Epitaph Newsletter Volume 19, Number 2

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Volume 19, Number 2
Rochester, New York, Spring, 1999



by Paul Malczewski

The most sensational murder trial in 19th-century Rochester was that of Marion Ira Stout who was hanged on October 22, 1858 for murdering Charles Littles. Ira, as everyone called him, now resides in Mount Hope Cemetery in an unmarked grave in Section D. His final resting-place is in close proximity to some of our city's most prominent former citizens. It would be interesting to hear what the Sibleys, Watsons, and Aldridges, among others, would say if they knew they were spending their afterlife as neighbors to one of Rochester's most notorious criminals.

For most of 1858, citizens were talking about Ira Stout and his sister, Sarah Littles. The unusual brother/sister relationship and family history added high drama and sordid detail to the murder trial. In keeping with Victorian taste for the fantastic and bizarre, the newspapers had a field day covering the story. Detailed transcripts of the testimony were published daily. Several times, both newspapers in town had to publish extra copies just to keep up with public demand.

The Stout family had lived in Rochester since 1852 and until the time of the murder, led a quiet existence. Eli Stout, Ira's older brother and head of the family, lived with his mother Margaret, his wife Jane, sister Sarah and her husband Charles Littles, and Ira's younger brother and sister in a house at 75 Monroe Street (now Monroe Avenue). Margaret Stout often claimed her husband had abandoned the family and she was unsure of his whereabouts. She also bragged about her son Ira who worked for a newspaper in Philadelphia. The truth was, members of the Stout family were often in trouble with the law. Orange Stout, Margaret's husband, was a member of a gang of forgers and counterfeiters. Both husband and wife had been previously arrested for passing counterfeit money. At the time of his son's murder trial, Orange Stout was serving a 7-1/2-year sentence in Auburn State Prison for his part in robbing and burning down a retail store in Pennsylvania. Ira admitted reluctant participation in the crime. A natural charmer and a master at manipulation, he put all blame on his father saying he was forced to partake in criminal activity. Ira hoped his feigned candor would keep him out of jail. Unfortunately for him, the opposite was true and he received a 4-1/2-year sentence in the Pennsylvania State Penitentiary.

Ira Stout was released from prison in August 1857. He had heard of his family's move to Rochester and hoped to join them and start a new life. In Rochester, he enrolled in a local mercantile college. His days were spent studying shorthand and business math. At night, he studied law and brushed up on his already considerable knowledge of Latin, French, and classical literature. Eminently likeable, he soon made many friends and often acted as tutor to his fellow students. It was Ira's plan to continue his career in the mercantile business, which had been cut short by his brush with the law.

So, when he moved to Rochester, Ira became acquainted with his family's newest member, Charles Littles who had married Ira's sister Sarah three years earlier. The marriage was unstable from the start. Charles Littles, 25 years old at the time of his murder, was a lawyer who dealt in insurance claims. He was by many accounts an extremely unsavory character known for his reckless philandering. He always carried a dirk knife, which he would brandish at his enemies, and a bottle of vitriol to throw on men he felt were flirting with his wife. It was also rumored that Sarah Littles was unfaithful to her husband, perhaps justifying Charles' suspicions.

Due to their differences, Charles and Sarah spent much time living apart. According to Sarah Littles: "...I came home in October, he followed in December; he came to the house and told Eli that he had not used me right; he cried and promised to reform; I consented to live with him. In about two months he began to do as before; he was sick of a venereal disease, and I had to wait upon him; I then lived with my mother on Water Street; I continued to live with him till last spring; he was sick when I refused to live with him; it was a new sickness of the same disease; when he used to go away at night, he would tell me that he was going to the Niagara House to sleep with Lola Montez, or something like that. I did not believe it until I found it written in his diary; Lola Montez was Ann Loder Gascoigne. I have since been with my mother; Littles did not provide for me; I once told him that he had got to do something to support me; he said that I could go and live with his mother as long as I was a mind to; there was no difficulty between us in consequence of my personal health; never had an altercation with him in presence of any of these women; I had recently told him that if he would do what was right, I would live with him in the spring. A week ago Saturday night I went to Mrs. Cunington's (boarding house) and staid all night; Littles came to Mrs. C's drunk, and wanted me to go home; I refused to go. He took out some money and threw it down then drew his dirk knife and threw it against the wall saying, that he did not fear God, man or the devil..."

In the months before he was murdered, Charles Littles lived with his wife and her family in the house on Monroe Street. During this time, he continued his philandering. Most nights he spent away from the house returning only at mealtime. Aware that her husband's ways were not going to change, Sarah sank into despair and looked to her brother Ira for consolation. She blamed all of her problems on Littles and even considered moving west to escape from him. Ira suggested that "if Littles should some time be put out of the way, there would be no need of her going west to get rid of him!"

Ira had his own reasons to fear his brother-in-law. Only his family and Littles were privy to the knowledge of Ira's recent imprisonment in the Pennsylvania prison. Eager to gain respectability, Ira worried that Littles could, due to his violent temper, destroy his standing by making this knowledge public. To allay his fears, Ira sought to establish a friendship with him. Ira called frequently at his office and the two men were often seen playing pool together. He also despised Littles for the way he treated Sarah.

The subject of incest played a large part in the trial. Ira and Sarah were often seen together in the same bed. Several family members testified to this. Eli Stout's wife Jane, who also lived in the same house, testified at the coroner's inquest on December 24, 1857:
Q: Have you ever seen them in bed together?
A: I have.
Q: How long ago?
A: Two or three weeks ago; the last time was on Sunday morning; he got up in the morning, and it was cold, and he went and got into bed with Sarah; they got up, both of them, that Sunday morning; I couldn't give any guess as to the time they lay; he was undressed at the time I think. She was also undressed; did not go to the bed and look, after they were in bed; all I know is, that when Charley was not there and Ira was up late writing, he would lie in her bed; they were undressed, and the bed clothes on them, when I have seen them lying together; it was generally when we went that they would go to bed together; they did not make it a practice of sleeping together...these facts were known to the rest of the family.
Q: Were there any remonstrances made?
A: His mother would say that she should think he would be ashamed -- in a joking way. He said it was nobody's business, it was his own sister. She replied she would tell him that if it was known, some might make something of it. He replied, "Then let them make it."
Q: Did Littles know of Ira's sleeping with his sister?
A: He did. He came in on Sunday morning and found them in bed together...

The threat of exposing the brother-and-sister incestuous relationship was certainly another motive in the murder. Enraged with Sarah's treatment by her husband, Ira later wrote that, "a man who would abuse a pure and beautiful woman, strike and disease her, is not fit to live." He vowed to "do away" with Charles W. Littles, once and for all. All he needed was a plan.

A few days before the murder took place, a man named Newhafer was walking over the Andrews Street bridge, which was being repaired at the time. He slipped and fell into the Genesee River and was carried over the High Falls to his death. This incident gave Ira Stout an idea. He would convince Charley Littles to walk with him over the bridge, and with Ira's "help," Littles would also slip and fall as Mr. Newhafer did. This effort proved unsuccessful, and Ira resolved to take desperate measures to ensure Littles would trouble his family no more.

The plan seemed simple. Late at night, Ira would lure Littles to Falls Field, on the north side of High Falls, on the false pretext that Sarah was going to meet another man. Once there, Ira would hit him on the head with a few sharp blows of a hammer and throw Littles into the gorge, the strong current sweeping the body down river and into the lake. Unfortunately for Ira and Sarah, everything went horribly wrong.

William F. Peck, in his book, History of Rochester and Monroe County New York from the Earliest Historic Times to the Beginning of 1907 wrote the following account of what happened that night:

"...Littles was of a jealous disposition, which enabled Stout to convince him that his wife had an appointment at Falls Field for the evening of December 19, and the two men went to the spot on that night. Sarah, who was dominated by her brother, preceded them a little, so as to lure her husband to his doom.

"That came soon enough, for when they got near the edge of the bank, Ira struck his victim a sudden blow with an iron mallet, smashing the skull and producing death instantly. Stout then threw the body over the precipice, supposing that it would fall into the river and be swept into the lake before sunrise, but instead of that it landed on a projecting ledge thirty feet below the upper level. Perceiving that there had been some failure in the matter, Ira started to go down a narrow path that led sideways along the cliff, but in the darkness he missed his footing and fell headlong, breaking his left arm in the descent and landing beside the corpse. Summoning all his remaining strength he was just able to push the body over the bank, when he sank in a dead faint. On recovering from which in a few minutes, he called to his sister, who was still above, to come and help him. When she started to do so, the bushes to which she clung gave way; she stumbled, broke her left wrist, and fell beside her prostrate brother. But it would not do to remain there, wretched as was their plight. So, after searching in vain for Ira's spectacles, which they had to leave behind them, but taking with them the fatal mallet, they scrambled slowly and painfully up the bank and made their way laboriously to their home on Monroe Street. The first thing was to remove all obvious traces of the crime; the mallet was hidden away on the premises so carefully that it was not found till after the trial, and the blood stains were as far as possible washed away from their clothes..."

The mangled body of Charles Littles was discovered on Sunday morning, December 20, 1857 by a group of young boys. The gruesome scene of the crime was described in the Democrat and American:

"...Coroner Quin explained that the head struck a bank of stone and gravel, where a piece of the skull and a pair of spectacles were found. From that point the body fell further down upon a flat stone, and then again to within a few feet of the water, where there was a pool of blood. From thence it was apparently dragged into the water, where it was found. A struggle appears to have taken place. Found at the scene was part of a lady's victorine, an arm from a common wooden office chair, and prints of boots in the blood and soft earth. The body was found in the water, and had not floated from the place where thrown in..."

It should be explained that the part of a lady's victorine found near the body belonged to Sarah Littles. A victorine is a small fur cape or scarf worn by women in the 19th century. The arm from a common wooden office chair belonged to Charles Littles. He had brought it with him to use as a weapon.

All members of the Stout family were immediately arrested and held in jail for questioning. The coroner's inquest began on Monday, December 21. In spite of the fact that Ira had confessed the murder to his family members before the arrest, all of them denied any involvement in the crime. The newspapers remarked on the family's relaxed attitude toward losing a member to violent death. Perhaps most remarkable was Sarah Littles. One newspaper commented: "While Mrs. Littles was under examination, she evinced the utmost composure, although the surgeons were engaged within a few feet in dissecting the mutilated remains of her husband, and the horrid sound of the saw, severing the skull grated upon the ear. The examination of her broken wrist scarcely made her wince, although the pain must have been severe."

The inquest continued on into the new year. In January 1858, Ira Stout was found guilty of the murder of Charles W. Littles. Sarah Littles, her mother Margaret, and Ira's younger brother Charley were named as accessories. All remained in jail awaiting the trial which was scheduled to begin in April.

Over the next few months, the newspapers provided updates on the family's condition. Although they were criminals locked away in the city jail, the public considered them as celebrities. The Union and Advertiser published the following account on March 16, 1858: "...The common thieves, and those charged with forgery, perjury, and like offenses, are altogether unnoticed in the place where Ira Stout (is) imprisoned.

"...Ira Stout appeared to be in about the same even temper which has characterized him since his arrest...He assures us that we have published much in regard to his case which is absurd, although he has not read what has been published, but has been told of it by others...Mrs. Littles expresses regret that the rules of the jail prohibited her from reading the daily papers, or other newspapers...Margaret Stout...we should infer from her deportment that restraint was quite irksome to her as to any of the family...Charley Stout, the boy,...had before him a large pile of books including the Bible and Shakespeare. He is a lad of more than ordinary intelligence, and if trained to usefulness, might become a valuable citizen; but under opposite influences may be anything else...The jail is now much frequented by citizens and strangers, led by curiosity..."

Ira's trial began in April and lasted only a week. On April 24, the jury rendered a unanimous verdict of guilty and sentenced him to hang on June 18. John Pomeroy, Ira's lawyer, felt Ira had not been given a fair trial. It had been leaked to the press that some of the jurors on the case had formed an opinion as to Stout's guilt before the trial had even begun. As a result, the judge granted a stay of execution. A motion for a new trial was scheduled to be argued in September. Temporarily relieved, Ira spent the next few months in jail maintaining his celebrity status. Daily, he entertained a multitude of visitors, many of them women. They considered him an unjustly imprisoned hero who was a victim of his parent's bad influence. Charmed with his manner and dazzled by his intelligence, they felt Ira would be a valuable member of society if he were only given the chance. The Union and Advertiser, however, described Ira as anything but appealing: "In personal appearance Stout had little to prepossess, although it is said a number of soft young ladies were struck with admiration on seeing him in court. He was tall, very slim, and walked erect. His hair and complexion were rather dark, his cheekbones high, nose rather long, and the general cast of his countenance is best expressed by those who said he had 'the look of an Indian.' His head was small, and he wore his hair long, which gave him a boyish appearance. His dark eyes were never at rest and were constantly seeking some new object. He had nothing like frankness in his countenance, but his expression was the reverse, and we may add that those who knew him best agree that the face was in his case a true index to his character."

The motions for a new trial were unsuccessful. Ira's execution was scheduled for October 22. In a moving letter written by Judge Charles P. Avery, who had sat on the bench for Ira's trial in Pennsylvania, he urged Ira to let go of the bitterness he felt toward his father: "I pray you forget the past, and all bitterness connected with it as far as in you it lies and, in so doing, call to your aid that strength and light which come from above. A fine writer has said forcibly and beautifully, 'Look not mournfully into the past. It comes not back again. Wisely improve the present. It is thine.'

"If you but cast aside that self-reliant strength which seems so far to have borne you forward in life, you will be happier, better, and believe me, stronger in the humility and weakness of a little child than in the cool nerve and unchastened power of your manhood."

Wise words, indeed. True to form, Ira replied to the judge's letter with his usual combination of charm, bitterness, and manipulation: "...When I think of my present situation, and what it might have been, the reflection is bitter-bitter and withering. Who is responsible for my life? Who shall answer for my death? Had I been in my youth directed in the path of rectitude and honor, who will attempt to say that I might not have been at this minute, legislating in the halls of a State house or engaged in the purer and holier cause of religion, instead of dying by inches condemned in a cell. But I have no reproaches to make. God forbid, I could be guilty of making any bitter flings at those whom I am bound to regard with the purest reverence and affection.

"I have often bowed before the unsullied greatness and goodness of your character, and I have at times been strongly impressed with the idea that perhaps I might some day be as much beloved and respected as you..."

All of Ira's letters were published in newspapers and caused a public outcry to change his sentence from death by hanging to life imprisonment. Rochester's most prominent citizens, including Susan B. Anthony and Frederick Douglass, petitioned Governor King to spare Ira's life. In October, Anthony and Douglass brought the nationally known foe of capital punishment, Aaron Powell, to Rochester to speak in Corinthian Hall. Each of the three nights that he was to speak, however, ended in a mob scene. Other unsuccessful efforts were made by Margaret Stout. She was released from prison in July and made the journey to Albany to plead with the governor for clemency.

Still, Stout was not prepared to accept his fate. Relying on the sympathy of his female visitors, he twice tried to obtain lethal poisons from them and take his own life. The first time a woman smuggled poison into his cell. Somehow, she managed to take the fatal potion herself and was for several days at death's door. The second attempt was slightly more successful. Ira slashed his wrists with a lancet secretly passed to him by another sympathizer. A guard spotted him as he was bleeding. His wrists were bandaged. From then on, the prisoner was closely watched.

The day of the hanging soon came. Under Monroe County law, all hangings were to take place indoors. The Union and Advertiser provided the following description of the gallows: "The gallows is the same which has always been in use in the jail, the rope-a hempen cord-alone being near. A weight of 186 pounds, rests upon a swing door set in the garret floor of the jail. From this weight the rope runs over two pulleys above, and the end of it drops through two floors and nearly to the main floor of the jail. The weight falls about eight feet, jerking the slack end that distance. The halter attached to the main rope is a long distance below the main engine of death, and the latter is not seen by the spectator or prisoner. The sheriff stood at the foot of the stairs, some forty feet from the prisoner and by a small cord pulled the latch, which let the fatal weight fall."

It was here that Ira ended his life. He said his final goodbyes to his family while being closely watched by prison officials to ensure no one would slip him poison so that he could end his life on his own terms. At 2 p.m., he was led to the gallows. In the presence of 100 invited dignitaries, the rope was placed around Ira's neck and a cap drawn over his face. The Union and Advertiser described what happened next: "...All being ready and the spectators standing in breathless silence , at twenty minutes past three o'clock Sheriff Babcock pulled the fatal line, and Ira Stout was suspended three feet from the floor.

"Not a sound was heard in any direction, save the heavy fall of the weight which did the fatal work. The death of the ill-fated man was not as sudden as could be desired. His struggles for eight or ten minutes were severe and caused the spectators to turn away in disgust.

"His neck was probably not dislocated, and he died by a slow process of strangulation. Drs. Hall, Avery, James, and Miller stood near, and in eight minutes after the drop fell, they said his pulse was as full as in life. At the end of half an hour his body was cut down and placed in the coffin, preparatory to being taken to the residence of his mother on Exchange Street."

The following appeared in the newspaper the day after the hanging: "A rumor was current last night at a late hour that Stout was not dead, and that efforts were being made to resuscitate him by the use of galvanic batteries and other means sometimes employed for the restoration of persons supposed to be dead. How much truth there is in the rumors thus made we cannot say, as we have not taken pains to inquire at the house of Mrs. Stout..."

Margaret Stout spent the years after her son's hanging in destitution. The Democrat and American published the following on June 1, 1859: "A Plea for Sympathy-The Democrat comes with an appeal to their readers' sympathies for Mrs. Margaret Stout who it appears is not permitted to labor where she is known or even to occupy apartments, and in consequence of the prejudice against her, she is on the verge of starvation. She has gone about from place to place in the city doing laundry work under an assumed name, and occupying such apartments as she could procure in the same way. She is shunned by everybody..."

Even though she had fallen on hard times, Margaret saw to it that her son had a proper burial. According to the Mount Hope Cemetery interment index, Ira was buried on February 19, 1859 in Section D, Lot 60. The 40-square-foot lot cost the sum of five dollars, which Margaret finished paying for on March 5. There are few markers in this section. Most of the graves are unmarked. If you wish to visit the site, look for the Groesbeck marker. Ira is located approximately 10 feet to the north.

The author wishes to thank Frank Gillespie for his help in locating Stout's gravesite.

(photo caption: This historic photograph was taken in the winter of circa 1860 from the approximate spot in Falls Field where Charles Littles was murdered. The building on the left is the Rochester Cotton Mill.)

by Alan William Gray

(Alan William Gray is a Rochester poet who writes most of his poetry in Mount Hope Cemetery. This poem is from his forthcoming book, In the Shadow of Mount Hope.)

We are separated by the coincidence of death;
In life; adjoined.
What magic woven each by love or sacrifice
Persists. Exists, beyond the time together.
That magic, so illusory, spent with timing; sleight-of-joy,
Elevates to pearl the grit causes troubled eyes to quit the squinty gaze,
And bask, nay bathe, in Power's awesome wonderment;
That love does conquer all;
Without regard for failed dreams,
Above the levels of reproach,
Beyond the grave; to safest harbor -- --
Makes tiny of our self-esteem,
and leaves the lonely star-crossed lover,
All forgiving.

by Jean Czerkas

Growing up the daughter of an artist who, during her teenage years, became the first director of the University of Rochester's Memorial Art Gallery, Gertrude Rosalind Herdle was destined to have a career in the art world.

Gertrude was born in Rochester in 1896, the daughter of George L. and Elizabeth Bachman Herdle. At the age of two years, she traveled with her parents to Europe where her father studied painting for two years. When the family returned to Rochester, her father intended to make a living as an artist. In 1902, he became president of the Rochester Art Club. His painting career took a turn in 1913 when he was appointed director of the Memorial Art Gallery.

Gertrude attended School No. 18, graduated from East High School in 1914, and was a Phi Beta Kappa winner of the Anderson prize in fine arts when she graduated from the University of Rochester in 1918. When her father's secretary resigned from the art gallery that year, Gertrude replaced her.

She quickly advanced to her father's assistant and became Acting Director in 1922 at age 25 upon his death. She was named director several months later, a position she held for 40 years. When elected to the American Association of Museum Directors in 1923, she became that organization's youngest member and one of only three women museum directors in the country.

In recognition of her work in the field of fine arts, Gertrude Herdle was the first woman presented with an honorary degree of Master of Arts by the University of Rochester in June 1925.

In 1932, Gertrude married Walden Moore, and in the same year, her younger sister Isabel joined the gallery staff as assistant director, a collaboration that continued throughout Gertrude's years as director.
Education was of primary importance to Mrs. Moore. What began as a children's story hour at the gallery grew under her guidance to the Creative Workshop, which celebrates 72 years of operation in 1999.
According to Susan Eisenhart Schilling, research curator emeritus and longtime friend and associate of Gertrude Moore, "She was interested in building a balanced collection for the gallery, not only for the education of University of Rochester students, but also for the general public. A special interest in medieval art led to important acquisitions of sculpture, manuscripts, stained glass, tapestries, metalwork, and ivories. In some cases, she was able to interest donors in presenting valuable items to the gallery's collections. Important Monet, Degas, and Matisse paintings came through Mrs. Moore's friendship with donors. Her enthusiasm for pre-Columbian art, African tribal art, American painting, and Oriental art have led to fine gallery collections in these areas.

"Emphasis on education and appreciation of art, creative art classes, and encouragement of local artists through the annual juried Finger Lakes art exhibitions brought community recognition to the gallery, as did exhibitions displaying American folk art and the crafts of local ethnic groups. Other exhibitions of paintings were organized around a theme such as landscapes, realism, and abstraction."

Gertrude Herdle Moore's search for and acquisition of additions to the gallery's collection became legendary. An exposure to art from childhood, experience under her father's tutelage, her travels, and years of study led to her innate recognition of important art objects.

She was a member of the League of Women Voters, a founding member of the Landmark Society of Western New York, and chairman of the Rochester Inter-Museum Council, whose membership included representatives of various local cultural institutions. She received the Civic Development Award in 1986.
A personal interest, which she considered one of her main hobbies, was a collection of gravestone memorabilia as folk sculpture. From Halifax, Nova Scotia to Charleston, South Carolina, she collected hundreds of photographs as specimens of the 17th and early 18th centuries which she classified into local schools of stonecutting and a system of iconographic symbolism. Her earliest gravestones from Virginia date back to 1653. She found particularly distinctive sculptural styles at St. Paul's churchyard in Nova Scotia; at Bessington and Arlington, Vermont; at the Point of Graves in Portsmouth, New Hampshire; and in the brotherhood burial grounds of the Ephrata Cloisters, a monastery near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, which was founded in the first quarter of the 18th century.

Upon her retirement in 1962, a luncheon, sponsored by the Inter-Museum Council and attended by a distinguished group of over 400 prominent Rochester citizens, was held in her honor at the Chamber of Commerce. Mayor Henry E. Gillette spoke for the city of Rochester; Joseph E. Wilson, president of Xerox, for industry; and Charles S. Wilcox, Chamber of Commerce vice-president, for the commercial community. Rabbi Philip S. Bernstein, speaking on behalf of the community, paid tribute to Gertrude Moore for making the gallery a vital part of Rochester's life, rather than merely an exhibition hall, citing the myriad programs in fine arts, including music and dance, that take place under the roof of the Memorial Art Gallery.

Dr. McCrea Hazlett, provost of the University of Rochester at the time of Moore's retirement, said, " I salute a sleuth, a peer, a handicapper, a bargain hunter of such tenacity and shrewdness as to make the shoving females in Filene's basement mere amateurs. I salute, too, a woman of devotion, dedication, courage, and serenity." He also alluded to her proven ability to find neglected masterpieces and add them to the gallery's collection at prices that the institution could afford.

Gertrude Herdle Moore continued her valuable service to the Memorial Art Gallery after her retirement. She died in her home on East Avenue in Pittsford, a house she shared with her sister Isabel, in February 1993.

(IMAGE: Gertrude Herdle Moore's headstone is located in the George L. Herdle lot in Mount Hope Cemetery, Section AA, Lot 141.

(IMAGE: Frederick Douglass bench: At the 160th anniversary celebration of Mount Hope Cemetery last October 3, the children of Lincoln School No. 22 presented a new bench to be placed at the gravesite of Frederick Douglass. Last year, children at the school collected Lincoln pennies through a number of fundraising activities and purchased the bench. Shown in the foreground just behind their gift bench are two 5th-grade standard bearers from Lincoln School. Behind them, left to right, are Eric Logan, president of the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery; Paul Montanarello, vice principal of School 22; Sandra Levy, first-grade teacher who coordinated the project; and Dr. Miriam Vazquez, principal of School 22. Photo by Frank A. Gillespie. )

Published quarterly by The Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, New York 14620­-2752, a nonprofit member organization founded in 1980. Basic annual membership is $20. Call (716) 461-3494 for information or an application form.       

Richard O. Reisem, Editor
Bruce Faw, Art Director
Frank A. Gillespie, Photographer
Rebecca Long, Editorial Assistant