THE CHANGING COLLEGE
A greater University exacted more time and thought from the trustees, particularly from the men on the executive, building, and finance committees, which were confronted with innumerable problems and tough decisions. In the course of the 1920's eleven new men took places on the corporation, whose active personnel varied from nineteen to twenty-four, the upper limit permissible by the charter. Twice elected, George W. Todd declined to accept a trusteeship in the belief that he could promote the University interest more effectively if he had no official status. Businessmen on the Board and lawyers with business connections increased as the decade moved along, so that at the end they numbered twenty. Two educators and a physician completed the membership as of 1930; the clergy, two in number in 1920, were without representation at the close of the decade. John B. Calvert, 1876, who died in 1928, was the last of the continuous line of ministers who belonged to the trustee body; an interval of sixteen years elapsed before another professional churchman was elected.
Rochesterians on the Board consistently outnumbered non-residents by a ratio of nearly two to one. The latest trustee chosen by the graduates joined the corporation in 1915, but two alumni-elected trustees--Horace F. Taylor, 1893, and Herbert S. Weet, 1899--were appointed permanent members after their terms as alumni-trustees expired. The custom of the alumni as a body choosing one or more trustees fell into disuse, not to be revived until the 1950's, and the Board laid on the table a petition (1922) from the Alumnae Association for the right to elect trustees on the same terms as the alumni. Nevertheless, the rule of 1903, requiring that at least half of the trustees be U. of R. graduates, was amply fulfilled; as of 1930 sixteen out of twenty-three held degrees from Alma Mater.
To eliminate confusion in nomenclature, the titles of chairman and of two vice-chairmen of the Board replaced (1923) the historic designations of president and vice-presidents. Statuesque Dr. John P. Munn, 1870, named presiding officer in 1916, filled the office until his death in 1931.1
Many aspects of the University financial saga in the decade of great expansion have been recounted in preceding chapters. At 1920, the total assets of the institution--productive resources and the value of land, buildings, equipment and the like--approached $17,000,000, approximately fourteen times more than when President Rhees arrived in Rochester. By 1928, the figure had soared beyond the $60,000,000 mark, and disbursements for the year 1928-29 exceeded $2,300,000; only two business firms in the city reported higher operating outlays than the University. For 1923-24, to illustrate, general administrative expenses were divided this way: forty-five per cent for the College, forty per cent for the Medical School, and fifteen per cent for the Eastman School.
An ever-growing investment portfolio and ever more complex financial transactions generally brought drastic reorganization in business management. Whereas in the pre-university era, administration of finances had devolved upon a trustee as a sideline--with some help from the finance committee--a full-time financial officer had become an urgent necessity. Accordingly, the office of comptroller was created in 1922 with overall responsibility for business affairs, subject to the treasurer and a committee of trustees. Raymond N. Ball, 1914, already on the administrative staff, was picked for this key post, and the following year he assumed the duties of University treasurer as well; so astute did Ball prove himself as a money manager that he was appointed (1929) executive vice-president. His remarkable success as the chief University financial officer prompted the directors of what grew into the Lincoln-Rochester Trust Company to pick him (1929) as president of that institution, and his first lieutenant in the business office, Raymond L. Thompson, 1917, took over direct control of University finance, remaining until his retirement in 1959. Both Ball and Thompson enlisted a strong supporting cast to handle finances, notably John H. Worden, who worked as bursar from 1922 to 1949.
From time to time, U. of R. graduates and friends of higher learning donated funds for current operating expenses or for some specific educational purpose. For example, Trustee James G. Cutler set up (1920) an endowment whose income would provide a lectureship on constitutional government in the United States, and Jesse L. Rosenberger, 1888, not only added to the lectureship fund that bore his name, but established (1925) the Susan Colver Rosenberger Prize to go to the woman student whose academic performance as an underclassman showed the greatest improvement--duplicating a similar prize for men set up earlier. Professor Denio, who had vainly tried to secure more money for instruction in art, bequeathed (1923) her estate to the University for work in art, which the Carnegie Foundation reinforced (1928) by a grant of $50,000.
The will of James G. Cutler, who died in 1927, named the University as residuary legatee, increasing the resources by nearly $2,500,000. Although the benefactor had casually hinted that he might make provision for a building on the Prince Street Campus, the contents of the will completely surprised the President. While no restrictions were imposed on the use of the bequest, the trustees ultimately voted to apply it to the erection of a students' union for the College for Women. (Parenthetically, the University created a sinecure for an indigent brother of Cutler, who had not been remembered in the will.) 2
"Our college faculty is primarily a teaching faculty," the President reminded the trustees. "But it is also a productive body of scholars....And such productivity... gives to teaching a freshness and power which are invaluable. It is only possible when teachers have time also for study outside of the demands of regular class routine. It is our duty to make such study possible whenever men show aptitude for such productive investigation, a duty which we are eager to meet in the full measure of our ability...."
Consonant with the Rhees creed, appointments to the teaching force in the 'twenties were mostly persons of scholarly potential as indicated by the Ph.D.s they held or were on the verge of receiving. By reason of their educational experience, they were committed to the advancement of the kingdom of learning, to the pursuit of knowledge into the darkest corners, as well as to the diffusion of whatever elements of truth they discovered.
As had historically been true at Rochester, the President remained the key factor in making appointments or promotions, though almost invariably he consulted with the dean and the pertinent department chairman before acting. To attract and then to retain the services of promising young scholars, a favorable environment for research was indispensable--reasonably adequate library resources and laboratory facilities and, not least, leisure, as Rhees took pains to emphasize. Rapidly increasing accessions of books and learned journals required for investigations and more secretarial help to aid research, coupled with the prospect of ideal laboratories on the River Campus, went far to satisfy the expectations of new recruits to the faculty.
Important, too, was sabbatical leave for professional growth, a tradition reaching back to the Hebrew Scriptures. Before the twentieth century only a very few American educational institutions had adopted the sabbatical principle, and at Rochester the custom was not placed on firm foundations until late in the 1920's. Normally, after six years of classroom toil, teachers with scholarly projects on the stocks, down to the rank of assistant professors, were given the option of sabbatical leave for an entire year at half salary or for a semester at full salary. 3
The roll of teachers substantially increased, commensurate with the enlarged undergraduate population. Whereas in 1921 twenty-six persons ranked as assistant professor or higher, by 1930 there were sixty. Salaries, likewise, moved upward, senior professors receiving about $4,500 at the end of the decade--with a few getting as much as $6,000--compared with $3,500 in 1920. No uniform rule for retirement existed, though a professor might resign at sixty-five or keep pegging away until he attained three score years and ten or even longer; in individual cases the University supplemented the income of professors who retired on modest Carnegie pensions. Special rates for medical care at the University hospital were accorded to teachers, and members of their immediate families were given (1930) free tuition if enrolled in regular college courses. Part of the expenses incurred by teachers in attending meetings of learned societies was borne by the University. (In 1926 Rochester was the site of the annual sessions of the American Historical Association and the National Association of Teachers of Music.)
Visions of affluence danced in the heads of teachers who purchased (1929) shares in the Rochester Capital Corporation, an investment trust. Several University officers and trustees who owned stock turned over part of their holdings for resale to the faculty. Since the shares had a much higher market value than the $21.00 at which they were offered to the faculty, subscriptions soared far beyond the 900 shares that were available. A faculty committee decided, first, that two dollars should be tacked on to the purchase price of each share (the resulting $1,800 to be applied to furnishing a faculty club on the River Campus), and, second, that shares should be allocated in accordance with rank, those above the assistant professor level, for instance, being permitted to buy up to thirty shares. Came then the Great Depression and certain optimistic investors, wiser and sadder, disposed of their stock for as little as $5.00 a share!
In the meantime, a novel organization had penetrated to the Rochester campus--the American Association of University Professors. The germ of this institution originated in the faculty of the Johns Hopkins, leading to a formal national organization in 1915. It was designed to enhance the security and the dignity of the scholars calling, to represent the common interests of teaching staffs, and to consider general problems of university policy. High among the aims of the Association was the defense of academic freedom for teachers, centering upon the world-old themes of freedom of inquiry and research, freedom of utterance in lecture hall or laboratory, freedom of extramural expression and action. Not an occupational or trade union, the Association likened itself to the American Medical Association.
As early as 1918 a branch was established at the U. of R.--if an organization boasting but a solitary member may be so dignified; next year, however, the strength jumped to six, including professorial worthies Fairchild, Forbes, Hoeing, and Slater and by 1930 nineteen were enrolled. It is a pity that records of the Rochester society prior to 1930 have been lost, particularly since an instance of involuntary withdrawal from the faculty arose (1927) which may have been discussed by the local members of the A. A. U. P.
The complainant was a physics teacher on temporary assignment. After inquiry, national A. A. U. P. authorities were satisfied that freedom of opinion was in no sense at issue, that no infraction of reasonable standards of academic tenure had been committed; rather, the man was not reappointed because of incompetence in the classroom. Rhees was entirely willing that the college faculty should create a standing committee on tenure to advise the administration; on the basis of fragmentary data, however, it seems that none was in fact formed.
Faculty social life took turns for the better. Informal dances and parties, beginning in 1922, formed the prelude to the formation of a club two years later with Librarian Donald B. Gilchrist as president. For a few months makeshift quarters were obtained in Kendrick Hall, but in the summer of 1924 the Club leased from the University a snug, brown-shingled cottage on the western edge of the campus and renovated it for club uses. Aside from being a center of social gatherings, the clubhouse served meals (1924: breakfast 35 cents, lunch 25 and 35 cents, dinner 75 cents) and supplied living quarters for six bachelors. Then, too, faculty wives, who had entertained undergraduates at a coffee hour one afternoon a week in Anderson Hall, moved the party to the more congenial Club environment. (After the opening of the River Campus, the house was assigned to the Women's Faculty Club.)
To meet the demands of the changing college, the administrative and clerical force was enlarged and organizational innovations were introduced. Olive M. Schrader, who joined the small administrative staff in 1919, retired as college registrar forty-three years later. The office of freshman dean was instituted in 1921 and of dean of graduate studies in 1928; vocational advisers were appointed for both men and women undergraduates. As another sign of the new day, the College faculty voted that a digest of its rules and regulations should be compiled every three years--a decision all too quickly forgotten. To deal with educational problems common to the Music and Medical Schools as well as to the College and to have complete responsibility with regard to graduate work throughout the University, a University Faculties Council was set up in 1923, composed of the president, the deans (or director), the University librarian, and three elected professors from each of the three faculties.4
It is possible here to recall, and succinctly at that, only those individuals who joined the teaching or administrative staff in the 1920s and remained for many years. Not a few of them spent virtually their entire professional lives beside the Genesee and in so doing substantially shaped the quality of collegiate education for successive generations of learners. Seven newcomers, drawn from different branches of learning, formed a "Mystical Seven" group, meeting now and then to consider college questions informally or for intellectual discussion, and some of them joined intimate "dinner-clubs" made up of Rochester professional and business men, which yielded tangible benefits for all concerned.
The appointment in 1919 of Donald B. Gilchrist as University librarian was no doubt the most important of the period. Here was a professionally trained young man, gifted as an executive and given to thinking on library issues in large and generous dimensions. He came to Rochester fresh from the librarianship of the American Peace Commission at the Paris Peace Conference, and with the strong endorsement of his predecessor, James A. McMillen, who in a lengthy communication to Gilchrist sketched the University's assets, its bright prospects, and the merit of being "a big frog in a small puddle."
Gilchrist played a pivotal role in the reconstruction of Sibley Hall, in planning and stocking the Music and Medical School libraries, and, above all, in arranging the interior detail of Rhees Library. After making a survey of the New York Academy of Medicine Library, he was invited to become its chief, but, fortunately, he preferred to remain in Rochester.
To Gilchrist belongs the principal credit for the remarkable growth of U. of R. library resources during his twenty-year tenure and for a high esprit de corps in the library staffs. Active in national professional organizations, he authored articles for their publications. A friend of books, he was likewise friendly and cheerful in his relations with his fellow men, and his untimely death in 1939 robbed the University of a most perceptive and valuable personality.
In his memory the trustees created a special fund to increase the stock of reference and bibliographical works continuously. On the slope to the north of Rhees Library, a bronze marker on a boulder at the foot of a pine tree informed the wayfarer: "This New Hampshire pine, seedling of the hills he loved, beside the library which he planned, stands as a living memorial to Donald Bean Gilchrist, 1892-1939, honored librarian of the University for twenty years, thus gratefully remembered by friends and co-workers, in whose heart he remains a near and a beloved presence." 5
Brought to Rochester to teach classics and archaeology was Robert A. MacLean, whose scholarly interest in these subjects had been quickened by a wartime tour of duty with the British army in the Middle East. A versatile intellectual, his range of classroom offerings embraced Latin poetry, the correspondence of Cicero and Pliny, classical civilization, the art of Greece in antiquity, and archaeological discoveries in the Middle East and Greece.
A specialist on the French theatre in the nineteenth century, about which he wrote critical biographical works, Neil C. Arvin served as chairman of the French department for nearly twenty-seven years. In addition, he gave instruction in medieval French literature, initiated teaching in comparative literature, and took a leading part in the development of what was known as the Honors Division. The Interpres dedication of 1949 lauded Arvin as a "truly creative educator," and at his death admirers set up a prize in his honor to go to the Senior who excelled in French studies. 6
D. Lincoln Canfield, whose chosen domain of knowledge was Spanish linguistics, published studies on Hispanic literature and culture; strikingly many-sided, he was on steady call as a speaker to teacher groups and community audiences. His colleague, L. Alfreda Hill, the epitome of the consecrated teacher who stimulated her charges to stretch themselves to the maximum, centered her studies upon the classical age of French literature and modern French literature, co-authoring Twentieth Century French Writers, among other productions.
For forty-one years Wilbur D. Dunkel belonged to the faculty of English, advancing to the chairmanship of the department. Especially interested in English drama, his writings dealt mainly with aspects of that subject, along with biographies such as William Lambarde (1965). Of Dunkel a colleague said upon his retirement, "...His contributions to the spread of knowledge have not been restricted to the written word," and, he remarked upon the public, curricular, and extracurricular campus lectures and appraisals of current plays which Dunkel had presented "to an enthusiastic... following." 7
As was true of Dunkel, Richard L. Greene carried forward the high traditions of Professors Gilmore, Slater, and Havens. Himself a product of the U. of R. (1926), Greene in graduate school cultivated the study of English carols, which furnished him with a lifelong realm of investigation. After seventeen years of distinguished teaching at Rochester, he withdrew to preside over Wells College and subsequently filled chairs of English at other institutions. A ready, thoughtful, and engaging speaker, he several times delivered excellent memorial addresses on departed faculty men and illuminated educational themes close to his heart and conscience.
Economics, a relative novelty in the Rochester curriculum, branched out famously in the twenties, bringing no fewer than five men to the faculty circle. Joseph H. Foth concentrated on money and banking and corporation finance and investments. A big, brawny person, he was wont to indulge in classroom excursions beyond the boundaries of his sphere of special knowledge. After reasonable warning he was asked to resign, because of the "demonstrated ineffectiveness of certain aspects of your professional work..." Economic theory (with an occasional foray into economic history), labor, and business organization were taught--and taught exceptionally well--by Roth Clausing, one of the most genial and likeable of colleagues. Corporation finance and investments and the principles of marketing were the provinces of Eric C. Vance, 1925, who, unwittingly, prepared the way for the eventual college of business administration.
After a goodly stint of teaching, notably public finance, business cycles, and the methods of statistical analysis, Donald W. Gilbert, 1921, moved into the administrative hierarchy, functioning as dean of graduate studies and when that work was refashioned (1942) as a full-bodied graduate school, he took over as dean. Six years later his educational career assumed even more responsible dimensions when he was promoted to the newly created position of provost. For a year, in the absence of President Alan Valentine, he shared the top executive responsibilities and came off extremely well, demonstrating, as the British have long known, that an able scholar-administrator could run a diversified institution of higher education competently and with distinction.
Gilbert was presently named vice-president in charge of University Development, but poor health obliged him to resign; he then devoted his energies to the establishment of Canadian studies on solid foundations. Alluded to by President Cornelis W. de Kiewiet as "the ideal colleague," Gilbert participated in civic organizations and national learned societies, writing scholarly papers on his specialties in economics. At every turn he manifested his profound affection for and deep feeling of gratitude to the University; and not long after his premature death the trustees rewarded (1960) his skill and fidelity by placing his name on a River Campus dormitory.
Although his connection with Rochester endured for only seven years, William E. Weld, economist and dean of the College, left an imprint upon the institution. For six years the baited hook of Rhees tried unsuccessfully to obtain the services of Weld to teach economics--an offer of the deanship, whose orbit was somewhat loosely defined, landed him. Teaching experiences at colleges in Asia had wedded him to that continent and its social and economic perplexities. His main course of instruction was a comparative study of the economic structure of four foreign countries, India and Japan among them. In 1936 he left to undertake the Presidency of Wells College--Weld of Wells possessed a clearly lyrical ring. 8
To lead the philosophy department, Alfred H. Jones was called in 1926 from a chair in philosophy at Brown University and spent the balance of his teaching years at Rochester. His specialties were the validity of human values in the light of science and the evolution of philosophic thought from the Greeks of antiquity into the twentieth century.
Working with Jones was W. Edwin VandeWalle, a U. of R. alumnus, 1921, who was especially concerned with ethics and logic and scientific method. He was genuinely interested in students and likely to be more disturbed by inferior academic accomplishment than a student himself. Adept in understanding the undergraduate mind, he showed unusual proficiency in counseling and guidance problems, and in 1940 he was chosen dean of the College for Men. Three years later he fell dead in his Morey Hall office; mourning friends contributed funds for a portrait of a lovable and well-rounded scholar. 9
To disseminate and advance the sum of historical knowledge, four young men came onto the Rochester scene in the 1920's: Hugh Mackenzie, Willson H. Coates, Arthur J. May, and Glyndon G. Van Deusen, class of 1925. Led by Professor Dexter Perkins, this close-knit little band remained intact, remarkably enough, until 1946 when Mackenzie in the prime of life was cut down by death; his colleagues kept pegging away at the U. of R. until retirement. Then they entered upon the delights, the luxury no less, of growing old.
A medievalist, Mackenzie was extraordinarily successful in teaching women. No faculty man, indeed, commanded comparable respect and esteem at the College for Women, as was witnessed in one way by the repeated dedication of the Croceus to "the kindest master of all the Convoy Crew." His influence and distinction grew out of the quality of his mind, his commitment to humane learning, and his unflagging zeal in inspiring a love of learning both for its own sake and for its value in the quest for intellectual fulfillment. Papal envoys to thirteenth century England was the subject of his scholarly researches, and he had virtually finished a learned volume on that theme when he died. Former students and faculty friends established two Hugh Mackenzie Prizes to be handed out to the woman of highest achievement in the introductory course in history--in the presentation of which Mackenzie had excelled--and to the student who had shown the greatest improvement in that course.
Befitting the beneficiary of a Rhodes Scholarship at Queen's College, Oxford, Coates displayed exceptional talent for challenging the brightest youths who elected British or western intellectual history and for stimulating advanced students whom he guided through the intricacies of the philosophy of history. The humane intelligence of Coates was abundantly demonstrated in a two-volume intellectual history of western Europe which he co-authored. Besides, he was a founding-father and first editor of The Journal of British Studies, a learned publication that won acclaim on both sides of the Atlantic.
May specialized in the modern history of Europe--more particularly the Danubian region--with the Orient as a sideline. His books on the Hapsburg Monarchy brought him scholarly awards and an international reputation; he also lectured before university audiences and learned societies in several European countries. Concerning his classroom role--and he taught more students than any other academic teacher in U. of R. history--the dedication of the class of 1929 Interpres read, "He came to Rochester with us, and we have learned to think of him, not as a teacher to whom a report is due, but rather as a friend to whom we can give our confidence." "His contributions to student life are legion," declared an alumni-alumnae citation on the eve of his retirement, "touching and enriching the remotest areas of campus activity." Interested in civic affairs, May served as president of the City Club of Rochester and as the first president of the Friends of the Rochester Public Library.
Although trained in European history, Van Deusen shifted his allegiance to the history of the United States, making himself an outstanding authority on the so-called middle period. A man who fully personified the highest ideals and attainments in the art of teaching and scholarly productivity, Van Deusen composed the standard biographies of Henry Clay, Thurlow Weed, Horace Greeley (which was crowned by the Beveridge Prize of the American Historical Association), and William H. Seward. Beyond that, he contributed liberally to learned periodicals, held a Fulbright Professorship in New Zealand, and taught for a session at the famous Salzburg (Austria) Seminar in American Studies. 10
For several years James D. McGill was attached to the history group, but in 1934 his special area of knowledge, government (or political science), was set off as a distinct department with him at the head. Notwithstanding a severe physical handicap resulting from infantile paralysis, he proved a provocative teacher of American constitutional law and political parties, intent on preparing students for effective participation in a rapidly evolving democratic society; what he taught he practiced, serving as president of the Rochester Board of Education for a term. At his death in 1942, more than 200 of his friends and former students contributed to a memorial fund, which was used to endow a McGill Prize in Government and to purchase a plaque on which the names of the annual prize-winners would be inscribed. (As of 1968 the tablet hung on the third floor of Harkness Hall).
Psychology, which was divorced (1927) from education, was taught both at the College and at the Institute of Optics by William Berry. Described as "a stimulating teacher" by one of the most distinguished men who sat at his feet, Berry was concerned to make the minds of students more efficient, less subject to passing whims and fancies; his special domains were experimental psychology and the psycho-physiology of vision. After rendering fourteen years of useful service at Rochester, his resignation was uncompromisingly demanded--a case of the mailed fist concealed in the velvet glove of President Valentine. If, as the administration claimed, Berry's professional qualifications were not up to U. of R. standards, that deficiency should have been discovered years before and appropriate action taken. His younger colleague, Eliot D. Hutchinson, invoked hypnosis in instruction at a time when it was neither popular nor even respectable to do so; his aim was to stir indolent undergraduates into productive activity. Studies that Hutchinson carried on in social and applied psychology flowered in a valuable book, How to Think Creatively.
The instruction in education--better designated "pedagogy"--improved sharply after the appointment (1928) of Earl B. Taylor, class of 1912, a successful superintendent of schools in the nearby community of LeRoy. This dynamic executive also administered the Extension Division and the Summer Session, and was mainly responsible for the formation in 1942 of the Division of University Extension which offered a degree of its own; two years later the Division was reorganized as the University School of Liberal and Applied Studies.
Mathematician T. Richard Long, 1920, earned the deathless affection of a multitude of Rochester undergraduates whom he taught and befriended. Genial and easily approachable, he was, nonetheless, a stern taskmaster in the classroom. Yet, if a student would apply himself to the best of his ability, he found in Long an extremely patient and helpful mentor. In his will he bequeathed his estate to the University which he had served with exemplary devotion, to provide scholarly aid to worthy young men from the city of Rochester.
Turning next to the natural scientists who were appointed in the twenties, J. Edward Hoffmeister stands out for his achievements as teacher, administrator, and research worker. His record at Rochester resembled in fact the framework of a fine novel, building up to a high climax, and then tapering off to a logical conclusion. He arrived in 1923 with a Ph.D. in geology from the Johns Hopkins University fresh on his brow and convinced that he was casting in his fortunes with a growth institution--"a University of Destiny." The future splendidly confirmed his appraisal.
Hoffmeister was a classroom personality par excellence and outstanding in faculty committee work, and those qualities coupled with a strong personality and a friendly disposition led to his selection first as dean of the College for Men and then as dean of the College of Arts and Science (1943-56). He was heavily involved in community organizations, and, like Gilbert, he was seriously considered in trustee circles in 1950 for the U. of R. presidency.
In the early phase of his Rochester tenure, Hoffmeister engaged in scientific expeditions to learn more about corals in the southern Pacific, which resulted in scientific publications. Upon relinquishing the deanship he reverted to his first loves--teaching and productive research, and upon official retirement in 1964 he continued his investigations on the staff of the Institute of Marine Science attached to the University of Miami, Florida. His discoveries there wrought with revolutionary force upon significant aspects of geology in the Florida-Bahama area. 11
A second geologist, Quentin D. Singewald, made himself an expert on mineralogy and the mineral resources of the Americas and the Soviet Union. During the Second World War he was given leave of absence to conduct investigations on Latin American mineral wealth, and thereafter he joined the United States Geological Survey--a U. of R. casualty of the war, President Valentine lamented.
Opportunities in biology were broadened by the coming of J. Douglas Hood and Sherman C. Bishop. Hood became a world authority on the classification of plants and insects according to their natural relationships. On many wide-ranging missions he accumulated a large collection of thysanoptera, an order of minute insects popularly known as thrips, which are often injurious to garden and farm; Hood personally discovered about fifty previously unknown species. Among honors conferred upon him was membership in the Royal Entomology Society of London.
For twenty-three years, Bishop instructed and worked at research at Rochester, producing 131 papers, leaving out of account studies unfinished at the time of his death. Basically a zoologist, knowledgeable about both warm-blooded and cold-blooded vertebrates, he is remembered for extra ordinary familiarity with the forms, colors, and ways of animals. He trained more than twenty professional scientists in his specialty. 12
In addition to holding a professorship in physics, T. Russell Wilkins acted as director of the Institute of Applied Optics in its formative stage. His searches to wrest from nature the intimate secrets of cosmic rays and his papers on atomic disintegration attracted national attention, and he discovered a process by which to photograph the changes resulting from smashing the atom. Learned articles that he prepared dealt with radioactivity, atomic physics, and photography. An enthusiastic scientist, he communicated his ardor both to students and inquiring laymen.
An alumna, Ethel L. French, 1920, who started her academic career as an assistant in chemistry, advanced to a senior professorship--the only woman in chemistry to attain that rank and the first woman to earn a Rochester Ph.D. in chemistry. As a teacher of inorganic and analytical chemistry and as a student advisor, she inspired many an undergraduate to develop her potentialities to the full. Her researches were focused on chemical problems related to teeth. 13
The training of mechanical and chemical engineers advanced to higher levels after Joseph W. Gavett was placed at the head of the department (1921). To a fine personality and a logical mind, he united lofty educational principles, insisting, for instance, that engineering undergraduates should include liberal, culturally and intellectually broadening subjects in their programs. Both for himself and for embryonic engineers Gavett set exacting standards, and he gave a distinctive course on the principles of the engineering profession. He excelled in unraveling the mysteries of thermodynamics and heat engines. Beyond that, he knitted close technical bonds with leading Rochester industries, which were mutually profitable. Since Gavett bore the heaviest burden of planning the new engineering complex on the River Campus, it was peculiarly fitting that his name should have been placed on its major unit. From Cornell, Gavett brought with him Horace W. Leet who taught mechanical engineering at the U. of R. for thirty-nine years. His responsibilities covered machine drawing, structural design, and the kinematics of machines. After attaining emeritus status, Leet continued to teach the professional engineering course. 14
"Her friendship and understanding have been an inspiration for us" declared the Croceus of 1926 with reference to Merle Spurrier, teacher of physical education and hygiene, who came in 1922. She conceived of physical training not only as a means of maintaining curricular balance but also as a method of instilling confidence and learning enjoyment of sports that would carry over into the years after graduation. In the course of her long tenure she was instrumental in planning new athletic facilities for women, after the decision was made to reunify the two colleges. At her side for thirty years was Hazel J. Wilbraham, 1927, affectionately known as "Gram" by generations of admiring women students. She had a large part in devising (1931) and then in directing cooperative dormitories on the Prince Street Campus.
Two strong and sunny personalities taught physical education to men for more than three decades each and exerted a profound influence upon thousands of undergraduates: Walter Campbell and Roman L. Speegle. While Campbell coached tennis and soccer--and he was eminently successful--Speegle directed track and swimming teams. Over the years both men regaled audiences at college functions with their musical hobbies; Campbell, a tenor, is remembered as a confirmed addict of "barber-shop" singing, while Speegle performed meritoriously on the guitar, to the invariable delight of all assembled. Undergraduate feathers--as well as those of sports writers on Rochester newspapers-were badly ruffled when the contract of Frank H. Gorton, hard-boiled, popular track coach for twelve years, was terminated (1937), ostensibly because of departmental reorganization. 15
Among the responsibilities devolving upon the college faculty as a corporate body were decisions on general educational policy. Thus, in 1920 after prolonged debate and travail, the two-semester year replaced the historic three-term pattern. As for the curriculum, it was twice revised in the 'twenties, and there was no little tinkering, pointed toward reduction in required subjects, along the way. At the outset of the decade undergraduates might choose between five programs: a B.A. for work in the humanities, the social studies, or general science, a B.S. in Mechanical or Chemical Engineering, in Chemistry, or in Vital Economics.
A curricular reformation effected in 1920 grouped the departments of learning in three categories: languages and literature, social studies, and the sciences. A minimum amount of distribution was prescribed in each of the three divisions and two years of physical education and hygiene were required of everyone. For graduation two units of measurement were adopted; hours of credit and points of credit, with no points allowed for academic performance below a "C" level.
In view of the ferment at Rochester and indeed in the country at large on educational policies, on what should be taught and how, a faculty committee, chaired by Mathematician Watkeys, was appointed to appraise the effectiveness of U. of R. training for different groups of students. The committee would evaluate the efficiency of instructional methods, propose ways and means of operating the college at its highest potential, and prepare to shape the curriculum of the future. So that he might explore trends and teaching techniques at leading American colleges, Watkeys was relieved of classroom duties for a year.
He proceeded on the assumption that reexamination of the existing courses of study and rigorous self-analysis would strengthen educational processes and bring them into harmony with the growing opportunities that the University afforded. Among other devices, he formulated and distributed elaborate questionnaires on college life and training to undergraduates, graduates, and faculty and obtained a gratifyingly high percentage of replies. Student responses disclosed that men earning part of their college expenses attained higher academic standings than others and, more surprising, that men devoted more hours to study than the gentler sex.
On the basis of his investigations, Watkeys recommended several significant innovations in the curriculum. Not only should required courses be whittled down, but the gifted undergraduate should be allowed a good deal of latitude in carrying on studies, and mastery of one foreign language and of a single area of knowledge should be the objective for every student. Teachers, furthermore, should concern themselves more with the student as an individual.
The Watkeys' findings and proposals were scrupulously discussed and somewhat refined by a Committee on Educational Policy, and at a lengthy series of faculty meetings. Not everyone saw everything exactly the Watkeys' way--"over-schematic," Rhees murmured. Nevertheless, his report and professorial deliberations on it formed the prologue to important legislative measures in 1927-28. In its essentials the revised curriculum envisaged for underclassmen the acquisition of broad civilizing understanding of the range of knowledge and for upperclassmen considerable specialization. More exactly, undergraduates would study English for two semesters (6 classroom hours), a modern language for four semesters, and as Seniors they would demonstrate reading knowledge of a modern language by passing an examination. Further, four semesters of work would be required in both the social studies and the natural science groups.
At the end of the Sophomore year, B.A. candidates would choose an area of concentration, interpreted as "a group of closely co-ordinated studies which, taken collectively, form a unified whole." For concentration, four-year courses and a piece of independent reading were prescribed. Toward the close of the Senior year, students would face a comprehensive examination testing their grasp of the whole area of knowledge embraced in their concentration program.
Although it was not at all a perfect device, the comprehensive examination represented a meaningful and constructive innovation in the collegiate experience, inasmuch as it demanded correlation and consolidation of knowledge into a coherent whole on the part of the candidates. Undergraduates who elected to seek a degree with distinction--a valuable novelty in the Rochester educational pattern--would be allowed wider scope for independent study, would be given a more searching comprehensive examination, and would be required to prepare an essay on an assigned topic.
For the B. S., distribution requirements were the same as for the B. A., with facility in a modern language waived in certain technical programs. Studies for upper-class years were indicated by prescribed synopses in engineering, chemistry, and education. Wherever feasible, supplementary reading and a comprehensive examination would be arranged; special departmental rules regulated the quest for a B.S. with distinction.
Beginning in 1930 Seniors were granted a three-week reading period before the comprehensive examination, which normally would proceed for three days and might be followed by oral questioning. If a student failed the comprehensive test, he might try again in the following autumn.
An interesting innovation was an orientation course in the natural sciences, designed to show interrelationships, and presented by no fewer than nine professors. In order to encourage a stronger sense of individual responsibility, upperclassmen were permitted themselves to determine whether they would attend classes, and the same option was extended to under- classmen who had demonstrated outstanding ability in the classroom.
Teachers were obligated, moreover, to evaluate on a detailed chart each of their students not only in respect to academic performance but also on personal qualities. On the other side of the aisle, Seniors were given questionnaires on which to register opinions on courses they had taken, and the results were passed through administrative channels to the instructors involved.
Finally, the faculty authorized (1926) any department that wished to experiment with an honors program to go ahead. Features of this type of education, reserved for abler students, were independent investigation, writing of papers, and analysis of them in small groups under professorial guidance. In November, 1928, President Frank Aydelotte of Swarthmore College, which had pioneered in applying these English ideas of learning in America, addressed Rochester undergraduates and faculty on honors studies, especially as conducted at Swarthmore. 16
During the 1920's, U. of R. officers considered establishing an Institute of Governmental Administration and a School of Social Work, but funds were not available--not even for a department of sociology, the President regretted. It was suggested, too, that a School of Journalism be organized, using the Rochester Herald, gasping for breath, as a training ground; Rhees, however, gave the idea short shrift. That hardy perennial, a law school, also came under review again and was dismissed until demand was pressing and the necessary finances were in hand. Similarly, a gossamer proposal to set up a laboratory for eugenics research as a joint enterprise of the College and the Medical School came to naught. 17
On the other hand, several new programs were added to the college opportunities. In cooperation with Mechanics Institute (later the Rochester Institute of Technology), the University offered a degree in home economics, with one quarter of the courses in general college subjects. This cooperative experiment proved less than satisfactory and the program, in which degrees were first conferred in 1922, was discontinued before the end of the decade. College degrees with concentration in music might be earned by taking from one quarter to one third of a four-year program in college work and the rest at the Eastman School, and in 1925 a special pattern of courses for a degree in Education was instituted. Similarly, a degree in nursing was conferred for three years of college study followed by professional and technical training in the nursing division of the Medical Center. Lastly, after three years of superior achievement at the College, a student might proceed to an acceptable medical school and if his first year's performance there was satisfactory he would be awarded a bachelor's degree by the U. of R.
Since Rochester was the principal center of the optical industry of America, logic suggested that it would be an ideal location in which to cultivate and advance optical science. Consultations between University officials and representatives of the Bausch and Lomb and Eastman Kodak Companies, starting in 1918, revolved around a four-year program of "optical engineering" with the last two years of professional training to be furnished at a separate school for which a building would be necessary. Only the Johns Hopkins in the United States at that point offered quality education in optics, and the late war had glaringly revealed how inadequately America was supplied with optically-trained technicians.
George Eastman warmly applauded the project for optical science, and Rhees, ever on the alert to deepen the ties between the philanthropic manufacturer and the University, assured him that "the opportunity to cooperate in an undertaking to do the best thing the world offers is thrillingly attractive." Synopses of the curriculum for the proposed institution were actually drafted in 1919, and it was agreed that three expert teachers in optical technology would have to be employed. Detailed estimates placed the cost of the program at $400,000; the Bausch and Lomb Company, however, decided that its share of the expense would exceed what it cared to shoulder.
In the absence of documentary evidence, it may be assumed that the optical scheme lay in cold storage while the Oak Hill enterprise took shape. But discussions revived when a New York law of 1923 prescribed a college degree for practicing optometrists. Certain trustees, though not the President, liked the idea of attaching to the U. of R. the Rochester School of Optics and Optometry, founded in 1902, which used University laboratories in its instruction. Instead, the department of physics introduced (1926) classes in optometry and applied optics as part of a four-year course leading to a B.S. This innovation formed the preface to an Institute of [Applied] Optics, announced in 1928, which would be an independent establishment, working, however, in close cooperation with University physics professors. Plans for the Institute rested squarely on the agenda mapped out in 1919.
Under the terms of a formal contract, signed on August 1, 1928, the Bausch and Lomb and Kodak firms promised to pay a maximum of $110,000 each over a five-year period for operating expenses and equipment of the Institute and agreed to make the services of some of their technicians available to the Institute. On an overall view, the University and the sponsoring companies entered into an arrangement analogous to that existing between the German University of Jena and the Carl Zeiss works, which had made Jena the optical capital of Europe. In keeping with the expressed stipulation of Bausch and Lomb, professional instruction in optometry would be offered; and the usable equipment and technical books of the School of Optometry, now defunct, were transferred to the Carnegie Building.
The major aim of the Institute would be to train optical technicians, research scientists in industrial optics, and experts in designing and making optical instruments. Applicants for admission to the Institute had to possess qualifications identical with those seeking to matriculate in the College. The Institute would occupy an entire floor of Bausch, and Lomb Hall on the River Campus. Actual initiation of instruction was delayed, however, until two young British optical scientists, Rudolph Kingslake and Alfred M. Taylor, and two teachers from the former School of Optometry were enlisted. With the appointment in 1929 of Physicist T. Russell Wilkins as acting director, the Institute of Optics became a going concern and quickly attained an international reputation. Instruction in optometry, however, ceased in 1934, and in 1961, the College of Engineering took over the administration of the Institute. 18
In the aftermath of the First World War, American institutions of higher learning in general and the U. of R. in particular experienced a sudden upsurge in applications for admission. The war had shown that college trained men held an advantage in winning commissions as officers, unemployment due to a post-war slump in business activity also had bearing upon the increase in applications. Space limitations imposed severe restrictions on the number that could be accepted--a situation that supplied the fund-raising campaigners of 1924 with a potent talking point--and that situation in turn made greater selectivity practicable.
Not only were requirements for admission tightened and more information requested on revised (1927) application forms, but the faculty instructed the admissions committee--two or three teachers--to screen candidates more carefully and to attach more importance to their personal characteristics. Interviews on the campus and recommendations of alumni carried weight along with records of achievement in secondary schools. A tempest boiled up in a teapot in 1927 when over 150 applicants were rejected and complaints flowed in "from nearly every influential person in Rochester;" schoolmen rejoiced, however, because they believed that the University's stiff admissions policy would prove beneficial "in maintaining higher academic standards" in city schools.
Echoing a widely entertained opinion, the Alumni Secretary wrote, "We must make the University... a real national institution," and he proceeded to enumerate a dozen reasons--extending from the attractiveness of the Flower City to the enlarged resources of the University--useful in attracting secondary school pupils to the College. Responding to the challenge, a small set of graduates in Chicago established eight regional scholarships in all, to be awarded to "distinctly superior" candidates. A resulting stream of able young men and women from metropolitan Chicago exerted a broad impact upon every facet of college life, and regional alumni clubs in Buffalo and New York City imitated, though on a lesser scale, the example of the Chicago group.
More than that, as the River Campus neared completion, the administration undertook organized recruitment of students beyond the orbit of metropolitan Rochester. Since the Eastman School and the Medical School drew students from wide areas of the country, why not set a comparable goal for the college? Accordingly, an office of "traveling representative" was created, whose occupant would make recruiting visits to secondary schools. The attributes of the representative were spelled out in detail. He must be young enough to be attractive to high school youths, but sufficiently mature to impress school principals. Preferably, he should be an alumnus, thoroughly informed about the University and its life, and familiar with and interested in the objectives of higher education. Satisfying these specifications, Charles R. Dalton, 1920, was appointed (1929) to the pivotal post with the altered title of "field secretary."
Dalton called on high school instructors and pupils outside the Rochester area. His hunt covered not only candidates with the brightest scholastic records, but also youths who would be able to benefit by what the U. of R. had to offer and who would be interested in contributing to the collective life of the college in some way. Additionally, he circulated information on the new Institute of Optics and shared in organizing (or rather toning up) a day when prospective students--sub-Freshmen was the curious word for them--were annually entertained on the campus It was an auspicious start for one of the most vital factors in the entire college enterprise--no matter how learned and capable teachers were, nor how admirable the facilities and equipment, without high quality "raw material" the finished educational product must inescapably be inferior.
As another innovation, men who were accepted for the incoming class spent four days together in a "camp" before college opened to learn, what to expect and what would be expected of them. Tried experimentally in 1924, under "Y" auspices, Freshman camp grew into a fixed convention. 19
Two collateral forms of higher education gained momentum and flourished in the 'twenties--the Extension Division and the Summer Session. Launched in 1916, Extension Division teaching was a wartime casualty, but it was resumed in 1920, 851 students registering; by the end of the decade nearly one thousand more were in attendance. The Division carried on under the watchful eye of a college faculty committee, bent on a faculty high standards, and most of the instructors were drawn from U. of R. ranks; compensation for teachers depended originally upon class enrollment, but that dubious practice was presently abandoned. Classes met either on the Prince Street Campus or in a city school, two afternoons a week, until instruction in the evening and on Saturday morning was introduced.
It was asserted that better than nine out of ten of the men and women who took advantage of the Extension offerings could have met the entrance requirements of the regular college, and before the decade was over it became possible to earn a degree by work in the Extension Division alone. For the most part, the registrants were school teachers, seeking professional growth and promotion, but many who attended had no motive other than cultural and intellectual enrichment. Investigation of courses available in other urban institutions prompted the offering of instruction on subjects which were unmistakably vocational in content or adapted to circumstances of city living, such as salesmanship and parental education. In 1930, the Division took over responsibility for extra-collegiate work carried on at the Eastman School and the Medical Center. As another means of adult enlightenment under University auspices, weekly lectures over the radio were inaugurated (1926), geologists acting as trail-blazers.
In harmony with a movement of national proportions, in 1921 a Summer Session was organized. It furnished learning opportunities for school teachers during the vacation months, for undergraduates desirous of accelerating or of cancelling a deficiency, or for persons who simply wished to spend leisure hours profitably. Course offerings both of a professional character for teachers and of a general nature were steadily broadened, and more and more learners were enrolled for studies leading to the master's degree. Increasingly, too, students were drawn to the campus (or to courses presented in a city school) from outside of the Rochester community. Whereas in 1921, 326 students registered, the figure by 1930 had climbed to 909. On a wider estimate, however, the Summer Session (and Extension classes) was not sheer gain. For pecuniary reasons often, U. of R. teachers engaged in this form of instruction, which ate into the time and energy available for uninterrupted research and writing. 20
Graduate training--a hallmark of the genuine university--expanded in response to demand and to the expanded teaching staff and facilities. From the very beginning, it may be recalled, Rochester had offered work for the master's degree; almost all of the 118 graduate students registered in 1930 (only nine in 1917) were candidates for an M.A. or M.S. From time to time the college faculty adopted regulations for the master's distinction, sometimes requiring a thesis--easily the most valuable component of the training--and sometimes waiving this rule for certain departments; at least half of the courses for an M.A. or M.S. had to be taken in the regular college (as distinguished from the Extension Division) and an oral examination was made obligatory (1921-1922). A college committee on advanced study requested (1922) the trustees to grant authority to extend the graduate program to the Ph.D.
That request the University [Faculties] Council repeated in 1924, at which point Rhees appointed a committee to draft regulations for the doctorate. The committee devised (1924) a pattern which persisted in its essentials for over a quarter of a century; the principal feature was the establishment of a Committee on Graduate Studies (originally called the Standing Committee on the Ph.D. degree)--an agency of the University Council until 1942--which had to approve each aspirant to the Ph.D., to select examining committees, and to recommend successful candidates to the trustees for the degree. Presently, the jurisdiction of this committee was extended (1928) to cover work for the master's degree and it was assigned the responsibility of determining which departments were adequately staffed and equipped to offer either a master's or a doctor's degree. Latinist Charles Hoeing was appointed administrative head in 1928 with the title of Dean of Graduate Studies.
It was a proud moment for the University in 1925 when the first earned Ph.D. was conferred--in biochemistry, spoken of previously. By 1930, the departments of chemistry, psychiatry, bacteriology, biology, and physiology--all in medicine or science--had been authorized to train candidates for the doctorate and about a dozen aspirants were then at work. 21
At the dawn of the new era, the library--the very nerve center of the college--contained around 100,000 volumes, reckoning in the holdings of the Rochester Academy of Science deposited there, and works as yet unbound. It was especially well-stocked for a small college in periodical sets and added approximately 3,000 books a year, thanks to funds which were probably larger than in any other comparable institution, except perhaps Amherst. President Rhees, who had a keen and understanding concern about the library, permitted the librarian a virtually free hand; autonomy coupled with a friendly and appreciative faculty rendered the position of librarian quite attractive. Day-to-day operations were handled by a professional or semi-professional staff of five, reinforced by half a dozen undergraduate aides.
In his first report as librarian, Gilchrist, like his predecessor, dwelt upon the congestion in Sibley Hall, in spite of systematic discarding of titles regarded as useless. The reconstruction of the Library, already remarked upon, substantially improved the unhappy situation as did storage of books, seldom requested, in the basement. For the cataloguing staff a temporary structure was fitted up behind Sibley Hall, and reserve reading rooms were arranged in the former chapel in Anderson Hall and for the women in Catharine Strong. In anticipation of the separate College for Women, Miss Adeline B. Zachert of the city library was appointed (1929) head librarian at the Prince Street Campus.
Circulation of books jumped from approximately 22,000 in 1919 to about 150,000 in 1927, while annual acquisitions increased in the same period to around 7,000. Graduates and friends of the University, as in the past, donated books, an especially valuable collection of works on Russia and Japan coming (1926) from the estate of George Kennan, widely known for dramatic reports from Imperial Russia and holder of an honorary Rochester doctorate. To keep all concerned informed on new acquisitions, the Library issued (1922) a "Fortnightly Bulletin," a valuable service that continued for twenty years.
Losses of books constituted a constant and mounting perplexity. A "Lost Book Week" in 1920 yielded some ninety volumes borrowed before the War! To combat thievery students were denied direct access to the shelves. On their part, undergraduates had grievances concerning the conduct of the Library. They petitioned in vain that the building be kept open until 9:30 every evening, rather than only two nights a week, and on Sunday. It was commonly complained that disruptive noise prevailed as at a "house party, boxing match, and sewing circle" rolled into one. Chance romances, too, upset the tranquility of "Phinney's Match Factory," and impromptu wrestling bouts in the lobby infuriated Gilchrist--the more so if damage was done to property. Efforts by the staff to curb noise elicited tart Campus comments that undergraduates were treated cavalierly, looked upon as a necessary evil. 22
Certain faculty and student leaders, eager to heighten undergraduate esprit de corps, repeatedly advocated that residence halls should be erected big enough to accommodate all greenlings and that they should be obliged to live in them, but agitation of that sort evaporated when the River Campus scheme came on to the horizon. Much criticism was voiced about the inefficiency of the college bookstore, which was conducted as a private venture; in the belief that prices would be reduced, student sentiment strongly wanted the store converted into a cooperative enterprise, but again the Oak Hill prospect silenced complaints. The University acquired two of the three private dwellings on the Prince Street rim of the college grounds and made over (1922) the most northerly of them--once the home of Professor Quinby--for use by the presidential and financial staffs and the alumni secretary. 23
To the ownership of the University also passed (1927) the world-famous Ward's Natural Science Establishment, located directly north of the Campus. Sometimes likened to Mr. Venus's quaint shop in Our Mutual Friend by Charles Dickens, the Establishment was given outright to the University by the Ward family as a memorial to Frank A. Ward for many years the president, on the understanding that the traditional museum features would be preserved and scientific work continued. It was disclosed that the chief preoccupation of the Frank A. Ward Foundation of Natural Science, as it was called--the sale of scientific materials and supplies--would be handled by the University on a non-profit basis for a trial period of five years.
As a tax-exempt educational institution, the U. of R. could not directly carry on the business, so a special corporation was set up, whose stock belonged exclusively to the University, which appointed the board of directors. For a few years a newly created University Museum of Natural History worked closely with the Ward's Establishment, and instruction in museum methods was offered. Not a financial success, the Establishment was disposed of in 1940 and afterwards was operated wholly as a commercial undertaking--and in time a profitable one. 24
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Footnotes to Chapter 23
- Campus, XLV, June 4, 1920. Trustee Records, V, June 15, 1920. Ibid., VI, June 17, 1922, June 14, 1924, May 14, June 19, 1926. Walter S. Hubbell to Rush Rhees, May 26, 1923. Rhees Papers, Executive Committee Minutes, VIII, June 30, 1922. Interpres, LXXI (1930), 14.
- New York Times, March 30, 1921. Campus, XLV, June 4, 1920. Ibid., LV, October 25, 1929. Trustee Records, V, April 21, 1922. Ibid., VI, June 14, 1924, May 18, June 15, 1929. Executive Committee Minutes, VIII, September 29, 1922. R D&C, June 19, 1923. New York Times, May 14, 1927. Rush Rhees to Harper Sibley, May 22, 1927. Rhees Papers. Anon., "James G. Cutler," Rochester Commerce, XXXI, July 10, 1944, 8. Auditors discovered (1921) that university financial records had been kept so improperly that no information on certain bequests was available. That situation, together with the Granite Building fire of 1904, was cited as the explanation of gaps in the U. of R. financial history. Ruth M. Kugler to Alan Valentine, March 18, 1946. Valentine Papers.
- President's Report, 1926-1927. Rush Rhees to O. J. Campbell, June 30, 1930. Rhees Papers.
- Executive Committee Minutes, IX, December 28, 1925. Roth Clausing to Rush Rhees, October 1, 1929. Rhees Papers. H. W. Tyler to Rhees and vice versa, May 3--June 9, 1927. Ibid. Donald B. Gilchrist to Members of Faculty Club, September 19,1924. Ibid. Anon., "New Faculty Club an Asset to Campus Life," RAR, III (1924), no. 1, 13. Trustee Records VI, June 18,1927. Faculty Minutes, VIII, October 5, 1922. January 10, 1924. University Council Minutes. May 17, 1923. RAN, XIII (1939), no. 3, 1. R D&C, September 24, 1967 (Schrader).
- James A. McMillen to Donald B. Gilchrist, June 21, 1919. Rhees Papers. John R. Slater, "Donald Bean Gilchrist--Memorial Address, Oct. 1, 1939." Rhees Library Archives. Campus, XLV, Oct. 13, 17, 1919. Ibid., LXV, Sept. 29, 1939. RAR, XIX (1940), no. 1, 17. Robert F. Metzdorf 1933, to Margaret Withington, et al., August 15, 1939. Valentine Papers. In 1967, the marker was moved to the west side of the Douglass Hall, and a new tree was planted at its base.
- Campus, LII, Sept. 30, 1926. RAR, XIV (1953), no. 3, 33. Faculty Minutes, April 23, 1953.
- R D&C, May 1, 1967 (Canfield). Faculty Minutes, June 2, 1966. (Dunkel).
- Alan Valentine to Joseph H. Foth, Jan. 30, 1936. Valentine Papers. R D&C, Aug. 28, 1957. (Gilbert). Rush Rhees to William E. Weld, Feb. 4, 26, 1929. Rhees Papers. Weld to Rhees, Feb. 21, 1929. Ibid. R T-U, May 10, 1929. Campus, LIV, May 10, 1929. (Weld).
- Campus, LII, Sept. 30, 1926. R D&C, Sept. 28, 1943.
- On Mackenzie, see, Croceus, XIX (1927), dedication and p. 141. Cloister Window, III, April 27, 1928. R T-U, Feb. 27, 1946. On Coates, see, Campus, X, Feb. 6, 1925. On May, see, R T-U, Jan. 25, 1964, RD&C, April 17, 1966. On Van Deusen, see, R T-U, April 25, 1962.
- Faculty Minutes, XVI, November 7, 1946 (Taylor). Campus, LI, April 23, 1926. R T-U, October 14, 1953 (Hoffmeister).
- R T-U, Nov. 2, 1966 (Hood). Donald R. Charles, "Sherman C. Bishop." Rhees Library Archives.
- R D&C, Dec. 11, 1940. RAR, XIX (1940-41), no. 2, 14 (Wilkins). Ibid., XXV (1962), no. 1, 21 (French).
- R D&C, August 29, 1942. Bill [Horace W.] Leet, "Gavett Hall," The Rochester Indicator, XVII, November, 1949, 6-7 (Gavett). William J. Conley to A. J. May, February 16, 1966. Rhees Library Archives. The Rochester Indicator, XXV (1958), 28. Ibid., XXVII (1960), 4. R D&C, September 3, 1966 (Leet).
- R T-U, June 2, 1961 (Spurrier). RAR, XIX (1957), no. 1, 31 (Wilbraham). Ibid., XVII (1955), no. 1, 9 (Campbell). R D&C, Feb. 15, 20, 1937 (Gorton).
- Faculty Minutes, VII, Nov. 6, 1919. Ibid., IX, March 5, April 9, May 7, 1925, Feb. 2, 1926, Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25, Nov. 1, 22, 1927. Charles W. Watkeys, "Some Questions Faced in University Survey," RAR, III (1925), no. 5, 147. Annual Catalogue (1931-32), 96-109.
- Rush Rhees to Richard S. Harvey, Oct. 2, 1929. Rhees Papers. Charles A. Brown to Rhees and vice versa, Oct. 28, 1926--Jan. 5, 1927. Ibid.
- Catalogue of the Rochester School of Optometry, 1924. "Institute of Applied Optics," passim, especially pp. 65 ff. and 172 ff., a loose-leaf book in Rhees Library Archives. Rush Rhees to James F. Barker, July 24, 1918. Rhees Papers. C.E.K. Mees to Rhees, August 1, 1919. Ibid. Rhees to Carl F. Lomb, January 7, 1926. Ibid. Rhees to D. W. Bronk, April 18, 1928. Ibid. Rhees to Frank W. Lovejoy, May 29, 1928. Ibid. M. Herbert Eisenhart to Rhees, June 15, 1928. Ibid. Rhees to James Sullivan, May 22, 1929. Trustee Records, VI, May 14, 1925. Executive Committee Minutes, June 29, 1928. R D&C, March 15, 1929. T. Russell Wilkins, "The Institute of Applied Optics of the U. of R.," The Journal of the Optical Society of America, XXI (1931), 369-387. Anon., "Unusual Optical Development made Possible by Cooperation of Local Industries," RAR, VII (1929), no. 3, 72-73.
- Hugh A. Smith, "Some Talking Points for Rochester, " RAR, III (1924-25), no. 2, 44-48. Raymond N. Ball to Rush Rhees, July 28, 1927. Rhees Papers. "Specifications for a Traveling Representative," Oct. 22, 1929. Ibid. Report of Field Secretary, President's Report, 1929-1930.
- Executive Committee Minutes, VIII, March 19, 1921. Francis J. Brown, "University Summer School Increases Scope," RAR, III (1925), no. 4, 106.
- (College) Faculty Minutes, VII, December 11, 1919, March 16, 1920. Ibid., VIII, November 21, 1922. Ibid., IX, March 13, 1928. University Council Minutes, May 14, December 8, 1924, June 1,1926, March 27, 1928, September 27, October 10, November 25, December 20, 1929.
- James A. McMillen to Donald B. Gilchrist, June 21, 1919. Rhees Papers. President's Report, 1919-1920. Campus, XL, Jan. 16, 1920. Ibid., LII, Oct. 29, 1926. Donald B. Gilchrist to Mrs. George Kennan, April 24, 1926. Rhees Papers.
- Campus, XLVI, Oct. 22, 1920, Jan. 14, 1921. Ibid., XLVIII, Sept. 29, 1922. Faculty Minutes, Nov, 4, 1920.
- Raymond N. Ball to Rush Rhees, May 2, 1927. Rhees Papers. R D&C, September 14, 1927. President's Report, 1927-1928. Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History, April, 1930. Science, LXVI, October 14, 1927, 346-347. Anon., "America's Cradle of Natural Science," Scientific American, CXLII (1930), 46-47. Anon., "Ward's and the University," RAR, XV (1936), no. 1, 11-14. Executive Committee Minutes, IX, March 26, 1935. Trustee Records, VIII, November 9, 1940.