Volume VI · Autumn 1950 · Number 1
The Davis Collection of Children's Books
The Library has recently been enriched with the gift from Mrs. C. Schuyler Davis, a well-known Rochesterian, of her fine collection of some six hundred American and English children's books published from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. Early children's books are a special field for the book collector and during the past twenty years Mrs. Davis has acquired many unusual items -- some rare, others exceedingly attractive, and all of value in showing the development of children's literature.
Before the seventeenth century children had no books of their own except schoolbooks, and they seized upon any material at hand which might afford them some amusement. They read fables, books of courtesy, medieval romances, and the stories circulated in chapbook form. The development of children's literature in England and America was very closely associated; English books were imported and many were reprinted by Isaiah Thomas, Jacob Johnson, and other early American printers.
Among the first books written for children were the "good, Godly" books of the Puritans in the seventeenth century, John Bunyan and James Janeway being two of the outstanding writers of books for children. The fear of hell and the joys of an early death with salvation in heaven do not seem fitting themes for amusing children, but at that time the greatest pleasure a child could know was that of "studying and enjoying the Will of God." James Janeway, famous English nonconformist preacher, carried on his work with fiery enthusiasm. His celebrated book appeared in England a few years before his death in 1674, and was introduced into America about 1700. The Davis collection contains a fine Boston edition of 1771 of this work, which was entitled A Token for Children: being an Exact Account of the Conversion, Holy and Exemplary Lives, and Joyful Deaths of several Young Children. To Which is added A Token for Children of New-England, or, Some Examples of Children in whom the Fear of God was remarkably Budding before they died; in several parts of New England. Preserved and Published for the Encouragement of Piety in Children. All children were "brands of hell" to Janeway; restoration to grace with certain entrance to Heaven could be achieved only by constant prayer and repentance for all sins. To his young readers he directed such questions as -- "How art thou now affected, poor child, in the reading of this Book? Have you shed a Tear since you began reading? Did you ever get by yourself and weep for sin?" The New England Token was the work of Cotton Mather. The earlier the death, the more likely was the chance of salvation for a child according to Janeway's doctrine. George Hendley's A Memorial for Children, New Haven, 1806, was designed as a sequel to Janeway's work, and was "an authentic account of the conversion, experience and happy deaths of eighteen children."
In America, The New England Primer embodied the stern code of the Puritans. In their desire to foster a religious attitude in children, the Puritans used the primer as a means of promoting religion through elementary education. The Primer, or primary manual of church service, was in use in England from the fifteenth century. It was printed later with the authorized ABC, and the combination of the two was henceforth known as a primer. Benjamin Harris, London printer, had compiled The Protestant Tutorshortly before his visit to America in 1686. About 1690, he published in Boston a smaller edition of his London book, and thus The New England Primer was born. Its success was immediate and it soon "declared itself very necessary to the educyon of chyldren."
Between 1690 and 1830 some six million copies were printed, of which the earliest known (a unique copy) is that of Boston, 1727, and all eighteenth century editions are rare. This early Puritan book had several distinctive features always included in every edition. After these were taken care of, the printer was at liberty to insert any material he liked. The necessary inclusions were the Alphabet, a Syllabarium, an Alphabet of Lessons for Youth, the Lord's Prayer and the Apostle's Creed, a Rhymed Alphabet, the Burning of Mr. Rogers, the Shorter Catechism of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, the names of the books of the Bible, and a table of figures and numerals. Another part which was usually but not always present was "A Dialogue between Christ, Youth and the Devil." Illustrations were gradually introduced into the primer in an attempt to win children's approval, and the Rhymed Alphabet had twenty-four pictures, I and V being omitted. From time to time these verses changed from a religious point of view to one more worldly, or vice versa, but the following two verses were never changed.
"In Adam's fall
We sin-ned all"
Did climb the tree
His Lord to see"
A sample of the changes in verse is seen in
For sinners dy'd"
"The Cat doth play
And after slay"
There are complications in the story of Mr. Rogers, but it is sufficient here to quote from the primer: "Mr. John Rogers, Minister of the Gospel in London, was the first Martyr in Queen Mary's Reign, and was burnt at Smithfield, February the fourteenth, 1554. His Wife, with nine small Children, and one at her Breast, followed him to the Stake, with which sorrowful sight he was not in the least daunted, but with wonderful Patience died courageously for the Gospel of Jesus Christ." This is followed by his long Exhortation to his children in which he ends "that I may meet you in the Heav'ns, where I do hope to rest." The Davis collection contains several copies of the primer, including three very rare eighteenth-century American editions, also possibly the only known copy in existence of the edition printed in Glasgow in 1784.
By the middle of the eighteenth century pictures were regarded as acceptable features in the few "juveniles" of the day. One example was The History of the Holy Jesus. . .Being a pleasant and profitable Com-panion for Children; composed on Purpose for their Use. By a Lover of their Precious Souls. This was one of the most popular of all the sugar-coated pills of religion offered to children of the time. It first appeared about 1745 and was popular for some seventy years thereafter. All early editions are scarce, but the two tiny copies on hand are in excellent condition; one was printed in Boston in 1771, and the other is the second Worcester edition of 1794, from the press of Isaiah Thomas. The Thomas edition is adorned with many more and better executed woodcuts and also includes some songs for children. Another popular way of teaching the Scriptures was by means of the hieroglyphic Bible, which first appeared in England about 1780 and is represented by a thirteenth edition published in 1796.
Another eighteenth-century primer for children, which was illustrated and less religious in tone, was Tom Thumb's Play-Book; To Teach Children their Letters as soon as they can speak . . . Being a New and pleasant method to allure Little Ones in the first Principles of Learning. It contained the alphabet with the famous "A a Apple pye, B b Bit it, C c Cut it . . . L l Longed for it"; a rhymed alphabet with the well-known beginning and ending of "A was an archer, and shot at a frog; Z was Zany, and look't like a Fool"; also catechisms, prayers, easy lessons and songs. The Davis collection is enhanced by two very rare editions. One is a tiny Boston imprint of 1771 (about thumb length) still adorned with its original blue-green cover; the other is a Newcastle-on-Tyne edition, printed before 1800, and illustrated with woodcuts by Thomas Bewick.
Happier things were in store for children as the Puritan religious fervor died down, and the year 1744 marked the opening of a new era in children's books when John Newbery issued his first book designed for the amusement of children. This energetic, enterprising, English publisher stayed on the family farm in Yorkshire until he was sixteen, when he became an assistant to William Carnan, a printer in Reading. After Carnan's death, Newbery married his widow and assumed control of the publishing concern. During his journey through England, as a representative for his firm, he noted the condition of the book trade and the commercial advantages which might ensue from extending his publishing activities. In 1744 Newbery moved to London, and the following year set up his headquarters at the sign of the Bible and Sun, in St. Paul's churchyard. He was a close friend of Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, and other literary men of the time. Newbery devoted his best efforts and thought toward making children's books more entertaining in content and more attractive in format, so he concentrated on his "pretty gilt toys for boys and girls." His prices were so moderate that they encouraged many purchases and his books were immensely popular in England and America, where they were largely reprinted by Isaiah Thomas. Samuel Johnson caricatured Newbery as "Jack Whirler" in The Idler, and Goldsmith in The Vicar of Wakefield described Newbery as "the philanthropic bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, who has written so many little books for children; he called himself their friend, but he was the friend of all mankind."
Newbery's greatest success was The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes; otherwise called Mrs. Margery Two-Shoes, printed in 1765 and considered the first original story intended especially for children's entertainment. The earliest copy now in existence is the third edition of 1766, and all editions are rare and difficult to acquire. The author is unknown, although the book has been attributed erroneously to Goldsmith. This story of "Mrs. Margery Two-Shoes, with the Means by which she acquired her Learning and Wisdom, and in consequence thereof her Estate; set forth at large for the Benefit of those,
Who from a State of Rags and Care,
And having Shoes but half a Pair;
Their Fortune and their Fame would fix,
And gallop in a Coach and Six."
has little appeal for children of today, but it is a contemporary interpretation of English country life. From this stemmed the moral tales and the "virtue-is-its-own-reward or virtue-pays-in-the-long-run type of story." Since children loved these books to shreds, early editions are practically unprocurable but the two editions in the Davis collection are in excellent condition. One is the London edition of 1780 printed by T. Carnan and F. Newbery, successors to J. Newbery, with woodcuts by John Bewick. The other is the first Worcester edition of 1787, printed by Isaiah Thomas, bound in an attractive green and gilt cover, which must have delighted children after their previous drab fare.
A John Newbery imprint is the oldest book in the collection and is the third edition, 1759, of Food for the Mind, or a New Riddle Book; Compiled for the Use of The Great and the Little GOOD BOYS and GIRLS in England, Scotland, and Ireland. By John-The-Giant-Killer, Esq.
Another beneficial factor in the slow development of children's literature was the famous book Divine Songs by Dr. Isaac Watts, an English poet. His book appeared in 1715 and was popular for more than a century in England and America. Probably no child's book has been reprinted as often as this. It was important because it contained the first verses for children and was one of the first books written for rather than at them. To a large extent it marked also the end of the persecuting, repressive love of the Puritans for children. The serenity and kindliness of the author helped to inaugurate the idea of children as independent personalities, worthy of love and attention. This is represented in the collection by an early nineteenth-century English edition with woodcuts by Orlando Jewitt.
In 1726 when Jonathan Swift wrote his famous tale, it was not intended for children, but youngsters immediately took it to heart. In the collection is a London edition of The Adventures of Captain Gulliver. . . Abridged from the Works of The Celebrated Dean Swift which appears to be the first "juvenile" edition of Gulliver, published at the end of the eighteenth century, and of the greatest scarcity.
Children were also captivated by another work, not originally planned for them, namely The Wonderful Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. The collection contains a small chapbook version, printed in New Haven in 1809, of Defoe's romance, which was first published in England in 1719. The first American edition appeared in New York in 1774. In one of his editions, Isaiah Thomas laid the scene of Robinson Crusoe's adventures on the "Coast of America, lying near the mouth of the great river Oroonoque." One early nineteenth-century writer severely condemned this novel since it might lead to "an early taste for a rambling life, and a desire of adventures."
But Defoe and Swift were not models for the authors who began writing original works for children; it was Rousseau's Emile which had a more direct influence upon English books. Thomas Day was a staunch follower of Rousseau's philosophy and tried to make his famous work, The History of Sandford and Merton, an English counterpart of Emile. First published in three parts, from 1783 to 1789, it made an immediate hit and was translated into French. This collection of stories, with Harry Sandford and Tommy Merton as the actors, "appears somewhat priggish from a modern point of view, but at the time it was written neither writers nor readers expected anything but didacticism. To be good, very very good, not mundanely happy, was a spontaneous desire. Naughtiness aforethought, the enjoyment of mischief or even soulless levity, would have been utterly shocking to any normal child before about 1840." The edition in the collection was printed in London from 1787 to 1789.
Another notable author of children's tales was Maria Edgeworth, and her Parents' Assistant is present in an early nineteenth-century American edition. The children in her books were more natural, and her well-told stories were highly successful.
The time was now ripe for the moral tale to appear with Mrs. Sarah Trimmer as the leader in this class. In her writings for children she reflected the typical attitude of the English upper middle-class. She was devout and dogmatic in her teachings and fought hard for her ideas of right and wrong. About 1782 she began her series of prints and lessons to be used in the new Sunday school movement, with the prints intended as decoration for nursery walls. The Davis collection contains an 1808 edition of her Scripture prints. Mrs. Trimmer had no use for fantasy as can be seen in her condemnation of the Cinderella story: "It is perhaps one of the most exceptionable books that was ever written for children . . . It paints some of the worst passions that can enter into the human breast, and of which little children should, if possible, be totally ignorant; such as envy, jealousy, a dislike to mothers-in-law and half-sisters, vanity, a love of dress, etc."
Two of the prominent authors of the moral tale were the Kilner sisters, and their works of fiction were more spontaneous and not so didactic as those of their contemporaries. Dorothy Kilner wrote The Life and Perambulation of a Mouse, while her sister Mary Jane described The Adventures of a Pin Cushion and the Memoirs of a Peg-Top. All of these were popular in print for more than fifty years, and are represented by early editions in the Davis collection. Some other examples of this pious "be-virtuous-in-order-to-succeed" type of story were The Brother's Gift: or, The Naughty Girl Reformed, New York, ca. 1795, in which Kitty Bland's reformation was undertaken by her brother Billy. She was "apt, froward, and headstrong; and, had it not been for the care of her brother, would probably have witnessed all the disadvantages of a modern education." Kitty's reformation required the making of twelve shirts for Billy, and when she finished them to his satisfaction, he gave her "as a mark of approbation a present of a fine pair of stays." However, Billy did not escape and in The Sister's Gift, Hartford, 1811, Kitty so berated him for his idleness and folly that "he wept bitterly, and declared to his sister that she had painted the enormity of his vices in such striking colors, that they shocked him in the greatest degree; and promised ever after to be as remarkable for generosity, compassion and every other virtue as he had hitherto been for cruelty, forwardness and ill-nature." Apparently these sentiments were accepted without question by the children who read the books, but there was certainly no fun or laughter in this literary diet.
During the same period, there were also books of instructions for parents on children's upbringing, such as The Young Lady's Parental Monitor, London and Hartford, 1792, part two of which was Lady Pennington's Unfortunate Mother's Advice to her Absent Daughters. She commented thus on the reading of novels: "Of novels and Romances, very few are worth the trouble of reading: some of them perhaps do contain a few good morals, but they are not worth the finding where so much rubbish is intermixed." However, she did make one exception in the case of The Vicar of Wakefield.
Miss Hannah More's religious tracts were designed as suitable material for Sunday-school libraries or Sunday reading. This Englishwoman's works were imported into America and had a strong influence on American books of this nature. Her Search after Happiness is present in a Philadelphia edition of 1811.
Strong support for moral tales came from the American Sunday School Union. All stories submitted to the Union's editorial board had "to shine by reason of the truth contained and avoid the least appearance, the most indirect insinuations, of anything which can militate against the strictest ideas of propriety." The many stories turned out by this group usually conformed to one or two fashions: one of the good child, fond of worship, who died in early life after converting one or another person; or of the son, who preferred a life of dissipation which soon led to a "thief or drunkard's grave." There are several of these tracts in the collection, one of which is called The Tit-Bit, Philadelphia, 1846, with an illustration of a coffin on the last page followed by the admonition "To this we must all come at last"! The other examples of the moral tale in this collection are too numerous to mention here, but they all follow the same general pattern.
Within the same period of the moral tale came the writings of Charles and Mary Lamb. Their children's books now have only the value of showing that by the opening of the nineteenth century children's literature had attained a place of its own within the general field of literature. The Lambs wrote seven books for children of which the first wasThe King and Queen of Hearts, done by Charles alone. This and Prince Dorus are represented by facsimiles of original editions. Tales from Shakespeare was the first combined effort of brother and sister, for which their financial recompense was sixty guineas. The collection includes fine copies of the second, 1809, and fourth, 1816, editions of this work. In Mrs. Leicester's School: or, The History of Several Young Ladies Related by Themselves, Charles did three stories and Mary the others, but they have "remained in print and in middling repute rather through the general love of their authors than by their own vitality." The Davis copies consist of a first and second, 1809, a fourth, 1814, and the first American edition of 1811, in fine morocco cases, as are many of the rare items in the collection. The last Lamb item was the Poetry for Children, which had little popularity in 1809 or thereafter. The first American edition of 1812 is among the Davis books.
The long, dreary period of moral tales had a very welcome break of fantasy when John Harris began publishing his jolly children's books. After an apprenticeship to a bookseller, Harris became assistant to Francis Newbery, who had carried on part of the publishing business of John Newbery. In 1788 Harris acted as manager of the press for Elizabeth Newbery, widow of Francis, and eventually he took over the entire business. He carried on the traditions of John Newbery, and because of his ingenuity, good taste, and enterprise was far superior to his many rivals. The fun began when William Roscoe, a member of Parliament, and prominent historian, wrote a long poem for the amusement of his own children, which he called The Butterfly's Ball. It began with the invitation:
"Come take up your Hats, and away let us haste
To the Butterfly's Ball, and the Grasshopper's Feast.
The Trumpeter, Gadfly, has summon'd the Crew,
And the Revels are now only waiting for you."
This happy, gay attitude made it a current hit with children, and Harris brought out a series, which included The Peacock "At Home," The Elephant's Ball, and The Lion's Masquerade. These appeared in 1807, and first editions are included in the Davis gift. Square and small in shape, the books were liberally supplied with engravings, which could be left plain or colored if desired. The coloring was usually done for the publisher by a group of children working together; each child brushed on one color then handed it to his neighbor who added another color. So the process went on until all the sheets were completely colored. Another attractive Harris item, A Visit to the Bazaar, 1818, contains thirty colored plates showing a toy shop, the pastry cook, and other entertaining features of a bazaar. An amusing little book from the Harris press in 1803 wasThe Life and Adventures of a Fly; Supposed to have been written by Himself.
The highly-colored picture books about "Dames of the Nursery," which appeared about the same time, made no pretense at any high literary or artistic finish but they were something bright for small lads and lasses. The old nursery rhymes had been kept alive by word of mouth, but they struggled hard for a place in print and the first collection was published in 1744. Three other editions appeared later in the century. Among the Davis books there are several examples of the Harris books of rhymes and many similar American editions, which also appeared in the early nineteenth century. Old Mother Hubbard and her dog, Dame Crump and her little white pig, Dame Trot and her comical cat, Jack and the beanstalk, Jenny Wren and Cock Robin are all familiar members of this group.
Another type of little picture book, which appeared in America during the first quarter of the nineteenth century, was the Cries of New York, modelled after the old Cries of London. The collection includes several early editions of both types. Fashions of the time were revealed by the verses:
"S-A-N-D! Here's your nice white S-A-N-D!
Sand, O! White Sand, O!
Buy sand for your floor;
For so cleanly it looks
When strewed at your door,"
but changing social conditions were commented on in the footnote to this cry: "Since people have become rich and swayed by vain fashions of the world, by carpeting the floors of their houses, there does not appear to be so much use of Sand, as in the days of our worthy ancestors."
Limericks, brought to fame in a special way later in the century by Edward Lear, made their first appearance in England during this same period. Two examples in the Davis collection are the Anecdotes of Fifteen Gentlemen and Anecdotes of Fifteen Ladies, picture books with highly colored woodcuts. A sample of these rhymes shows the opportunity afforded the artist for animated woodcuts:
"There was a young lady of Camberwell,
She had an idea she could clamber well;
But in taking a nest,
She fell up to her breast
In a pond, in the middle of Camberwell."
All these gayer books were a fashion of the moment, and were finally submerged in the flood of tales which dealt with more practical, matter-of-fact things in life. Outstanding in this class were the "Peter Parley" tales originated by Samuel G. Goodrich, of New England, who strongly denounced the fairy tale and nursery rhyme. He considered them horror stories which would reconcile children to vice and crime. His first "Peter Parley" was issued in 1827, and for many years he wrote five or six annually.
The liberation of children's literature finally came in 1865 when Lewis Carroll invented his immortal Alice. A more joyous experience was in store for children when they opened the pages of their books, which writers and artists endeavored to make as attractive as possible.
All the late nineteenth-century books in the Davis collection are too numerous to mention here, so attention can be given only to the finely illustrated items and to some of the special classes of children's books.
In the first quarter of the nineteenth century there appeared some lovely illustrated books, and among the Davis books is a copy of The Elegant Girl; or, Virtuous Principles, the True Source of Elegant Manners, published in London, with twelve fine colored engravings, by an unknown artist. Another early "picture book" is the copy of Healthful Sports for Young Ladies, also published in London, in which the charming, colored engravings show games of long ago.
Edmund Evans, English printer of the eighties, was a pioneer in producing beautifully colored children's books. An artist as well as a successful business man, Evans sponsored the work of three outstanding artists of the late nineteenth century and thus developed the fine "picture book" of today. The artists were Walter Crane, Kate Greenaway, and Randolph Caldecott.
Walter Crane, first of the trio to work with Evans and a well-known painter, was keenly interested in producing finer books for children. The Davis collection includes hisValentine and Orson, The Baby's Opera, The Absurd ABC, and The Baby's Own Aesop; they are all representative of his style with its striking use of strong colors in black outline.
Kate Greenaway revealed a fanciful, enchanting world to the children she loved so well. This noted illustrator was born in 1846 and throughout her childhood was constantly drawing pictures. By the time she was thirty-three, her reputation was definitely established and her name well-known throughout Great Britain, Europe, and the United States. Children of the eighties were dressed in Kate Greenaway fashions, whether they were becoming or not, such was the height of her popularity and influence.
Her style was unique and stamped with her own personality. It always brings visions of lovely flowers, charming gardens with clipped yew hedges, and dainty, quiet children dressed in picturesque costumes. Disliking the styles of her day, she designed clothes and dressed models in them to use for her own work. She never really learned to draw and John Ruskin, her close friend, wrote her many letters in which he criticized the "starfish and blobs by which she represented hands." This aspect of her work is negligible, however; she is remembered for the special delight and amusement she gave to her young readers through her art, which was notable for its perennial good taste and delicacy of line and color.
The Davis collection has copies of most of the Greenaway books. Under the Window, 1878, was a book of her own verses and established Kate Greenaway as an immediate success. Her Birthday Book for Children came out in 1880, and the next year saw the production of A Day in a Child's Life, and of a delicate version of Mother Goose. Little Ann, a book of poems for children by Jane and Ann Taylor, was her next work, which was followed, in 1884, by the Language of Flowers. Half of this edition was distributed in America, since Kate Greenaway was as great a favorite in the United States as she was in England. In 1885 she illustrated her own verses in A Marigold Garden, and her Alphabet came out in miniature form. The old nursery rhyme A Apple Pie, 1886, inspired Kate Greenaway to greater liveliness in her figures and "for once some of her boys and girls cut loose and threw things about." But when The Pied Piper of Hamelin appeared in 1888, John Ruskin said it was "the grandest thing she had ever done. It is all as good and nice as can be, and you have really got through your rats with credit -- the Piper is sublime -- and the children lovely." The Almanacks were issued yearly, with the exception of 1896, from 1883 to 1897, and very quickly went out of print following their publication. A complete set of these charming little books is highly prized by collectors of children's literature.
Randolph Caldecott is the other prominent artist well represented in the Davis collection. This famous English artist, also born in 1846, spent his early years working in a bank and his leisure moments in sketching and roaming the countryside. In 1872 he settled in London to begin his career with wood engravings for magazines and illustrations of short stories. His first public acclaim came in 1876 with his illustrations for an edition of Irving's Sketchbook. He produced two children's books annually until his early death in 1886. His work, reflecting his keen love of nature, is full of action and a gay, happy spirit of real fun and enjoyment of life. His illustrations of children, old folks, country characters, and huntsmen expressed the warmth, kindliness, and robustness of his own personality. One authority writes about Caldecott that there have "never been any picture books like Caldecott's before or since, and few English artists have left so large a legacy of pure and playful mirth." One glance at his The Three Jovial Huntsmen or at An Elegy on the Death of a Mad Dog brings pleasure at once. He illustrated many of the nursery jingles, giving them new life and charm. Some of the familiar titles are Sing a Song for Sixpence, Ride a Cockhorse to Banbury Cross, The House that Jack Built, and The Babes in the Wood.
One special group of books in the Davis collection is that of the chapbooks. These little tracts received their name from the fact that they were circulated in Great Britain and America by the pedlars or chapmen, who travelled through the country selling their wares, among which were books. In England, the real chapbook originated from the political and religious tracts of the seventeenth century. By the following century, fiction, travels, and biographies had invaded the chapbook field. These tracts were not intended for children at first, but they read them with eagerness since Cinderella, Robin Hood, Dick Whittington, and Robinson Crusoe were dearer to their hearts than the dull, proper characters of the religious and moral treatises prevalent at the time. The covers, usually of pale yellow, had blocks printed on them, but by 1760 many were issued without covers. For illustrations, publishers used whatever woodcuts were at hand without any concern that Robin Hood might show up later as Dick Whittington.
During the late eighteenth century, several series were written expressly for children, and two of the best were the English Banbury and Otley groups. In America, Lyman Cobb, a well-known New England educator, introduced his famous Cobb's Toys; other prominent American publishers, active in issuing children's chapbooks, were Mahlon Day, Sidney Babcock, and Samuel Wood. Numerous examples of their publications are included in the collection.
The remainder of the Davis collection consists of what may be called curiosities of the book trade -- printed cards, toy books, and "turnups." Books containing movable heads, with figures dressed in different costumes, had a happy but short existence at the opening of the nineteenth century. Illuminated puzzle or conversation cards were advertised as "pleasing pastimes for winter evenings." "Turn-up" or "metamorphosis" was the name given to the type of pamphlet consisting of leaves which could be extended at the top and at the bottom, thus presenting new pictures.
The Davis collection has examples of all the styles in the history of children's literature. It reveals the knowledge, discriminating judgment, and enthusiasm of its donor, Mrs. C. Schuyler Davis, and will be of value to students of the history of education while affording pleasure to those who enjoy the art of fine book-illustration.
[The writer of this article wishes to acknowledge her great reliance upon the outline and judgments of children's literature as expressed by F. J. Harvey Darton in his exhaustive work Children's Books in England and by Rosalie V. Halsey in her Forgotten Books of the American Nursery.]