University of Rochester Library Bulletin: Early Rochester Textbooks, 1821-1850

Volume XXII · Fall 1966 · Number 1
Early Rochester Textbooks, 1821-1850

From the first years of its founding, Rochester, either through private or public common schools, sought to provide education for its children. As part of this early development there were a number of printers in the small village who published textbooks to be used in these schools. These Rochester printers, during the first half of the Nineteenth Century, by printing and publishing some forty different school books, contributed importantly to the learning endeavors of all Rochester school children. The quantity and quality of their work also were an integral part of the development and growth of the Rochester school system.

Many of these early textbooks, bearing a Rochester imprint, have been preserved and are housed in the University of Rochester Library. A selection of these will be described in the following pages as the growth of the Rochester school system is traced.

One of the earliest pioneer schools for children was started by Huldah Stone in one of the small neighborhoods in late 1813. The first district school house, Gates District No. 2, was opened in the fall of 1814. By 1817 there were four schools; two in the Brighton district and two in the Gates district. These schools provided for 402 students by 1821. As the population grew in the 1820's more district schools were built and several private schools were founded. Some of the private schools were common schools but most were on the secondary level. However, many of these private schools failed for lack of tuition. The first public high school was founded in 1827 by forming Brighton District No. 4 and No. 14 into a union school. Although it opened with forty students in 1828, by the second term there were three hundred students with all but thirty-seven in the elementary division.

The facilities provided for the students were often meager. Overcrowding and scarcity of textbooks were usual conditions. Because of the lack of adequate transportation, which made distribution precarious, and the difficulty in enforcing copyright laws, textbooks were not published on a large scale by individual publishers but rather by local printers. Everard Peck, who published the first book in Rochester, also printed and published the first textbook, Murray's English Grammar in 1821. This grammar was first published in 1795 and continued to be the most widely used and influential grammar until 1830. Murray not only put forth the rules and practices of orthography, etymology, syntax and prosody, but, as quoted:

He wishes to promote, in some degree, the cause of virtue, as well as of learning; and, with this view, he has been studious, through the whole of the work, not only to avoid every example and illustration, which might have an improper effect on the minds of youth; but also to introduce, on many occasions, such as have a moral and religious tendency…If they were faithfully regarded in all books of education, they would doubtless contribute very materially to the order and happiness of society, by guarding the innocence and cherishing the virtue of the rising generation.

Other Rochester school texts in common use during the early 1820's were "English Reader, Testament, Hulls & Websters Spelling Book... Cummings and Willits Geography, and Pikes & Roots Arithmetic…"

The firm of Marshall and Dean, a competitor of E. Peck, published Pike's Arithmetick in 1830. This was originally published in 1788 and became the first widely used American arithmetic. Along with chapters on addition, subtraction, decimals, interest, barter, weights and measures, a considerable space was devoted to federal money and the reduction of pounds and shillings of the various states to federal money. Under compound addition, not only liquid measure (wine measure) was given, but also ale or beer measure.



2 pintsMake One…quart, markedqt.
4 quartsMake One…gallongal.
8 gallonsMake One…firkin of Ale in LondonA.fir.
8 ½ gallons.Make One…firkin of Ale or Beerfir.
9 gallonsMake One…firkin of Beer in LondonB.fir
2 firkinsMake One…kilderkinkil.
2 kilderkinsMake One…barrelbar.
1 ½ barrel, or 45 gallonMake One…hogshead of Beerhhd.
2 barrelsMake One…puncheonpun.
3 barrels, or 2 hogsheadsMake One…buttbutt.

Some examples from "Useful and Diverting Exercises" in Pike's Arithmetick are:

A man dying left his wife in expectation that a child would be afterwards added to the surviving family; and making his will, ordered, that, if the child were a son 2% of his estate should belong to him, and the remainder to his mother; but if it were a daughter, he appointed the mother 2%, and the child the remainder. But it happened, that the addition was both a son and a daughter, by which the widow lost in equity, $2400 more than if there had been only a girl. What would have been  her dowry had she had only a son?

  Answer: $2100.

When first the marriage knot was tied
Between my wife and me,
My age with hers did so agree,
As nineteen does with eight and three;
But after ten and half ten years,
We man and wife had been,
Her age came up so near to mine,
As two times three to nine.
What was our ages at marriage?    

Answer: 57 and 33.

Another arithmetic was printed and published in the I 820's by Everard Peck, the Columbian Arithmetick. This too contains rules and problems on addition, division, federal currency, commission and brokerage, insurance and bookkeeping.

The most popular reading text of the early nineteenth century was Murray's English Reader. This was printed and published by Marshall, Dean and Co. in 1822 and 1829, and also by E. Peck and Co. in 1827. The author wished "the attainment of three objects: to improve youth in the art of reading; to meliorate their language and sentiments; and to inculcate some of the most important principles of piety and virtue." Rules for good reading were given. Selections of prose and poetry were taken from prominent authors such as Hume, Goldsmith, Addison, Johnson, Cowper, Pope, with most pieces by Blair, an important clergyman. The 1822 and 1829 printings by Marshall, Dean and Co. differ from Peck's publication in that they include a vocabulary listing before each selection under the editorship of Jeremiah Goodrich.

E. Peck also published Murray's Introduction to the English Reader in 1826. This was adapted for younger children in the common schools, to take them from the spelling books to the English Reader. The selections were shorter and some sections, such as argumentative pieces, pathetic pieces and public speeches, were omitted. Another popular reader, printed and published by Peck, in 1823, 1824 and 1826, was Bingham's American Preceptor. This reader was not as high in literary merit as Murray's reader, although a few selections from authors such as Horace Walpole, John Quincy Adams, and Shakespeare were included. On the whole, the stories were of a more popular nature, including short plays, historical events, and biographies. Representative titles included:

"The Child Trained Up for the Gallows," "Conveniences not Always Necessaries," "The Faithful American Dog," and "Dialoge, Shewing the Folly and Inconsistency of Duelling."

During the early 1820's a charity school was formed in Rochester and also a sabbath school where young children learned reading and writing. Here, as well as in the public and private common schools, the very young used the New England Primer to learn the alphabet and take the first steps in reading. E. Peck printed the New England Primer in 1822, 1824, 1825, 1827 and 1829. The alphabet, with block print illustration, was given in verse form:

F    The idle Fool
Is whipt at school.

X   Xerxes the great did die
And so must you and I.

A second alphabet in verse form was a little lighter in vein:

G was a Greyhound, and follow'd a hare.

R for the Robin, that sung on the spray.

Lists of words for spelling were given in syllable form proceeding from ab-sent, fa-cul-ty to E-van-gel-i-cal. This edition also included catechism questions and a "Dialogue between Christ, a Youth, and the Devil."

During the first half of the nineteenth century some readers stressed subject matter and in this, they were the forerunners of the "supplementary" readers. One such text was Blake's Historical Reader. It was printed and published in Rochester by E. Peck in 1826, 1827, 1830 and published by Hoyt, Porter and Co. in 1832, 1835 and 1836.

The object of this volume is to enable young persons, when learning to read at school, to acquire a knowledge of some of the most interesting and useful portions of history.

Illustrated with several woodcuts, the 120 selections cover topics from the creation to the Battle of New Orleans. Some poetry was interspersed, usually stressing a moral. Blake points out in his introduction that although "accounts of battles, massacres, and other tragical scenes" are given, "those who read history, must blame themselves or their teachers, if suitable moral reflections are not made as they pass along."

One of the most popular grammar's was Kirkham's English Grammar which was printed in Rochester twenty-two times between 1828 and 1846 by Marshall, Dean and Co. and William Alling and Co. All the editions are basically the same but with the eleventh a few items were added: address to the learner, sounds of letters, pronunciation, rhetorick and versification. The grammar included not only the usual grammatical rules but also a section on provincialisms, contractions, vulgarisms and other improprieties, the correction of which the author hoped would "be found useful in the districts to which the various phrases respectively belong." Some corrections for New England or New York were:

Where shell I dump my car, square? Dump it yonder. Whats the heft of your load?


Where shall I unload my cart? Yonder. What is the weight of your load?

Also correctly, say porch instead of stoop; sapling instead of staddle; reddish rather than foxy; one-horse sleigh for cutter. Those from Maryland, Virginia or Kentucky were admonished not to "Carry the horse to water but Lead the horse to water, or water the horse."

Two other grammars were printed in Rochester in the 1830's: Kennicott's Grammatical Expositor and Jenkins'English Grammar. Kennicott's Grammar was in the form of short lectures, followed by brief questions. He included, as was done in grammars other than Murray's, a section on transposing poetry to prose which as he says "you will find to be of great importance in enabling you to understand whatever you may chance to read." Jenkins' object was "to establish, and not to confound; or, in other words, not to make innovations in the science itself, but to present an improved method of teaching it." His grammar has short lessons with many illustrative examples, questions and answers on the lesson, and review questions. As in other texts of this time, uplifting or instructive examples were used as lessons as in the following: "General systematick ordo for parsing" (analyze each word in the sentence).

Of all the causes, which conspire to blind
Man's erring judgment, and misguide the mind,
What the weak head with strongest bias rules,
Is pride, the never failing vice of fools.

Jenkins' hints to teachers may give a glimpse of practices in the common school classroom.

The plan of instruction proposed in the following lectures, is, either for the learner to peruse a lecture and the interrogatories and answers attached to it, till he is prepared to answer with promptness all the annexed questions, or for the teacher to communicate the lecture to the class, verbally . . . after which, the class may be interrogated several times over on the same lecture, the whole reciting at a time; the same question to be asked and answered alternately, twice over…

The first grand object to be obtained, should be to acquire the habit of reciting together; in order to which, the class should be taught to speak each word or sentence very distinct, and with life and animation, avoiding, above all things, a drawing of words…Every individual of the class should, if possible, become as familiar with all the. . .exercises as with his own name, after which, the class may proceed in a similar manner through the next succeeding lecture…To the young and unpracticed, this will present a useful and pleasing variety of instruction.

An early history printed in Rochester was Yale's Outlines of General History. This was specifically written for those in the common schools in order that they would have some historical knowledge as they "enter early upon the active and laborious scenes of life." The history covers political and cultural events from the "earliest authentick records" in the Old and New World to the 1820's. A more detailed account of American history is given in a third section. Questions follow each chapter and "the answer to each question is, invariably, to be found in the first words, line, or number of the paragraph; generally in the precise words in which the scholar is expected to answer…A second series of questions has been introduced, designed to exercise the judgment of the learner in forming the answer, as well as to lead him to a more minute acquaintance with the history of America."

Progress was made in the Rochester school system during the 1840's, particularly in 1841 when the city established one of the first free tax-supported common school districts in New York State. In 1844 there were thirty-three private schools in Rochester, but by 1845 this number had been reduced to sixteen, partly due to the free schools. By 1849 there were eighteen public schools in Rochester with 5,655 pupils. Although the schools were faced with overcrowding and lack of funds, separate classes for girls and a separate school for Negroes continued in operation. As the schools developed the Board of Education devoted much time to the selection of proper textbooks.

Sanders' School Readers were printed by Sage and Brother in 1841, 1842, 1844 and 1845. Sanders' series of graded readers were first published in 1836, and contained such observations as the following:

In reading, the habit of inattention to the subject, is, perhaps, the most common fault among the younger classes in our schools. To obviate this evil, the author has endeavored, not only to bring each subject within the comprehension of the most limited capacities, but also to render it at the same time, sufficiently winning and attractive to allure the mind of the learner to such a voluntary exertion, as shall readily enable him to answer any question his teacher may think proper to ask.

Sanders tried to do this through using larger print, scattered illustrations and popular prose stories, poetry and songs. In his third book questions about the stories were added, along with spelling and definitions of words. One user, or parent, penciled in these comments on the first few pages:

The lessons in Towns 3rd book are more attractive, excite more interest while the rules interspersed through the book and illustration by the lesson make them impressive while in Sanders, there is not a correct rule for reading. Towns 3rd reader is more progressive in its lessons than this book, in this there is very little progression, the first lessons quite as difficult as the last. The scholar cannot be prepared in this book to commence the fourth, the lessons in the fourth are very difficult as much as his 5th reader. This book also has no system of punctuation, evidently Mr. Sanders thought it of little consequence.

Even though one owner felt this way, Sanders' readers between 1838 and 1860 sold thirteen million copies and rivaled McGuffey's readers in popularity. The first three books were the author's own compositions but the fourth book contained selections from numerous well-known authors. This book did include rules for reading, questions from the selections and questions on general reading rules.

Town's First Reader was published in 1844 and 1845 in Rochester by Fisher and Co. This was designed as an easy first reader with prose and poetry selections, some illustrations, but no questions since the author felt "uniformly asking questions in a given set of words, has a tendency to elicit answers of a corresponding uniformity. Such a habit becomes prejudical to freedom of thought." As in the grammars the child was taught to transpose. In this reader a story is given of Lucy's lamb followed by the poem:

Lucy had a little lamb,
Its fleece was white as snow,
And everywhere that Lucy went
The lamb was sure to go…

Town's Third Reader contains selections from American authors only and many are patriotic in note as the first one by Bancroft, "Preeminence of American Institutions." A section is devoted to the rules and observations on reading and another section to "General and Special Rules for Pronouncing the English Language."

Town's Grammar School Reader, which was not a part of his reading series, was published by Wanzer, Foote in Rochester in 1850. This was not a beginning reader but could be used between his third and fourth readers. It contained rules for reading and selections of prose and poetry along with questions on the selections, spelling and definitions. The author, as quoted:

Aimed to furnish a series of progressive lessons, fitted not only to teach the pupil how to read, but also to improve his literary and moral tastes, to expand his mind, and store it with useful knowledge.

Brown's Institutes of English Grammar, published by Alling, Seymour in 1 848, contained sections on orthography, etymology, syntax and prosody. The rules of grammar were followed by numerous comments, often comparing theories of different grammarians, and exercises and examples. Often the examples were from well-known authors, such as Milton, Shakespeare, Pope, Cowper, Addison, D. Webster, Sallust.

Two other grammars were published in Rochester during this period: Kenyon's Elements of English Grammar, 1850, and Sanders' Young Grammarian, 1847. Although most early grammars seem quite complicated, Kenyon's grammar, either because of the layout (outline form and wide spaces between rules, examples and exercises) or short examples and exercises, presents a less formidable task to the student. The author explains that the model for the grammar is geometry where:

The simplest elementary principles are first presented, followed by others, making each successive step depend on the preceding, till the whole structure is completed; so, in English Grammar…the first lessons embrace the simple principles and constructions; and each successive lesson introduces a new principle, bringing in, also, in connection with it, such of those already explained as may be necessary.

Sanders' Young Grammarian was a primary grammar and much shorter and less complicated than most grammars of the day. Sanders included the "elemental principles" and discarded "everything extraneous or obscure." Short examples and questions are given and difficult terms are defined before each lesson.

Sanders' Spelling Book accompanied his readers and grammars. H. Stanwood and Co. published it in 1839 and Sage and Brother in 1842, 1843 and 1845. After an introduction to orthography and the alphabet, Sanders' speller graduates from two-letter words and syllables to more difficult words. Short paragraphs to be read and written are included along with an explanation of prefixes, suffixes, and a listing of abbreviations (general, states and Biblical). All the printings are the same with the exception of the 1845 printing which included pictures in the lessons on three and four-letter words and devoted two pages to general rules for spelling. In McElligott's Young Analyzer the spelling lessons are given according to words with simple prefixes and suffixes, words of like meaning, words of opposite meaning, and compound words. A definition is given of each word and models for the written exercise are shown.

A teacher in Rochester, Celestia Bloss, contributed an ancient history to the social studies field. This was published by William Alling in 1845. The history covered the period from Biblical times to the Romans with the chapters arranged by countries and within, in chronological order. Each chapter, written in a narrative style, has a short general introduction and then is divided into one-hundred-year periods. Each child in the class was to be given the same hundred year span in any country's history and with "each pupil relating from the chart, the principal events of one century. The uniform flow of time is thus clearly presented, and contemporaneous events fixed indelibly upon the memory." The text also included several engraved, hand-colored maps.

William Alling also published the eighth and tenth editions of Young's Science of Government in 1842. The text includes chapters on the principles and types of government; government of the United States with a short historical background; civil jurisprudence and political economy. A few questions were included for the students. The only difference in the editions is the inclusion of the New York State Constitution in the tenth. It would seem a most useful book for the pupils in the common schools and their parents, since, as Young says:

In the state of New York alone, the number [of voters] is about fifteen thousand, and is composed, chiefly, of those whose education does not embrace even the first principles of political science.

A geography of New York State by Mather was published by Sage and Brother in 1847. Along with the geology, botany, and history of the state, a history of the individual counties is given including maps and some statistics. There are no questions, since, as the author says in his hints to teachers:

1st. We wish to lead children to think. 2d. We believe that every competent teacher is qualified to frame his own questions, and to teach his pupils to do the same.

In Clarks' Intellectual Arithmetic, the author is against the students learning by rote but feels that they should:

Be taught to trace the operations of their own minds and that of others; to reason from cause toeffect and from effect to cause-habits which none will dispute are of infinitely more importancethan the mere acquisition of this science.

The author also believed in combining the teaching of algebra and arithmetic for "when they are thus taught, the scholar will learn them, in one half the time it will require to learn them when they are taught separately." A section of Intellectual Arithmetic contains only arithmetic and algebra questions. The section on practical arithmetic and principle of numbers contains rules, examples and questions. As an aid to learning the number of days in each month, the following is given:

The 4th, 11th, 9th, and 6th,
Have 30 days to each affixed:
All the rest have 31,
Except the 2d month alone,
Which hath but 28 in fine,
Till leap year gives it 29.

Morey's Principles of Arithmetic, published by John Greves in 1850, included not only the explanations of the basic arithmetic functions, but also lessons on interest, stocks, loss and gain percent, insurance, and theories of algebra. Questions were given in some lessons.

Most textbooks of this period were not only written to instruct the student in a specific subject, but also to teach moral character as well. Merriman's Rochester School Songbook was no exception:

They {students] should never be allowed to sing low, doggerel rhymes; but select that which has purity of sentiment, the tendency of which is decidedly useful…The compiler has endeavored to make such selections as are of unexceptionable, moral character, intended, not merely to relieve the mind from the tedium of the school-room, but, also to convey many salutary and instructive lessons, calculated, at once, to improve the heart, and the musical taste of the pupil.

The book includes such songs as "Singing in School," "Flow Gently, Sweet Croton," "The Sweet Birds are Singing," "King Alcohol," and "America I Love Thee Still." There are several songs strumming for temperance, such as the following example:

A glass, a glass, but not of Sherry;
For we without it can be merry;
Cold water makes us happy, very.



Bingham, Caleb. The American Preceptor Improved: Being a New Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the Use of Schools. 66th.ed. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck, 1826.

Blake, John L. The Historical Reader, Designed for the Use of Schools and Families. On a New Plan. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck, 1827.

Bloss, Celestia A. Bloss' Ancient History, Illustrated by Colored Maps, and Arranged to Accompany a Chronological Chart, for the Use of Families and Schools. Rochester, N. Y., William Alling, 1845.

Brown, Goold. The Institutes of English Grammar, Methodically Arranged; with Examples for Parsing, Questions for Examination, False Syntax for Correction, Exercises for Writing, Observations for the Advanced Student, and a Key to the Oral Exercises: to Which are Added Four Appendixes. Designed for the Use of Schools, Academies, and Private Learners. Rochester, N. Y., Ailing, Seymour and Co., 1848.

Clark, Isaac A. Clark's Intellectual Arithmetic and Algebra: Arranged and Taught on the Universal Principle of Increase and Decrease, to Which All Questions are Referred, and by the Application of Which They Are Solved. Part Second. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1846.

Filer, Thomas A. The Columbian Arithmetick; Being an Easy and Concise System of Practical Arithmetick. Designed for the Use of Schools, and Adapted to the Currency of the Several States in the Union. To which is Added, a Compendious System of Bookkeeping. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck, 1826.

Jenkins, Amaziah. Systematick Lectures on English Grammar, on a New and Highly Approved Plan . . . the Whole Arranged on the Lycean Mode of Instruction, and Rendered Easy for the Learner by Teaching but One Thing at a Time. Designed for the Use of Schools and Private Learners. Rochester, N. Y., William Ailing and Co., 1836.

Kennicott, Dolphus. The Grammatical Expositor: Consisting of a Course of Explanatory Lectures, in Which the Principles of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody, Are Correctly Illustrated and Explained Containing Also, Exercises in Syntactical Parsing, and False Syntax . . . Designed for the Use of Schools and Private Learners. Rochester, N. Y., Gem Office, 1835.

Kenyon, William C. Elements of English Grammar, Analytical and Synthetical; Arranged in Progressive Exercises. Rochester, N. Y., Erastus Darrow, 1850.

Kirkham, Samuel. English Grammar in Familiar Lectures. 11th.ed. Rochester, N. Y., Marshall, Dean and Co., 1830.

_____English Grammar in Familiar Lectures, Accompanied by a Compendium; Embracing a New Systematick Order of Parsing, a New System of Punctuation, Exercises in False Syntax, a System of Philosophical Grammar in Notes, and a Key to the Exercises: Designedfor the Use of Schools and Private Learners. lOth.ed., enlarged and improvedRochester, N. Y., Marshall and Dean and Co., 1828.

McElligott, James N. The Young Analyzer; Being an Easy Outline of the Course of Instruction in the English Language, Presented in McElligott's Analytical Manual: Designed to Serve the Double Purpose of Spelling Book and Dictionary, in the Younger Classes in Schools. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1847.

McGregor, A. Laura. The Early History of Rochester Public Schools, 1813-1850. In: Rochester Historical Society.Publications, v.17. 1939.

Mather, Joseph H. Geography of the State of New York. . . . Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1847.

Merriman, William T. The Rochester School Songbook, Consisting of a Choice Selection of SocialMoral, and Patriotic Songs; Designed for the Use of Public Schools. 2d.ed. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1847.

Morey, Cornell. Explanations of the Principles of Arithmetic, on a New Plan. Rochester, N. Y., John Greves, 1850.

Murray, Lindley. English Grammar, Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners. With an Appendix, Containing Rules and Observations for Assisting the More Advanced Students to Write with Perspicuity and Accuracy.28th.English ed. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck and Co., 1821.

_____English Reader: or, Pieces in Prose and Poetry, Selected from the Best Writers. . .. With a Few Preliminary Observations on the Principles of Good Reading. Improved by the Addition of a Concordant and Synonymising Vocabulary. . . . Rochester, N. Y., Marshall, Dean and Co., 1822.

_____The English Reader; or, Pieces in Prose and Verse, from the Best Writers; Designed to Assist Young Persons to Read with Propriety and Effect. . . with a Few Preliminary Observations on the Principles of Good Reading. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck and Co., 1827.

_____Introduction to the English Reader: or, a Selection of Pieces, in Prose and Poetry; Calculated to Improve the rounger Clnsses of Learners in Reading, and to Imbue Their Minds with the Love of Virtue. To Which are Added, Rules and Observations for Assisting Children to Read with Propriety. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck, 1826.

The New-England Primer, Improved for the More Easy Attaining the True Reading of English. To Which is Added the Assembly of Divines' Catechism. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck and Co., 1827.

Pike, Nicholas. Pike's System of Arithmetick, Abridged: Designed to Facilitate the Study of the Science of Numbers Comprehending the Most Perspicuous and Accurate Rules, Illustrated by Useful Examples, to Which Are Added Appropriate questions,for the Examination of Scholars; and a Short System of Book-keeping. Rochester, N. Y., Marshall, Dean and Co., 1830.

Sanders, Charles W. Sanders' Spelling Book; Containing a Minute and Comprehensive System of Introductory Orthography. . . Designed to Teach a System of Orthography and Orthoepy in Accordance with that of Dr. Webster, for the Use of Schools. Rochester, N. Y., H. Stanwood and Co., 1839.

_____The School Reader, Second Book. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1844.

_____The School Reader, Third Book. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, [18411.

_____The School Reader, Fourth Book Containing Instructions in the Elementary Principles of Reading, and Selected Lessons from the Most Elegant Writers for the Use of Academies and the Higher Classes in Common and Select Schools. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1845.

_____The Young Grammarian, for the Use of Beginners in the Study of English Grammar. Rochester, N. Y., Sage and Brother, 1847.

Town, Salem. The Grammar School Reader: Containing the Essential Principles of Elocution and a Series of Exercises in Reading: Designed for Classes in Grammar Schools. Rochester, N. Y., Wanzer, Foote and Co., 1850.

_____Town's First Reader, to be Used in Connection with Any Speller. Rochester, N. Y., Fisher and Co., 1845.

_____Town's Third Reader: Containing a Selection of Lessons, Exclusively from American Authors. Rochester, N. Y., Fisher and Co., 1846.

Yale, Charles. Outlines of General History, in Three Parts: I. Ancient History. II. Modern History. III. American History Designed for the Use of Schools and Academies. Rochester, N. Y., Everard Peck and Co., 1830.

Young, Andrew W. Introduction to the Science of Government, and Compend of the Constitutional and Civil jurisprudence of the United States with a Brief Treatise on Political Economy Designed for the Use of Families and Schools. 8th.ed. Rochester, N. Y., William Ailing, 1842.