in Lombardy, Venturi surveys Leonardo's oeuvre followed by brief accounts of his most notable followers, Ambrogio de Predis, Boltrafflo, Giovanni Pedrini (Giampetrino), Marco d' Oggione, and Cesare da Sesto. The Guzzetta Collection also includes a German translation (Vienna: Deuticke, 1941) and a French edition (Paris: Rombaldi, 1948).

394.      POPHAM, A[rthur] E[wart], The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1945)

Popham's "Introduction" focuses on questions of style, addressing issues specific to various types of drawings Leonardo produced. The bulk of this excellent volume is dedicated to reproductions of the majority of Leonardo's more pictorial drawings arranged according to the categories described by the author.

395.      DOUGLAS, R. Langton, Leonardo da Vinci: His Life and His Pictures (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1946). Guerrini 2663

Douglas offers a succinct biography and survey of Leonardo's oeuvre.

396.     SÉRULLAZ, Maurice, Mona Lisa (London: Parrish, 1947). Guerrini 2695

Designed for popular consumption, this booklet describes the history and influence of this famous portrait.

397.     ELIAS, J. S. Witsen, Leonardo da Vinci (Naarden: In dentoren, 1948).

Surveys Leonardo's oeuvre (in Dutch).

398.      MATĔJČEK, Antonin, Leonardo e il Barocco (Prague: Nákladem Ustavu italské-kultury, 1949). Guerrini 2751

Appraising Leonardo's paintings as the culmination of quattrocento developments, the author focuses upon motifs developed by Leonardo that anticipate the Baroque.

399.      VALENTINER, Wilhelm et al., Leonardo da Vinci, exhibition catalogue (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum, 1949). Guerrini 2748

The ambitious exhibition surveys Leonardo's career as an engineer and artist, demonstrating his influence through works by his followers and associates.

400.      BAGLIONE, Giuseppe, Leonardo dalle opere sue: tre "Finzioni" rivelate (Milano: Luigi Alfieri, 1952). Guerrini 3156

Maintaining that in Leonardo's paintings abstract ideals are given form, Baglione's three essays investigate the symbolic content of Leonardo's Portrait of a Lady with an Ermine (Cracow, Czartorski Gallery), the Virgin and Child and St. Anne (Paris, Louvre), and the Mona Lisa (Paris, Louvre). The interpretations affirm Baglione's thesis that Leonardo's paintings are the product of scientific investigation and poetic fantasy confronting the mysteries of nature.

401.          HEVESY, André de, "L'histoire véridique de la Joconde," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 6e ser., 4 (July-August, 1952), pp. 5-26.

Argues that Vasari's description of the Mona Lisa is based upon the comments of others rather than on personal experience; de Hevesy also discusses various versions of the composition and its influence.

402.     HOMMAGE A LÉONARD DE VINCI, exhibition catalogue. Musée du Louvre (Paris: Editions des Musées Nationaux, 1952). Guerrini 2917

Introduced by an essay on Leonardo's work for the French court, this catalogue contains detailed entries on his paintings and drawings in Parisian collections as well as technical notes on selected paintings.

403.     LAZAREV, Viktor Nikitič, Leonardo da Vinci (Moscow:

Izdatel′stvo Akademii Nauk, 1952). Guerrini 3080

Study of Leonardo's paintings (in Russian).

404.      MÖLLER, Emil, Das Abendmahl des Lionardo da Vinci (Baden-Baden: Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1952). Guerrini 2874

In his comprehensive study of Leonardo's Last Supper, Möller includes detailed analyses of its preparation and sources, and of the copies at Weimar and Strasbourg.

405.     SALMI, Mario, "Leonardo artista," Realtà Nuova 17 (November, 1952), pp. 793-804. Guerrini 3060

406.     MacGREEVY, Thomas, Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1 952 (Dublin: Hely, 1953).

In this address to the Royal Irish Academy, MacGreevy suggests that even as Leonardo's genius matured, it was to subjects that had been familiar in his native Vinci to which Leonardo constantly referred. The author notes Leonardo's enthusiasm for landscape in general and the abiding presence of imagery resembling the Val d'Arno in particular.

407.      HEYDENREICH, Ludwig H., Leonardo da Vinci, trans. Dora Jane Janson, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1954). Guerrini 3647

Although this impressive monograph focuses upon the character and development of Leonardo's paintings, Heydenreich emphasizes the significant influence exerted upon Leonardo's artistry by his scientific endeavors.

408.      ROBERTSON, Durant Waite, 'A Note on Leonardo's Virgin of the Rocks," Renaissance News 7 (Autumn, 1954), pp. 92-95. Guerrini 3692.

Interprets the cavernous background as a "refuge for the faithful" on the basis of an exigetical tradition dating from the twelfth century.

409.      BARONI, Constantino, "Tracce pittoriche Leonardesche recuperate al Castello Sforzesco in Milan," Iatituto Lombardo di Scienza e Lettere 83 (1955). Guerrini 3803

Discusses Leonardo's frescos in the Sala delle Asse in the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, especially the recently uncovered fragments.

410.      KWIATKOWSKI, Kazimierz, "La Dame a l'Hermine" de Leonardo da Vinci étude technologique, trans. Zygmunt Glinka (Warsaw: Ossolineum, 1955). Guerrini 3759

A detailed account of the technical examination - including x-radiography, examination under ultraviolet, infrared, and sodium light, as well as microscopic and chemical analysis - of the Lady with Ermine (Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe). The author concludes that scientific data supports the attribution to Leonardo.

411.      MAGUCLIANI, Lodovico, Leonardo e la sua pittura nel secondo periodo milanese (Milan: Annali, 1957). Cuerrini 3925

Describes Leonardo's work during his second sojourn in Milan to establish the context for attributing to him the Christ at the Column in the Carlo Turn collection, Milan, a painting Magugliani claims is signed and dated 1506.

412.      GANTNER, Joseph, Leonardos Visionen von de sinflut und vom untergang der Welt (Bern: Francke, 1958). Guerrini 4017

This study focuses on Leonardo's "prophecies" and his late apocolyptic drawings at Windsor.

413.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Cli ultimi disegni di Leonardo," Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 20 (1958), pp. 565-68. Guerrini 4046

Identifies Leonardo's last drawings, typified by his use of a reed pen. An English translation was published in Italian Quarterly 3 (1959), pp. 42-47.

414.     PEDRETTI, Carlo, "L'ercole di Leonardo," L'Arte (April-June, 1958), pp. 163-70. Cuerrini 3988

Pedretti confirms the attribution to Leonardo of a drawing of Hercules and the Nemean Lion at Turin and dates the sheet on which it appears to 1500-05.

415.         GANTNER, Joseph, "Les fragments récemment découverts d′une fresque de Léonard de Vinci au chateau de Milan," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 6e ser., 53 (January, 1959), pp. 27-34.

Iconographic reading of the fragments discovered during the conservation of the Sala delle Asse (Milan, Castello Sforzesco), on which see No. 410.

416.      GUKOVSKII, Matvei Aleksandrovich, Madonna Litta (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, 1959). Guerrini 4100

Essay on the Madonna Litta (Leningrad, Hermitage) (in Russian).

417.     PEDRETTI, Carlo, Uno "studio" per la Gioconda (Milan: L'Arte, 1959). Guerrini 4116

Pedretti offers textual, technical, and stylistic arguments to reattribute a tempera "study" for the Mona Lisa then in the collection of J. M., Zurich (now Portland [Maine] Museum of Art) to Francesco Melzi. Consideration of this study provides the occasion for reviewing the documentary evidence associated with the Louvre portrait and reconsidering its formal and iconographical elements in relation to Leonardo's scientific and artistic theories.

418.      STEINITZ, Kate Trauman, "Leonardo da Vinci's Concept of the Antique," Actes du IV Congrès International d'Esthétique (Athens, 1960), pp. 114-18.

419.      EINEM, Herbert von, Das Abendmahl des Leonardo da Vinci (Arbeitgemeinschaft für forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 99 [Cologne: Westdeutscher, 1961]).

In the Christian tradition, the Last Supper is significant as the moment in which Christ establishes the eucharistic feast; the announcement of the betrayal is secondary. As the treatment of the theme became more realistic during the quattrocento, the spiritual content was diminished. Von Einem argues that Leonardo eliminates the dichotomy, unifying form and content to imbue the composition with an unprecedented veristic presence. Space is rendered with verisimilar rectitude while the variety of passions exhibited by the apostles emphasize the drama of the moment. Their postures and excited gestures create an ebb and flow of movement across the surface that centers on the still figure of Christ, in whom the spiritual content of the episode is focused: He indicates a loaf of bread with his left hand; His right hand makes a complementary gesture toward an area of loss that presumably contained a cup of wine.

420.     GOLDBLATT, Maurice, Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Citadel, 1961). Guerrini 4225

Goldblatt analyzes Leonardo's style and generously attributes seventy-six paintings to him, including a study for the head of Leda in the John G. Johnson collection (Philadelphia Museum of Art).

421.      RZEPIŃSKA, Maria, "Dwa studia o teorii malarskiej Leonarda da Vinci," Rocznik Histoii Sztuki 3 (1962), pp. 7-43. Guerrini 4272

On Leonardo's artistic theory and practice (in Polish, with French summary).

422.      RZEPIŃSKA, Maria, "Light and Shadow in the Late Writings of Leonardo da Vinci," Raccolta Vinciana 19 (1962), pp. 259-66. Guerrini 4294

423.      BURGERS, [H.S.E.], Leonardo da Vinci's Psychologie der Twaalf Typen (Amsterdam: Veen, 1963).

This essay offers an astrological interpretation of Leonardo's Last Supper. On the basis of physiognomy and gesture, the apostles are equated with their signs: e.g., Taddeus, scorpio; Thomas, Virgo; Judas, capricorn.

424.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Leonardo on Curvilinear Perspective," Bibliothèque d'Humanisme e Renaissance 25 (1963), pp. 69-87.

425.     LONG, Wayne, The Vernon "Mona Lisa" (Los Angeles: Otis Art Institute, 1964).

According to this exhibition catalogue, this version of the Mona Lisa was among the fifty-two paintings acquired by William Henry Vernon while this young American merchant was resident in France 1778-97. According to family legend, the painting was given to him by Marie Antoinette, perhaps as payment for helping save the dauphin during the French Revolution. Present whereabouts unknown.

~426. CLARK, Kenneth and Carlo Pedretti, Leonardo da Vinci Drawings in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London: Phaidon, 1968). Guerrini 4583

Originally published by Clark in 1935, this revised edition includes reproductions of the full corpus of drawings in the royal collection accompanied by thorough entries. The Introduction summarizes the history of the collection and the significance of the drawings as artistic documents.

427.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, Leonardo da Vinci. Studies for a Nativity and the Mona Lisa cartoon with Drawings after Leonardo from the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana (Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, 1973). Guerrini 4760

This exhibition catalogue discusses the sheet of Nativity studies belonging to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; the Mona Lisa cartoon (Glens Falls, New York, Hyde Collection); drawings associated with Leonardo in the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana, University of California, Los Angeles; and Belt 35, an apograph of the Trattato della Pittura dating from 1582.

428.     GOULD, Cecil, Leonardo the Artist and the Non-Artist (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975).

Gould's discussion of Leonardo's paintings includes a detailed comparison (pp. 75-90) of the London and Paris versions of the Madonna of the Rocks.

~ 429.   ARANO, Luisa Cogliati, Les Dessins de Léonard de Vinci et de ses disciples conservés au galeries de l'Académie de Venise (Paris: France Expansion, 1980). Guerrini 307

The volume includes detailed commentary and facsimiles of all the drawings by Leonardo and his school in the collection of the Accademia, Venice, with commentary. Texts are transcribed by Augusto Marinoni.

430.     WASSERMAN, Jack, Leonardo (Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1980).

The volume is introduced by a substantial history of Leonardo's artistic career. Illustrations of his major works are accompanied by commentaries that center on issues of attribution and style.

431.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, Leonardo. A Study in Chronology and Style (New York: Johnson Reprint, 1982). Guerrini 5393

Originally published in 1973, the volume incorporates over twenty years of study and thought in a personal account of the sequential development of Leonardo's art.

432.      SNOW-SMITH, Joanne, The "Salvator Mundi" of Leonardo da Vinci, exhibition catalogue. Henry Art Gallery (Seattle: University of Washington, 1982). Guerrini 5489

Building upon the pioneering essay by Ludwig Heydenreich ("Leonardo's Salvator Mundi," Raccolta Vinciana 20 [1964], pp. 83-109), the author provides a detailed study of the version in the collection of the Marquis de Ganay, which she attributes to Leonardo. The catalogue includes a discussion of the many other versions of this composition and the iconographic tradition to which it belongs.

433.      VELTMAN, Kim H., Studies on Leonardo da Vinci I: Linear Perspective and the Visual Dimensions of Space and Art (Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1986).

Working in collaboration with Kenneth Keele, Veltman focuses on "Leonardo's linear perspectival interests in order to throw light on his theory and practice of representation."  Ancient and medieval traditions and the innovations of the quattrocento are outlined as a prelude to a comprehensive analysis of Leonardo's perspective theory and practice, its application to curvilinear surfaces, and anamorphosis (prospettiva artificiale). According to Veltman, Leonardo viewed perspective as a means for rendering geometry naturally and nature geometrically. Fundamental to this study is the interdependence perceived between Leonardo's artistic and scientific drawings. Perspective was not simply a device for copying nature, but a method bridging nature and geometry, enabling the creation of plausible, three-dimensional models of concrete objects in nature and of abstract concepts. Veltman explains that the application of Leonardo's perspective theories to color resulted in the development of aerial perspective as a more effective technique for imitating depth in space on a two-dimensional surface. Finally, Veltman traces Leonardo's growing awareness of discrepancies between geometrical laws and the psychological experience of vision which inspired his new concept of chiaroscuro. The appendices include translations of relevant portions of Piero della Francesca, De prospectiva pingendi; Luca Pacioli, Summe di arithetica, geometria, proortioni e proportionalita (Venice: Paganinus de Paganinis, 1494); and Cesare Cesarino, Di Lucio Vitruvio De architectura (Como: da Ponte, 1521).

434.      CONATO, Luigi Giuseppe, Leonardo e il passaggio Lombardo, vol. 1 (Brescia: Sardini, 1987). Guerrini 6060

This photo essay juxtaposes Leonardo's painted and drawn landscapes with photographs of the actual sites depicted.

435.      ROSAND, David, The Meaning of the Mark: Leonardo and Titian (Franklin D. Murphy Lectures 8; Lawrence, Kansas: Spencer Museum of Art, 1988).

Rosand's essay "On Drawing a Line" examines the fundamental importance of drawing for Leonardo. Rosand demonstrates how this technique was integral to Leonardo's intellectual process of invention and discovery: "it is through the act of drawing that the artist controls the forms of nature" (p. 25).

~ 436. ROSSI, Marco and Alessandro Rovetta, Il cenacolo di Leonardo: Cultura domenicanaiconografia eucaristica e tradizione lombarda (Quaderni del restauro 5; Milan: Ministerio per i beni culturali e ambientai, 1988). Guerrini 6108

In this important contribution to the understanding of Leonardo's Last Supper, the authors examine the iconographic conventions associated with the theme and Leonardo's innovations; the theology of the eucharist, particularly within the Dominican order; Ludovico's patronage of Santa Maria della Grazia; and the influence of Leonardo's fresco through a study of numerous contemporary copies.


But if you would have me speak only of panel painting I am content to give an opinion between it and sculpture by saying that painting is more beautiful, more imaginative, and richer in resources, while sculpture is more enduring, but excels in nothing else.

 Codex Ashburnham 2038, 24v

One of the chief proofs of the skill of the painter is that his picture should seem in relief, and this is not the case with the sculptor, for in this respect he is aided by nature.

Codex Atlanticus, 305r

437.      COURAJOD, Louis and Charles Ravaisson-Mollien, Conjectures a propos d′un buste en marbre di Béatrix d′Este au musée du Louvre e etude sur les connaissances botanique de Léonard de Vinci (Paris: Rapilly, 1877). Verga 723; Guerrini 607

The volume includes Courajod's essay previously published in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts (October, 1877) and his subsequent correspondence with Ravaisson-Mollien concerning a marble portrait of Beatrice d′Este in the Louvre. In attributing the carving to Leonardo, Courajod emphasizes the significance of the interlace designs on the fabric. Ravaisson-Mollien suggests that the floral pattern implies an awareness of plant reproduction.

438.      COURAJOD, Louis, Léonard de Vinci e la statua de Francesco Sforza (Paris: Campion, 1879). Guerrini 629

Published originally in L'arte (1879; Verga 759), this essay gathers the documents and designs related to this protracted project. Materials now associated with the later Trivulzio monument are also included.

439.      FRANTZIUS, Fritz von, "Leonardo da Vinci's Flora Bust- Or Mona Lisa in Wax," Fine Art Journal 26 (May, 1912), pp. 307-11. Verga 2083

Reviews the controversy surrounding Flora, a bust attributed to Leonardo by Wilhelm von Bode, who purchased it for the Berlin museum. According to A. D. Lucas, however, the figure was modeled by his father, Richard C. Lucas, in 1846.

440.      BELTRAMI, Luca, La ricostituzione del monumento sepolcrale per il maresciallo Trivulzio in Milano di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Treves, 1920). Verga 2522

From fragmentary documents and drawings, Beltrami attempts to reconstruct the design of the unbuilt Trivulzio monument.

441.      MALAGUZZI-VALERI, Francesco, Leonardo da Vinci e la scultura (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1922). Verga 2615; Guerrini 1850

In separate chapters, Valeri examines Leonardo's relationship with the sculptor Gian Francesco Rustici and with Verrocchio. In his discussion of works attributed to Leonardo, Valeri offers a long excursus on the Berlin Flora (see Nos. 169, 439). The third chapter, devoted to Leonardo's equestrian monuments, is followed by an evaluation of Leonardo's influence on Renaissance sculpture.

442.      COOK, Theodore Andrea, Leonardo da Vinci, Sculptor (London: Humphreys, 1923). Verga 2640; Guerrini 1878

The author attributes the Albizzi Madonna to Leonardo, dating it about 1478. The terracotta relief, formly known as the Signa Madonna, entered the collection of G. B. Diblee from Sant′Ilario, the Albizzi villa on the outskirts of Florence. (It was sold at Christie's, London, June 21, 1964; present whereabouts unknown.) Günter Passavant tentatively attributes the composition to Benedetto da Maiano ( Verrocchio [London: Phaidon, 1969], p. 206, app. no. 20); Charles Seymour believes it to be based upon a lost marble relief (before 1470) by Verrocchio (The Sculpture of Verrocchio [Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1971], pp. 119-20, 166-67, cat. no. 13). There is a cognate relief in the Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio.

443.      MÖLLER, Emil, La gentildonna dalle belle mani di Leonardo da Vinci (Bologna: Pedretti, 1954). Guerrini 3627

In his discussion of the bust of Lucrezia Donati in the Bargello, Florence, Möller dismisses the traditional attribution to Verrocchio and ascribes the marble to Leonardo. The volume includes (pp. 111-13) a bibliography of the author's writings on Leonardo.  Today both the identity of the subject as the mistress of Lorenzo the Magnificent (or as Ginevra de'Benci) and the attribution to Leonardo are questioned (see Charles Seymour, The Sculpture of Verrocchio[Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1971], pp. 118-19, 166; Günter Passavant, Verrocchio [London: Phaidon, 1969], pp. 33-34, 180-81, cat. no. 10).

444.      BOVI, Arturo, L'Opera di Leonardo per il monumento Sforza a Milano (Florence: Olschki, 1959). Guerrini 4106

This monograph was inspired by a wax model of a horse first published by Suida (No. 375). Bovi gathers the references in the Notebooks and other documents related to this unrealized project on which Leonardo worked for about sixteen years after his arrival in Milan in 1483.

445.     PARRONI, Giuseppi, Leonardo scultore (Rome: Porfiri, 1959). Guerrini 4095

General survey of the sculptural works traditionally associated with Leonardo.

446.      LENKEY, Susan V., An Unknown Leonardo Self-Portrait (Stanford, Calif.: [privately printed], 1963).

The pamphlet considers the authorship of the Alexander the Great relief (Washington, D.C., National Gallery) which is traditionally attributed to Verrocchio. The author concludes (p. 19) that it "cannot be regarded as a work of Leonardo's hand, but it is certainly a work of his conception" and that it was originally sent to King Mathias Corvinus of Hungary. She also identifies Leonardo's "self-portrait" among the decorations of the armor. However, the marble is identified as "after Andrea Verrocchio" by the National Gallery (John Walker, National Gallery of Art, rev. ed. [New York: Abrams, 1984], cat. no. 980). It is attributed to an "imitator of Verrocchio" by Günter Passavant (Verrocchio [London: Phaidon, 1969], cat. no. A4) and to the "workshop of Verrocchio" by Charles Seymour (The Sculpture of Verrocchio [Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1971], pp. 27, 170-71, cat. no. 25).

447.      AGGHÁZY, Maria G., Leonardo's Equestrian Statuette (Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó, 1989).

The bronze statuette studied in this monograph was first published by Simon Meller ("Die Reiterdarstellungen Leonardo da Vincis und die Budapester Bronzestatuette," Jahrbuch der Königlich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 37 [1916], pp. 213-50) when it was still in the collection of the Academic sculptor István Ferenczy. Aggházy summarizes the subsequent literature concerned with the attribution, offers a technical study, and examines prototypes. Considered in the context of Leonardo's career and surviving works, the author supports the attribution to Leonardo, explaining that it was made for François I and cast between Autumn, 1516 and the artist's death in May, 1519. For more on the composition, see Michael Hall, "Reconsiderations of Sculpture by Leonardo da Vinci. A Bronze Statuette in the J. B. Speed Art Museum," J. B. Speed Art Museum Bulletin 29 (1973), pp. 7-59.


A building should always be detached on all sides so that its form may be seen.

Ms. B, 39v

An arch is nothing other than a strength caused by two weaknesses; for the arch in buildings is made up of two segments of a circle, and each of these segments being in itself very weak desires to fall, and as the one withstands the downfall of the other the two weaknesses are converted into a single strength.

Ms. A, 50r

448.      BELTRAMI, Luca, Leonardo da Vinci negli studi per il tiburio della cattedrale di Milano (Milan: Allegretti, 1903). Verga 1457; Guerrini 1021

449.      ANNONI, Ambrogio, "Tiburi Lombardi e cupole Leonardesche," Atti del 1º Congresso nazionale di storia dell'architettura (1936).

450.      BARONI, Constantino, "Elementi stilistici fiorentini negli studi vinciani di architettura a cupola," Atti del 1º congresso nazionale di storia dell'architettura (1936). Guerrini 2263

451.      PICA, Agnoldomenico, "Sogno e realtà dell′architettura di Leonardo," Annali dei layon pubblici (1940). Guerrini 2567

452.      CALVI, Ignazio, L′Architettura militare di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Libreria Lombard, 1943). Guerrini 2613

Calvi places Leonardo in his historical context to analyze his work as a miliary engineer for Francesco Sforza and Caesare Borgia. The text includes selections from Ms. B.

453.     DIBNER, Bern, Leonardo da Vinci Military Engineer (New York: Burndy Library, 1946). Guerrini 2665

Dibner offers a general discussion of Leonardo's architectural and mechanical contributions to the art of war.

454.      MASTRONARDI, Letizia, Il dominio degli Sforza e l'opera di Leonardo da Vinci a Vigevano (Vigevano: Valvassori, 1952). Guerrini 2952

The essay surveys Leonardo's architectural designs for the grounds and villa of La Sforzesca at Vigevano and his plans for irrigating the surrounding farmland. For a more recent study of these projects, see Carlo Pedretti, Leonardo Architect, trans. Sue Brill (New York: Rizzoli, 1985),  pp. 63-67.

455.      MIKHATLOV, Boris Petrovich, Leonardo da Vinci-Architect (Moscow: State Publishing House for Buildings and Architecture, 1952).

History of Leonardo's architectural endeavors (in Russian).

456.     SARTORIS, Alberto, Léonard architecte (Paris: Tallone, [1952]). Guerrini 3008

Superficial survey of Leonardo's activities as an architect, but with fine illustrations.

457.      MARINONI, Augusto, "Il regno e il sito di venere," Convivium, n.s. 4 (March-April 1956), pp. 164-75. Guerrini 3872

Study of Leonardo's theatrical designs.

458.      SISI, Enrico, L'urbanistica negli studi di Leonardo da Vinci (Florence: Cencetti, 1953). Guerrini 3590

Sisi attempts to analyze Leonardo's concept of the city and examines his architectural studies from the perspective of urban planning.

459.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, A Chronology of Leonardo da Vinci's Architectural Studies after 1500 (Geneva: Droz, 1962). Guerrini 4264

Pedretti refines the methods developed by Calvi (see No. 214) in order to place in proper sequence manuscripts and drawings for Leonardo's later architectural projects.

460.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Leonardo's Plans for the Enlargement of the City of Milan," Raccolta Vinciana 19(1962), pp. 137-47. Guerrini 4293

461.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, "Leonardo da Vinci e la Villa Melzi a Vaprio," L'Arte 62 (July-December, 1963), pp. 229-39. Guerrini 4348

Identifies a group of architectural studies as plans made about 1513 for modifying the villa of his friend and pupil Francesco Melzi.

462.      STEINITZ, Kate Trauman, Leonardo arc hitetto teat rale e organizzatore di Feste (Florence: Barbéra, 1970). Guerrini 4667

Examining Leonardo's involvement in the production of Bernardo Bellincioni's Feste de Paradiso (1490), Poliziano's Orfeo (1491), and Baldessarre Taccone's Danaë (1496), Steinitz reviews Leonardo's career as a designer of stage machinery and "special effects."

463.      HEYDENREICH, Ludwig H., Die sakralban-studien Leonardo da Vinci's (Munich: Fink, 1971). Guerrini 4706

Based on his 1929 dissertation, Heydenreich examines the full range of Leonardo's activity as an architect, focusing on his plans for the dome of Milan cathedral and his designs for centralized churches.

464.      PEDRETTI, Carlo, Leonardo da Vinci. The Royal Palace at Romorantin (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972). Guerrini 4726

Pedretti reviews Leonardo's activity as an architect as a prelude to his detailed study of his designs for a royal residence at Romorantin on the Saudre River. Archival records as well as all references in Leonardo's manuscripts are employed to clarify the character and monumental scope of the project, which occupied Leonardo's final three years but was abandoned by François I in favor of Chambord. The volume includes a useful history of "The Literature on Leonardo as an Architect" (pp. 131-37).

465.     PEDRETTI, Carlo, Leonardo architetto (Milan: Electa, 1978). Guerrini 5060

In this lavish and comprehensive survey, Pedretti first examines Leonardo's chronological development as an architect and then considers his work in specific categories. An English edition was published in 1981.

466.     DOGLIO, Mariangela Mazzocchi et al., eds., Leonardo e gli spettacoli del suo tempo (Milan: Electa, 1983). Guerrini 5601

The catalogue of an exhibition examining civic festivals and Leonardo's involvement in these pageants. A subsidiary section deals with Leonardo as a musician and the musical instruments of the age.

Support Materials


I never weary of being useful. Naturally nature has so fashioned me.

Windsor 12700 r

467.      FAVARO, Antonio, Gli scritti inediti di Leonardo da Vinci (Venice: Antonelli, 1885, from Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti  3 [1885]). Verga 883; Guerrini 699

Reviews recent publications of Leonardo's manuscripts.

468.      FAVARO, Antonio, "Di alcuni recenti layon du Leonardo da Vinci," Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti 3 (1890), pp. 15-47. Verga 1070; Guernini 769

Reviews recent publications on Leonardo.

469.     BELTRAMI, Luca, Bibliographia Vincicina, 1885-1919 (Roma: Bandi, 1919). Verga 2404; Guerrini 1620

Catalogues Beltrami's numerous writings on Leonardo.

470.      VERGA, Ettore, Gli studi intorno a Leonardo da Vinci nell′ultimo cinquantennio, 1882-1922 (Rome: Maglione e Strini, 1923). Verga 2703; Guerrini 1762

As a prelude to his monumental Bibliografia Vinciana (No. 472), Verga reviews fifty years of research on Leonardo.

~ 471. VERGA, Ettore, Bibliografia Vinciana 1493-1930, 2 vols. (Bologna: Zanchelli, 1931). Guerrini 2138

A fundamental reference tool in the study of Leonardo, the volumes offer a virtually complete listing of writings by and about Leonardo until 1930. The bibliography begins with a chronological list of published editions of Leonardo's Trattato della Pittura, Notebooks, and drawings, followed by anthologies. Writings about Leonardo are cited chronologically and listed alphabetically by author within each year. Entries are generally accompanied by critical notes or summaries as well as references to reviews. The bibliography is augmented by two useful indices, one citing authors and the other referencing individuals and subjects.

472.      MABBOTT, Maureen Cobb, "A Checklist of the Editions of Leonardo da Vinci's Works in College and Public Libraries in the U.S.," Bulletin of the New York Public Library 38 (November, 1934), pp. 911-18.

473.      MABBOTT, Maureen Cobb, Catalogue of the Lieb Memorial Collection of Vinciana (Hoboken, N.J.: Stevens Institute of Technology, 1936). Guerrini 2261

474.      BELT, Elmer and Kate Steinitz with Margot Archer, Manuscripts of Leonardo da VinciTheir History, with a Description of the Manuscript Editions in Facsimile (Los Angeles: Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana, 1948). Guerrini 2720

This useful volume begins with Belt's history of the manuscripts. Steinitz and Archer provide a descriptive bibliography of the facsimile editions of the manuscripts. The volume concludes with a brief description of the Belt Library of Vinciana.

~ 475.   STEINITZ, Kate Trauman, Leonardo da Vinci's "Trattato della Pittura". . . A Bibliography of the Printed Editions 1651-1956 (Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1958). Guerrini 4009

Steinitz, librarian of the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana at the University of California, Los Angeles, employed the comprehensive resources of this research facility for this annotated bibliography describing sixty-two printed editions and their manuscript sources. The text is augmented in "Bibliography Never Ends... Addenda to Leonardo da Vinci's Trattato della Pittura, Treatise on Painting, A Bibliography," Raccolta Vinciana 18 (1960), pp. 97111; and "Trattato Studies II," Raccolta Vinciana 19 (1963), pp. 223-54.

476.     RETI, Ladislao, The Library of Leonardo da Vinci (Los Angeles, 1970).

The booklet discusses Leonardo's library and identifies the 116 volumes he listed in Madrid Codex II, 2v-3r.

477.      FINGER, Francis, Catalogue of the Incunabula in the Elmer Belt Library of Vinciana (Los Angeles: Friends of the UCLA Library, 1971). Guerrini 4689

In addition to collecting materials by and about Leonardo, the Elmer Belt Library gathers books in the editions used by Leonardo (based on the list in Codex Atlanticus 210r) or related to him in other ways. This catalogue documents this unique collection, describing the relevance of each volume to the study of Leonardo and his sources.

478.      LUDMER, Joyce Pellerano, Carlo Pedretti: A Bibliography of His Work on Leonardo da Vinci and the Renaissance (Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles [1987]). Guerrini 6030

Following an introduction summarizing Pedretti's scholarly career, the volume features a complete listing of 240 books, articles, and reviews he published before 1987.

479.     GUERRINI, Mauro, Biblioteca Leonardiana, 3 vols. (Milano: Bibliografica 1990).

This massive bibliography provides a comprehensive listing of the published editions of Leonardo's works and of writings about him. The items are arranged chronologically in the first volume. The two additional volumes provide extremely useful indices, enabling the researcher to locate items by date, author, subject, title, journal, language, etc.


Therefore you should be desirous of hearing patiently the opinions of others, and consider and reflect carefully whether or no he who censures you has reason for his censure; and correct your work if you find his is right, but if not, then let it seem that you have not understood him, or, in case he is a man whom you esteem, show him by argument why it is that he is mistaken.

   Codex Ashburnham 2038, 26r

~ 480.   RACCOLTA VINCIANA, vols. 1-23, 1905-

The premier journal devoted to Leonardo, it includes scholarly articles on all aspects of Leonardo's life and career. Begun in 1905, the journal suspended publication between 1940-1953 and between 1965-1981.

~ 481.   NOTIZIARIO VINCIANO, vols. 1 (1977)-

The journal is published by the Centro ricerche leonardiane, Brescia. The Guzzetta Collection lacks vols. 23-24.


Edited by Patricia Trutty-Coohill and published between September 1983-September 1989, this bulletin provided readers with brief notices on various aspects of Leonardo studies as well as news regarding publications and conferences. The bibliographical component remains available on-line through Internet.


Published in conjunction with the Armand Hammer Center for Leonardo Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, this elegant and lavish journal features articles on all aspects of Leonardo's activities. Included as well are notes on relevant exhibitions and publications.


The abbreviators of works do injury to knowledge and to love, for love of anything is the offspring of knowledge, love being more fervent in proportion as knowledge is more certain; and this certainty springs from a thorough knowledge of all those parts which united compose the whole of that thing which ought to beloved. Of what use then is he who abridges the details of those matters of which he professes to give thorough information, while he leaves behind the chief part of the things of which the whole is composed? It is true that impatience, the mother of stupidity, praises brevity, as if such persons had not life long enough to serve them to acquire a complete knowledge of one single subject. .

Windsor, Anatomy III, 241

~ 484.   CONTEMPORARY COPY OF A NOTARIAL DOCUMENT, Written by the hand of the notary Paolo Brascha (Milan, 1498-99). (See illustration on page 120.)

This document records a real estate transaction between Elisabetta Trovamali and Lodovico Sforza, who sought the land abutting Leonardo's vineyard for a new road connecting San Vittore to Santa Maria della Grazia (today Via Bernardo Zenale). Published by Girolamo Biscaro, "La Vigna di Leonardo da Vinci fuori di porta Vercellina,"  Archivio Storico Lombardo (1909), pp. 365-96, the document confirms 2 October 1498 as the date Lodovico gave the vineyard to Leonardo. The document mentions Leonardo by name in three places. On this vineyard, see Beltrami (No. 495).

485.      LOMAZZO, Giovanni Paolo, Trattato de l'arte de la pittura (Milan: Pontio, 1584). Verga 125; Guerrini 358.

Lomazzo (1538-1600), a Milanese painter who was acquainted with Francesco Melzi, included references to Leonardo throughout this monumental treatise on the principles of painting. The volume consititutes an important early record of Leonardo's writings and of the diffusion of his ideas. On the references, see Edmundo Solmi, "Ricordi della vita e delle opere di Leonardo da Vinci raccolti degli scritti di Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo," Archivio storico lombardo 34 (1907), pp. 290-331; and Carlo Pedretti, "Ricordi di Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo," in Studi Vinciani (No. 186), pp. 54-76.

486.     FUMAGALLI, Ignazio, Scuola diLionarda da Vinci in Lombardia (Milan: Reale Stamperia, 1811). Verga 304; Guerrini 404

Discussing Leonardo's pictorial influence, Fumagalli focuses on paintings after his designs produced by several students and followers. The text is enlivened by Fumagalli's elegant reproductive engravings.

487.     GATTESCHI, Stanislao, Elogio di Leonardo da Vinci (Florence: Calasanziani, 1841). Verga 415; Guerrini 453

The volume contains the text of a speech delivered before the grand duke and duchess of Tuscany in which Gatteschi locates Leonardo in the line of great scientists such as Galileo, Copernicus, and Kepler.

488.      LONGONI, Giacinto, Cenni sui dipinti di Marco d'Ogginone (Lecco: Corti, 1858). Guerrini 497

This lecture celebrates Marco d'Oggione (ca. 1475-1530), one of the more important of Leonardo's Milanese followers. On this painter, see Dominico Sedini, Marco d'Oggione tradizione e  innovamento in Lornbardia tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento (Rome: Sapi, 1989).

489.     BLASIS, Carlo de, Studj interno all′arte e al genio di Leonardo da Vinci (Milan: Enrico Plitti, 1872). Verga 669; Guerrini 570

An encomium to Leonardo's genius, this pamphlet was occasioned by the unveiling (September 4, 1872) in Milan of the monument by Pietro Magni commemorating Leonardo as the "reviver of art and science."  The monument was commissioned in 1857, but not completed until 1872. On the history of the project, see Ettore Verga, "Le vicende del monumento a Leonardo da Vinci in Milano,"  Raccolta Vinciana 4 (1908), pp. 94-101.

490.     BERENSON, Bernhard, The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, 2nd rev. ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1902).

In this influential survey of painting in Renaissance Tuscany, Berenson follows the Vasarian tradition by identifying Leonardo as a pivotal figure in the evolution of Italian painting. Of the aesthetic quality of the Notebooks Berenson observed that "nothing that he touched but turned into a thing of beauty. Whether it be the cross-section of a skull, the structure of a weed. . . he. . . forever transmuted into life-communicating values" (p. 67). Acknowledging the diversity of Leonardo's activities, the famous connoisseur concluded (p. 68) that "painting. . . was to Leonardo so little of a preoccupation that we must regard it as merely a mode of expression used at moments by a man of universal genius."

491.      NEGRI, Gaetano, "Leonardo e il castello di Milano," in Segni di Tempo, Opera di Gaetano Negri IV (Milan: Hoepli, 1909), pp. 26-44.

The essay reviews Paul Müller-Walde, Leonardo da Vinci (No. 332) and Luca Beltrami, Il Castello di Milano durante il dominio dei Visconti e degli Sforza(1894).

492.     BELTRAMI, Luca, Le "Molteplici e faticoso richerche" del Direttore della Raccolta Vinciana Dott. Ettore Verga, prima parta (periodo 1905-1913) (Milan: Umberto Allegretti, 1919). Verga 2411; Guerrini 1715

An active participant in the early twentieth-century controversy among Leonardisti, Beltrami offers an impassioned response to Ettore Verga, who had criticized Beltrami's methodology.

493.      LEONARDO COMMEMORATO NELLA TERRA NATALE (Roma: Tipographia del Senato, 1919). Verga 2468; Guerrini 1677

This slim volume records celebratory speeches by Giovanni Rosadi, Mario Cermenati, and Alessandro Martelli delivered in the aftermath of World War I and in celebration of the restoration of Leonardo's home in Vinci.

494.      BELTRAMI, Luca, La Edizione Nazionaile Vinciane e l′Istituto Cermenati: 1902-1920 (Milan: Umberto Allegretti, 1920). Verga 2523; Guerrini 1778

This vitriolic pamphlet offers a personal critique of the bureaucratic vicissitudes surrounding the production of the National Edition, an ambitious effort to publish all of Leonardo's manuscripts in facsimile. The author also offers opinions regarding the condition of current Leonardo studies.

~ 495.   BELTRAMI, Luca, La vigne di Leonardo (Milano: Umberto Allegretti, 1920). Verga 2521; Guerrini 1818

In this essay Beltrami reconstructs the history of the vineyard given to Leonardo in 1498 by his patron, Ludovico Sforza, ruler of Milan. The narrow strip of land is located near Santa Maria della Grazia, where Leonardo had just completed painting the Last Supper. Eventually, Leonardo bequeathed the vineyard to his favorite pupil, Andrea Salaì. Beltrami photographed the site- including the central pergola dating perhaps from Leonardo's day-shortly before the site was redeveloped. For a manuscript associated with this vineyard, see No. 484.

496.      GALBIATI, Giovanni, Il "Cenacolo" di Leonardo da Vinci del pittore Giuseppi Bossi nei giudizi d′illustri contemporanei (Milan: Alfieri and Lacroix, 1920). Verga 2543; Guerrini 1775

Galbiati describes the critical fortune of Bossi's landmark study of the Last Supper (No. 319). Included is an anthology of texts reviewing Bossi's monograph. See also No. 498.

497.      LEONARDO TRA GLI SPLENDORI DELLA SUA RACCOLTA ALL′AMBROSIANA 31 MARZO 1938 (Milan: Hoepli, 1939). Guerrini 2498

This commemorative volume features the texts of celebratory lectures by Giovanni Galbiati, Francesco Orestano, Enrico Carusi, and Pietro Corla delivered on completion of renovations to the Leonardo rooms at the Ambrosian Library.

498.      MAZZUCCHETTI, Lavinia, Goethe e il "Cenacolo" di Leonardo (Milan: Hoepli, 1939). Guerrini 2437.

Mazzucchetti analyzes Goethe's response to the Last Supper as expressed in his extended review of Bossi's Del Cenacolo di Leonardo da Vinci (1810; No. 319). The volume includes Goethe's comments (originally published in Kunst und Altertum I, iii [1817], pp. 113-88), a French translation, and G. H. Noehden's English translation, which first appeared in 1821. Noehden's translation is now more conveniently found in John Gage, ed., Goethe on Art (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), pp. 166-95.

499.      APERLO, G., Iconographia di Leonardo da Vinci nella medaglie (Firenze: Tipoclographia classica, 1942).

This pamphlet surveys medals struck in honor of Leonardo. The medals date from 1669-1939.

500.     KETTNER, Frederick, Leonardo the Biosopher (New York: Biosophical Society, 1943).

Leonardo is pressed into the service of "Biosophy," a doctrine of spiritual self-education and character improvement developed by the author. Leonardo's art is seen as an expression of the "biosophical conception of man," bringing "spiritual refreshment" and "awareness of the essential values of life."

501.     HAHN, Harry, The Rape of La Belle (Kansas City: Glenn, 1946). Guerrini 2674

The author describes the famous trial in which Mrs. Andree Hahn sued the famous dealer Sir Joseph Duveen for disparaging her version of Le Belle Ferronière and thereby diminishing its market value. The prime version of this composition is generally considered to be in the Louvre, Paris, although its attribution to Leonardo has itself been questioned (see Angela Ottino della Chiesa, The Complete Paintings of Leonardo [New York: Abrams, 1967], no. 28). Many art historians, conservators, and connoisseurs testified, but the result was a hung jury. Before a second trial commenced, the matter was settled out of court. In the course of his discussion, the author contrasts the contribution of science to the subjective nature of traditional connoisseurship, questions the scruples prevalent in the art world, and offers a spirited defense of the Hahn picture.

502.      PACETTI, P. D., Lorenzo di Ser Piero da Vinci fratello di Leonardo e il suo "Confessionario" autografo nel Cod. 1420 della Biblioteca Riccardiana di Firenze(Florence: Quaracchi, 1952). Guerrini 3240

The author examines the Confessionario (1527) by Leonardo's legitimate half-brother for the light it sheds on the artist.

503.      KINNEY, Harrison, The Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci. An Account of Its Re-Creation by Lumen Martin Winter (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953). Guerrini 3474

Disappointed by the condition of Leonardo's fresco, Eugene Holton commissioned a reconstruction of the Last Supper from the mural painter Lumen Martin Winter. In addition to an account of Leonardo's life, the author describes the process of reconstruction. When it was exhibited in 1951, critics acknowledged it to be an accurate approximation, though they added that "Mr. Winter, it must be admitted, was not Leonardo." Holton established a museum in Florida for the display of Winter's full-size replica.

504.      MARINONI, Augusto, "Il Contributo dell′Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e lettere agli studi vinciani," Rendicanti Istituto Lombardo di scienze e lettere 56 (1953), pp. 178-84.

~505.    PACIOLI, Luca, De Divina Proportione, ed. Franco Riva (Milan: [Mediobanca], 1956). Guerrini 3824

Leonardo worked closely with the mathematician Luca Paciolo, whose accomplishments are described in the essay by Giuseppina Masotti Bioggiogero (pp. 215-33). Leonardo provided color illustrations for Pacioli's treatise on regular bodies which are reproduced in this luxurious facsimile edition of the 1497 manuscript. In 1637, Count Arconati presented this manuscript to the Ambrosian Library together with several of Leonardo's Notebooks. The Guzzetta Collection also contains a Spanish version of the 1506 edition: La Divina Proportione, trans. Ricardo Resta (Buenos Aires: Losada, 1946). It is in this treatise that Pacioli characterizes Leonardo as a "most praiseworthy painter, perspectivist, architect, musician, endowed with all the virtues." On Leonardo's illustrations, see No. 346.

506.      MARIJNISSEN, Roger H., Het da Vinci Dock van de Abdij van Tongerlo (Tongerlo: Abdij, 1959).

The author examines the history and authorship of a replica of Leonardo's Last Supper belonging to a premonstrant abbey at Tongerlo. First referred to in a document of 1569, it was presumably acquired in 1545 by Abbot Arnold Streyters. Marijnissen outlines the vicissitudes suffered by the canvas and the various conservation campaigns to which it was subjected. He concludes that the canvas is Italian and probably dates from Leonardo's lifetime. Citing Emil Möller, Das Abendmahl (No. 404), Marijnissen is inclined to favor an attribution to Andrea Solario on stylistic grounds, but remains uncertain because of contradictory documentary evidence.

507.     HEESVELDE, François van, Les signatures de Leonard de Vinci dans ses oeuvres (Antwerp: Blondé, 1962). Guerrini 3418

This idiosyncratic volume attributes several works to Leonardo on the basis of signatures encrypted as a monogram or the image of a bird's head. Heesvelde claims to have discovered these devices hidden, for example, on two cameos and a Mystic Marriage of StCatherine (a composition generally ascribed to Parmigianino) and other works more traditionally associated with Leonardo.

508.      STEINITZ, Kate Trauman, "Early Art Bibliographies. Who Compiled the First Art Bibliography?" Burlington Magazine 114 (December, 1972), pp. 829-37. Guerrini 4721

Steinitz proposes the bibliography included by Raphael du Fresne in his 1651 edition of the Trattato (No. 30) as the first published art bibliography.


(This section includes studies and literature designed for youthful audiences.)

Learning acquired in youth arrests the evil of old age; and if you understand that old age has wisdom for its food, you will so conduct yourself in youth that your old age will not lack nourishment.

Codex Atlanticus, 112r

Poor is the pupil who does not surpass his master.

Codex Forster III, 66v

Let him expect disaster who shapes his course on a young man's counsel.

Ms. H, 119v

509.      SAVORGNAN DI BRAZZA, Francesco, Da Leonardo a Marconi (Rome: Edizione della direzione generale degli Italiani all'estero e delle scuole, 1932). Guerrini 2166

Designed for schoolchildren, this collection of brief biographies places Leonardo (pp. 39-47) as the first in the tradition of the great Italian inventors. The Guzzetta Collection also contains the more elaborately illustrated, pocket-size fourth edition (Milan: Hoepli, 1941).

510.     LEWIS, Lorna, Leonardo the Inventor (London: Nelson, 1938). Guerrini 4096

A survey of Leonardo's technological innovations designed for younger readers.

511.      BlANCHI, Pietro, Leonardo: il precursore di mirabili conquista (Milan: Antonio Vallardi, 1939). Guerrini 2456

An inspirational biography intended for a youthful audience, the book emphasizes Leonardo's imaginative perspicacity. Published in 1939, the volume reflects the rampant nationalism of that era by praising Leonardo (p. 10) as "one of the ingenious immortals of our noble and holy fatherland." Juxtaposing Leonardo's designs with their modern manifestations, the illustrations by Melandri highlight Leonardo's technological inventiveness.

512.      LERMAN, Leo, Leonardo da Vinci Artist and Scientist (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1940).

An enthusiastic survey of Leonardo's work designed to intrigue young readers.

513.      LANSING, Elisabeth Hubbard, Leonardo, Master of the Renaissance (New York: Crowell, 1944).

Biography with added dialogue, for adolescent audiences. The Guzzetta Collection also includes a Spanish edition, trans. Arnold Luis Suanascini (Buenos Aires: Nueva, 1946).

514.     RIPLEY, Elizabeth, Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Oxford University Press, 1952).

Biography designed for an adolescent audience.

515.      ROEDEL, Reto, Leonardo da Vinci (Bellinzona: Istituto editoriale ticinese, 1952). Guerrini 3097

Quincentenary biography for schoolchildren.

516.     THOMAS, John, Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Criterion, 1957). Guerrini 4001

Biography for younger readers.

517.      UGOLINI, Luigi, Il romanzo di Leonardo (Turin: Paravia, 1959). A biographical novel with added dialogue - for younger audiences. First published in 1942.

518.     ALMEDINGEN, E. M., The YoungLeonardo, 2nded. (New York:  Roy, 1965). Guerrini 4372

Recreation of Leonardo's youth with illustrations by Azpelicueta.

519.      NEWCOMB, Covelle, Leonardo da Vinci, Prince of Painters (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1965). Guerrini 4453

This biography for younger readers is embellished with invented dialogue.

520.     NOBLE, Iris, Leonardo da Vinci, the Universal Genius (New York: Norton, 1965).

A laudatory description of Leonardo's accomplishments for younger readers.

521.     WILLIAMS, Jay, Leonardo da Vinci (New York: American Heritage, 1965). Guerrini 4492

A biography for an adolescent audience.

522.     McLANETHAN, Richard, Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Abrams, 1990).

A well-illustrated survey of Leonardo's artistic career intended for younger audiences.


In Tuscany reeds are put to support beds, to signify that here occur vain dreams, and here is consumed a great part of life: here is squandered much useful time, namely that of the morning when the mind is composed and refreshed, and the body therefore is fitted to resume new labours. There also are taken many vain pleasures, both with the mind imagining impossible things, and with the body taking those pleasures which are often the cause of the failing of life. .

 Oxford, Christ Church

The idea or the faculty of imagination is both rudder and bridle to the senses inasmuch as the thing imagined moves the sense.

Windsor Anatomical Folio B, 2v

523.      MUSSI, Francesco Cazzamini and Marion Moretti, Leonardo da Vinci. Poema drammatico in quattro atti (Milan: Castoldi, 1909). Verga 1832; Guerrini 1286

Each act occurs in a different locale (Milan, Florence, Rome, Amboise) with various artists and nobles serving as the protagonists.

524.      ANTONA-TRAVERSI, Camillo, "La grinfa di Guida (nel Cenacolo di Leonardo)," Nuovo antologia 55 (June, 1919), pp. 363-75. Verga 2401; Guerrini 1652

A one-act play featuring Leonardo, Ludovico Sforza, Boltrafflo, and Mona Lisa among the protagonists.

525.      BENAVENTE, Jacinto, The Smile of Mona Lisa, trans. John Armstrong Herman (Boston: Four Seas, 1919).

A narrative embellished with dialogue. For example, Leonardo explains, "My insatiate desire for perfection makes me discontented with my work. . . . It's so easy to please the vulgar. But Leonardo only works for Leonardo."

526.      FAGO, Lilia, Leonardo (Milan: Società anonima editrici Dante Alighieri, 1932). Guerrini 2173

This historical novel narrates the events of Leonardo's life with added dialogue.

527.      RAFFALOVICH, Serge and H. M. Mons, La Joconde: le roman d′amour (Paris: Fasquelle, 1935). Guerrini 2247

528.     SWEENEY, Tom, Leonardo da Vinci, A Drama in Verse (New York: Putnams, 1936).

529.     PETRINI, Enzo, Leonardo (Brescia: La Scuola, 1952). Guerrini 3041

A "novelization" of Leonardo's life with added dialogue.

530.      LEVINGER, Elma Ehrlich, Leonardo da Vinci Who Followed the Sinking Star (New York: Messner, 1954).

A popular biography with added dialogue.

531.      PAYNE, Robert, The Deluge, a novel by Leonardo da Vinci (New York: Twayne, 1954). Guerrini 3618

On the assumption that Leonardo's notes on the deluge are fragments of a story, Payne "reconstructs" the text, creating a novella from the evocative fragments.

532.      MILLER, Eugenia, The Sign of the Salamander (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967).

In this historical novel for young adults, a thirteen-year-old is transported back in time and has adventures at Leonardo's residence at Amboise.

533.     MAYFIELD, Sara, Mona Lisa: The Woman in the Portrait, a Fictional Biography (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1974).

534.     KONIGSBURG, E. L., The Second Mrs. Giaconda (New York: Atheneum, 1975).

An historical novel purporting to explain the creation of the portrait of Mona Lisa. The major protagonists are Leonardo, Salai, and Beatrice d'Este.

535.     LA MURE, Pierre, The Private Life of Mona Lisa (London: Collins, 1976).

536.     WOODHOUSE, Martin and Robert Ross, The Medici Emerald (New York: Dutton, 1976).

This is the second in a series of historical adventure novels featuring Leonardo da Vinci. The series began with The Medici Guns (London: Dent, 1974), also in the Guzzetta collection.


To enjoy - to love a thing for its own sake and for no other reason.

    Codex Trivulzianus, 59r


537.     HENNEQUIN, Daniel, Le nombril (Canada: Art-flash [1987]).

A "flip-book" animating Leonardo's "Vitruvian Man" in the Accademia, Venice.

538.     LEONARDO KNOWS BASEBALL (San Francisco: Chronicle, 1991).

Monotypes of baseball players by Charles Hobson are accompanied by Leonardo's observations on motion and equilibrium.