Synopsis of the Letters in the Anthony-Avery Papers



At the time this collection begins, Susan B. Anthony is sixty-two years old and Rachel Foster Avery is twenty-four. Despite their age differences, they were close friends and colleagues who shared mutual respect for each other's abilities. For most of their relationship, Anthony was vice-president of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), then was vice-president and later President of the merger group that formed in 1890, the National-American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Avery was Corresponding Secretary of the NWSA and later Recording Secretary then Auditor of the NAWSA. 

Rachel Foster married Cyrus Miller Avery in 1888 and raised three daughters (Miriam Alice Foster, adopted in 1887, Rose Foster Avery, born in 1890, and Julia Foster Avery). In these notes Rachel Foster Avery is referred to by her married name. 

Note: I have included a location when it was specified in the letter. For each year in which there are letters in the collection, I have copied a summary of that year under the heading "Historical Background." 

Historical Background: 1882 

The Senate finally responds to the NWSA [National Woman Suffrage Association]'s demand that a Senate Select Committee on Women Suffrage be organized. Volume 2 of the History of Woman Suffrage is published. Susan helps Rachel Avery lead the Nebraska Suffrage campaign.
1. April 5, 1882
Anthony compliments Avery on "what a splendid hit" she made on the governor of Nebraska and agrees with Avery's plan to disseminate a speech that will help "even the most bigoted (?) out of their opposition." The second half of the letter discusses financial matters. In January, she had been informed that Eliza Jackson Eddy had left her approximately $28,000. She tells Rachel that a "horrible son-in-law" is trying to break the will and extract the money left to Lucy Stone and her, although she is confident he will not succeed. However, this trouble is preventing her from receiving the money and now she has to "wait and hope for the $2,000 even that Mr. P. wrote was coming immediately." The letter ends wishing that Rachel was made of "iron -- you couldn't tire out" and praises her for her skillfulness in knowing "just how to make agitation -- that is the secret of successful work."
2. 1882? At Lincoln Depot
This hurried, penciled letter begins with Anthony warning Avery that "there is a deep feeling against our National's taking my Lincoln [Nebraska] meeting the 4th wholly,out of the Local Society and giving it no right to aid in getting it up -- & no share in the receipts from the reserved seats." She suggests that Avery write to Dr. Paintell (?) and offer to give the Local Society one half of the net profits of the meeting if they take "responsibility of working up the audience" and says that handling the matter is entirely up to Avery's discretion, although "I still do think it very poor...for us to give any city (?) no part or lot in our meetings -- and while to do so here in Lincoln would probably prevent my having an audience - it will make all the people here feel less interest in my meetings and most decidedly cold toward me personally." She again tells Avery that although it is hard for her, she will not interfere in her plans and ends with the note that the original agreement between her and Mrs. Parrister (?) would be "fair play." 

Historical Background: 1887 

1887 was an eventful year: Anthony and NAWSA [National American Woman Suffrage Association] suffragists protest the federal Edmunds-Tucker Act, which disenfranchises Utah women who had been voting since 1870. The Senate votes against the Sixteenth Amendment, but Anthony is encouraged that more senators support it than ever before. Stone proposes a meeting with Anthony to discuss the possibility of a merger with AWSA [American Woman Suffrage Association] and the NWSA. Anthony and Avery meet with Stone and Alice Blackwell in Boston for the first merger meeting. Anthony welcomes temperance women and religious conservatives into the ranks of NWSA, though many of her first-generation suffrage colleagues fear the conservative women will alter the NWSA's mission and agenda.
3. January 15, 1887
While on a train to Washington, Anthony tells Avery she is "sorry you didn't at once go to E.M. Davis and consult about the Phila[delphia] meetings." She has written to him "on this giggling car -- that he and I could safely trust Rachel" and that after 1888 "I shall leave the helm of the good National ship to Rachel, Mrs. Sewall...and others -- and that we older ones must learn to surrender our wills to those who do the work." She feels that Davis "feels sore about something" and asks Rachel to "coax him and all of us old fellows up." The letter is signed "Lovingly yours, Susan B. Anthony" and ends with a postscript: "I can't bear to think that you won't be at the Wash[ington]" National Convention meetings.
4. January 20, 1887
Washington DC 

After telling her that her niece, Lucy E. Anthony arrived safely, she recounts their visit with the sculptor Adelaide Johnson who was making a bust of Susan B. Anthony. 

She then moves on to business: as they are running low on copies of Blair's speech. Anthony wonders if they can raise $50 to get another 10,000 copies of it printed. 

She encloses a program for the International Council of Women conference and ends by asking Rachel "what do you expect me to talk about in heaven's name? I am atbottom of my barrel!!" 

Included is a draft for the invitation to the International Council of Women conference. On the back are suggestions for possible revisions and changes to the invitation.
5. Jan 23, 1887

Anthony apologizes for summoning Lucy Anthony to her in Washington; a note from Avery has led Anthony to believe that she was "of service" to Avery as well. Anthony expresses pleasure that she is "getting on so nicely - and while I shall feel but half pledged without my 'little boss' at my side - I shall feel all the time that she knows best what & how to do - & where & how to be!!" 

She discusses people who will be arriving soon for the Nineteenth National Convention. 

She wishes Avery luck with a meeting that she is running ("I hope - I know - you'll have a good meeting") and relates news about people they both know.
6. February 13, 1887
Anthony discusses the work her niece Lucy Anthony is doing for her, and asks if she minds if Lucy stays [in Washington] until Maude leaves at the end of the week. 

She asks how "the lame arm" is doing and relates a "long talk" she had with Ellen H. Sheldon about the name to go on new stationery to be printed. "She wants our 210th anniversary of the Woman Suffrage Movement to be kept uppermost - she doesn't like calling it International [she] says when we do that we - the National must surrender our absolute power over it." Anthony doesn't believe they should change the name. 

An envelope included has the following written on the back from Rachel Foster Avery: 

"1. Is there now anywhere any regular NWSA paper & envelopes & if so may I have some - 

2. May I call myself by your appointment 'manager' of the NWSA? 

3rd. Please let me have the exact dates of the International Council of Women - specifically given -" Most likely this is a list of things she wanted to discuss in her next letter to Anthony.
7. February 18, 1887
The Riggs house 

Washington, DC 

The letter begins "my darling niece Rachel." Many sections of the letter are numbered, and at the end of the letter Anthony refers to her organization and thoroughness proudly: "haven't I hit every point this time?" 

Anthony says that she has received Avery's recent letter and is "glad to think of you at home - again!!" 

A large portion of the letter is about the effectiveness of various ways of organizing of local Pennsylvania suffrage organizations. Mrs. Deborah Pennock "will have to advise auxiliaries to the Penn. Society of Phila. - though it really is not a state society - still it has always assumed to be." She decides that to "'lie low' that is organize all the new societies auxiliary to the Penn - and when you get enough representative societies this allied to it - and you move for independence - you will have a strong alliance to help the Penn. out of it's narrow position!!" Although she believes this is the tactic to use, she admits that she also sees the merits of "insisting on the independence of each new society" although she thinks "there is not intelligence enough" to make unified groups. This is a "very delicate & difficult thing to decide" and she continues to discuss it at length. 

She tells Avery that she wants to come home as soon as possible so that she can begin working on the second edition of Volume I of The History of Woman Suffrage. 

Anthony tells her about the kinds and amounts of stationary she has in Washington and in Rochester and gives her the name of the printer in Rochester so that she can get more. 

In answer to the other questions she had asked on the back of the envelope from Letter #6, Anthony tells her that she can call herself manager, and says she should have some "Penn. Manager's paper printed." 

Anthony says today she will try to "go to see the Opera Houses & their renters" to find a space in which to hold the International Council of Women. 

She laments the fact that "there is no money in the treasury to pay for the promised pamphlet report!! It ought to be done!! But whence will come the cash?" 

She gives Avery information on how many copies to make of the Blair speech and how much it will cost, then returns to the subject of the heading for new stationery that was discussed in letter #6 and gives her opinion on what should be on the paper and envelopes for the International Council. 

Anthony says that Lucy Anthony told her she wrote to her last night, and she hopes she answered all her questions. She says Lucy told Anthony that she would go to Philadelphia Saturday, and that Maude "expects to leave Sunday or Monday - and should go northward as soon after as may be!!" 

She tells Avery about Lucy and Maude's travel plans and ends by giving "love to dear niece Julia -- what a delightful thing it is for her to be mother as well as sister to you."
8. February 22, 1887
The Riggs House 

Washington, DC 

She begins by reminding Avery that four years ago today they "set sail for the old world" and describes the day they left. She received Lucy Anthony's and Avery's recent letters and she wishes that Lucy "will soon be able to feel as secure as do you that no ill can possess her 'mortal mind'!!" 

She encloses "Mrs. Gage's fixing up for her Call - also Mrs. Sheldon's -- and you may as well hold on to them until Mrs. Stanton's final fixing gets back - there seems noelectric spark in either!! I do hope Mrs. Stanton can infuse life into hers!!" 

Most of the rest of the letter is spent discussion various meeting places for the International Council of Women. She spent the day looking at Opera Houses and tells Rachel information she found about renting one, as well as other's and her opinion for when the Council should take place. She has also been looking at churches as possible meeting places, although some "feel it too humiliating a task to undertake." Another option discussed is a new Armory Hall, but Anthony has reservations about that as well and finally asks Avery's opinion on what do to, telling her that she is ready to leave for Philadelphia when this has been decided. 

She ends with love and wishes for Julia, her household, and Lucy Anthony, as well as "my adopted Rachel."
9. February 24, 1887
This postcard tells Avery to send drafts of Gage's and Sheldon's Calls to May Wright Sewall. Anthony tells Avery that Gage is in Syracuse and will return when the weather gets warm. She has read over minutes that Avery sent and "they seem right." She tells her that the new clerk made a clean copy of them and she hopes "she will keep legibility in mind always." She ends with the news that she will go to Philadelphia next week.
10. February 27, 1887
This rushed letter continues the discussion of the heading for the stationery for the International Council of Women as well as meeting places for the Council. She tells Avery that she expects "to get the question of dates and place settled this week before I leave...which I expect to do by Saturday the 5th."
11. February 28, 1887
Washington DC 

The Riggs House 

The letter begins again debating word choices for the stationery for the International Council of Women. She asks Avery if she would prefer to have the Council the first week of May and in the National Theatre or to hold it in a church. The merits of both the church and Theatre are discussed. The letter ends assuring Rachel that the new clerk is doing well. The letter is signed "lovingly your aunt, Susan B. Anthony." 

12. March 6, 1887 

The Riggs House 

Washington, DC 

Anthony tells Avery that she was planning to "dine with Thomson Monday and after that go up to 748 - but alas the Albaugh man put me off for final answer until tomorrow around 10 am." If he decided to refund her money, she says she should stay in Washington and "push the Congregational trustees to their final answer!!" She lists prices for the Albaugh Theatre and other logistical details for the conference, as well as how much they will charge for admission. She tells Avery that if this matter is settled by tomorrow morning, she will take the 2 PM train to Philadelphia. She tells Avery not to meet her however, because she is not certain she will be able to take that train.
13. March 19, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that May Eliza (Wright) Sewall has sent the first draft of the Call for the International Council to Avery because she assumed Anthony was with her. Anthony asks her to make her suggestions then pass the letter to her. 

Anthony tells Avery that there is a set of two bound volumes of The Revolution and "also a bound file of the National Citizen and Ballot Box, which, unless you personally want them for your own woman's library -- I would like you to place them in most frequented library of Phila." 

Anthony discusses an idea to put collections of newspapers such as these in "the leading libraries of the country" and get them cleaned out of her house. 

She tells Avery that since she is refusing all offers to travel to conventions and canvasses 

and has a little bit of time in Rochester, she wants to "entirely dispose of all the documents I have crowded into these two houses -- so that nobody will have to be bothered to clean up things after me." The worst job, she says, "is that of reading over -- or looking over...the trunks full of letters."
13. March 19, 1887
Anthony begins by asking Rachel to write and tell her how her niece Lucy is doing - "whether Mrs. Osborn's treatment takes hold of her at all - I sent her a check by last night's mail - for the one specific purpose of continuing her treatments." She asks Avery to watch over Mrs. Pierce and wishes "they would tell every time - but then - you see - with the new philosophy it is a crime & shame to have an ache - & so we should all dream to deny it...shall we not." 
14. March 23, 1887
Enclosed is a letter from May Wright Sewall and a letter sent to Elizabeth Cady Stanton from Charles Mann and Co., who received it from Leigh Irvine, Editor and Business Manager of the Daily Herald and Weekly Democrat. The letter addressed to Stanton asks to buy "your Woman's Rights history by Mrs. Stanton and others." On the back of the note is a note to Rachel Foster Avery from Anthony: "This is to show you a good person in Penn. - I am making a new list of good names - and it keeps turning to the different states in my new book - to record new names - I am not keeping our members - but all names that seem good - like this does!!" 

The letter from Anthony to Avery is addressed to "my niece Rachel" and discusses an enclosed letter from Elizabeth Cady Stanton which she warns her "not to condemn until you get to the end - because you will see that after suggesting - she sees - it won't do herself." She admonishes her not to send the letter to May Wright Sewall, however, because she might take "her sentence making criticisms as personal!!" Anthony wishes Avery to study writing techniques so that she becomes a "non-repetitiouswriter" and discusses Stanton's "good sentence making - I would like to have a whole year of practice with Mrs. Stanton as teacher - you see I want all of my nieces to excel where their aunt makes a lamentable failure." 

She asks her why she hasn't sent May Sewall's draft yet and confides that the snowy weather so late in March makes her worried about how the weather will be for the convention set for about the same time next year. 

Anthony asks Avery to send her a copy of a column she has written, and regrets her taking the time "to do that - when Mrs. Colby -- with very little additional expense could do it for you - & all of the Nationals!" 

Anthony tells Avery about a plan that Elizabeth Boynton Harbert had discussed with her to start a quarterly newspaper, "New Era." Anthony "sat down on the proposalheavy," telling her that "if any of us had money or brains to invest" in newspapers, it would make more sense to invest in papers already established. Anthony notes that "it does seem a craze to start papers" and discusses Mrs. Blake, who is starting one and seemed to expect "me personally" to start working on it. 

The Committee's secretary-clerk is sick and Anthony writes that she hopes "all the scientists will concentrate their Metaphysical powers" on her, and that she should rest for a while, "for what a crime it is to be ailing." 

The letter ends warning Avery of the dangers of overworking herself and admonishes her not to take on too much, as she will become careless.
15. March 25, 1887
Rochester, New York 

In this postcard, Anthony tells Rachel she has finally received a letter from her with May Wright Sewall's draft in it. She offers suggestions and opinions on the draft. On the front of the card is a note written on April 17, 1887 telling Avery that Anthony's sister found this card in a box and Anthony is "amazed at the results of this long delay."
16. March 26, 1887
Rochester, New York 

This letter is addressed to "my dear nieces, Julia, Rachel & Suzy E." She has enclosed a "splendid" letter from Mrs. Jane Spofford, whose husband ran the Riggs house where Anthony stayed whenever she was in Washington, DC. Spofford was also treasurer of the International Council of Women planning committee. Anthony encourages her "nieces" to visit Spofford when she comes to Philadelphia. She has also enclosed a letter from Matilda Joslyn Gage with suggestions for the International Council. She warns them to keep the letter so "we can have proof of the 'I told you this & so!' that we shall hear by & by." 

Anthony has received May Wright Sewall's draft of a Call to the International Council and believes that her introduction is too long, it will bore people before "they get down to the business part of it - which I thought was to make mention of the different sorts of societies & clubs." She continues to discuss at length the way the letter should be phrased and, frustrated, says "Oh dear - how I wish I had Mrs. Stanton here and I could galvanize her pen to make beautiful...glimmerings of ideas...I cannot make good sentences - nor draw good maps - but I can tell good ones." If they cannot come up with anything "that will hold water," she says they should wait until Stanton gets back in June so she can help them and discusses what should be done with the Call in the meantime. 

She laments the few victories that they have achieved, and says that "it is true, four decades of such work - done by voters would have moved the world!! Now, don't repeat my disheartening words...but do try and write something - to the point - as to how the speakers are to be decided upon." 

Enclosed is a note in which Anthony says she is glad Avery has organized a Pennsylvania Convention and encourages her to call a State Convention and then to form a "real State Society." 

17. March, 1887? 

This letter is undated and begins assuring Avery not to take Elizabeth Cady Stanton's notes seriously; Anthony "just laughed at her suggestions" and soon saw their impracticability. 

Stanton's last letter, Anthony relates, "implored me to come straight over and go to Paris...then come back with her in June!! Nothing will settle our plan and program - like giving them to people on paper, so I trust our 'May' will soon send us her first mappings out. I hope my throwing her first ten pages overboard - didn't hurt her feelings" but she explains that she was disheartened when she saw that they were not useful because they didn't match up with what they had decided to do. If they do not start making progress soon, Anthony tells Avery she should go up Indianapolis too "then three of us can be together for a few days!" 

She discusses travel plans and ideas she has for who should run which section of the council and what role the "founders of the ship" should have throughout. She is waiting for May Wright Sewall's "ideas as to how & of whom the Council shall be made up...I must admit I have not been able to get a clear plan with my head yet -- so I wait for her -- & you -- & any...who can -- to present it to me." 

Anthony closes assuring Avery that she has written to Stanton about "the absurdities of her suggestions."
18. April 18, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she will get Mrs. Gage's appeal printed here if Avery wants and if the price is cheap enough. 

Anthony directs her on the working on the Call for the International Council. She has given the Call to the printer to get a proof made and will send the proof to her in tomorrow night's mail. She has not "Andrew Jackson-like assumed the responsibility of printing anything but the Call." As Jane Spofford is going to be gone for six months, Anthony discusses how to work with the money involved with the Council in her absence. 

The letter ends telling Avery that she already took the Call to the printers to save "time & money & your & Suzy's trottings downtown." 

A PS discusses the prices of printing and the expected printing needs. 

Enclosed with the letter is a draft of the Call with a note at the bottom: "The Council can't unite - because it is not yet in existence. It is the National W.S.A. that extends the invitation to all these societies & peoples to come together to make the International Council -- am I not right?"
19. April 25, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Enclosed with this letter is a fourteen-page letter to Anthony from May Wright Sewall in which she explains why she is unhappy with the Call to the Council. Anthony sends it to Avery, calling it "May's 'soliloquy' and says that she agrees with her on some points but "she must be wrong" on others, for example that it is the "International Council that extends the invitation -- It is surely the National W.S.A. 

that extends the invitation to all the different organizations." 

Anthony admits that she is discouraged because of these disagreements and feels as if it is nearly impossible to accomplish anything at all. She ends telling Avery that although "May thinks she had everything all right...none of the rest of us think with her." 

20. April 27, 1887 

Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that "all is standing at a dead-lock here -- waiting for your orders...and will wait - so far as I can do or see to them - unless all is decided upon soon - until my return from Indianapolis - which can't be until the 12th or 13th...of May." 

She anticipates Avery finding the printer in Rochester charging more than the one she knows in Philadelphia and assures her that if this is the case she can feel free to print up materials in Philadelphia. 

Anthony returns to the much-discussed topic of the importance of writing skills and laments that "I know when a sentence is right - but I can't make it so!! Hence my powerlessness to do anything but say it is not right yet!! And I feel just that way about the Call - yet - but Suzy's tacking on the end of the tyranny paragraph - to another one - won't do at all." She hopes that the evening mail will being a draft of the Call that "will strike me and everybody as just right!!"
21. May 5, 1887
Indianapolis, Indiana 

Anthony had gone to Indianapolis to attend the State Suffrage Convention and wrote this postcard to Avery afterward, telling her that she would be returning to Rochester for a little while then would travel to another State Suffrage Convention in Cleveland. She expresses the hope that after this bit of traveling she will be able to "make a general clearing up of all my old papers & letters -- leaving nothing unburned -- save what are proper for others to see -- a job I have long wanted to get done."
22. May 12, 1887
Indianapolis, Indiana 

Anthony begins with the hope that Avery has received the revision's of Matilda Joslyn Gage's appeal and has arranged for a proof to be printed of that and of the revised Call to the convention. Anthony tells her that "May is just as full of work every minute as ever -- it tires one to see her go -- but then she has everything so perfectly systematized -- everything as the old maxim had it - 'a place for everything and everything in its place' -- 'a time for everything and everything in time' -- that she accomplishes everything just as she plans -- she is a marvel." 

Anthony tells Avery that she will soon go to Lafayette and will stay with Mrs. Helen Gougar, of whom Anthony promises to "try once more to make her see herself as others see her!! -- or as May and I see her!!" 

Anthony says she will speak to May and try to finalize her ideas on details of the Council, with the ultimate goal of "making a meeting everybody will want to go to!" With this idea in mind, she suggests that Avery begin making up agendas for each of the sixteen sessions that will take place. 

She discusses news of people they know, and closes asking if Avery has received last year's financial report from Mrs. Ellen Sheldon. 

23. May 16, 1887 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

Anthony's rushed script shows her concern over the fact that she has received a proof of the Call that does not reflect revisions that she and Gage had made. Because she is about to leave for the train station, she will let May Wright Sewall make the corrections. 

She tells Avery that tomorrow night she will be speaking in Lafayette with Helen Gougar, who "is simply one of several strangers invited to be at the New England Festival (?) -- and yet she puts it in all the papers here by (special) telegrams -- that the -- a banquet is given solely in her honor." 

Anthony says she will "put in my disclaimer tomorrow night -- if she makes the assertions she did here." 

She tells Avery that she will be back in Indianapolis on Wednesday and hopes that the final proof of the Call will be waiting when she gets back.
24. May 20, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Anthony returned home, she tells Avery, to find that final proofs had not arrived of the Call, invitation or appeal, and asks Avery not to print them until either Anthony or Sewall has looked them over. She expresses frustration over this issue, and says that she would like to come to Avery and oversee everything herself except that "I brought home only $20 -- more than I took with me though I was in meetings eight days out of the 28 I was gone -- so you see I didn't get rich by my absence from home this time." 

She gives Avery advice on how to save printing costs on leaflets she is having printed. 

She discusses fundraising ideas for Clara Dorothy Bewick Colby's National Tribune, and admits that "we surely must have a national paper -- and Mrs. Colby's seems to be the only one giving promise at present." 

Anthony closes asking for the proof and telling Avery that the "weather is lovely here"
25. May 21, 1887
Cleveland, Ohio 

This postcard discusses the progress with and possible revisions for the Call.
26. May 22, 1887
Cleveland, Ohio 

This postcard asks about the progress of the Call, tells Avery that she will be home on the 28th and will be "ready to begin work in earnest - a whole month has been consumed with four meetings & long visitings in short swatches"
27. June 9, 1887
Rochester, New York 

This letter opens with a discussion of return addresses on envelopes for the Council. Anthony tells Avery that she has asked Gage to send Avery a list of possible groups to invite and gives Avery advice on how to go about the process of inviting groups. 

Anthony reminds Avery of all the work still to be done, and hopes that Avery is not "letting off until you feel it will be best for you & the work to do so." 

Anthony discusses tactics for attracting sympathetic people and publicizing conventions, as well as the importance of educating "our women into knowledge of how to influence Congressmen -- as well as state legislators...I am very hopeful that we shall get municipal suffrage in 2, or 5 states at their next Legislature's sitting!!! And won't that be glorious for that vote? Just touches the head & heart of every lover of decent things on our cities." 

She discusses a US Senator who has made "an 'ass' of himself speaking against us...the egotist hasn't yet found out that Kansas is anything but Ingalls' preconceivedopinions!! I just hope they'll keep up the hot-shot until he does learn a thing or two!!" 

Anthony ends asking Avery to tell her and Lucy Anthony E. what she wants them to do.
28. June 15, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she has received last year's financial report from Ellen Sheldon and it has not been done correctly. Anthony is considerably irritated at this fact, which she says "passes my understanding!!!" 

Anthony asks Avery to send Lucy Anthony's black dress to her when she sends the proof of the Call and appeal for Anthony's inspection 

Anthony has just found out that an Ohio meeting "is abandoned -- and this after...weeks of talk about it -- it is very bad business -- but beyond my control." 

"Lucy talks of The Science -- And I trust some power will yet lift her out of the grips of the fiend -- and it be then will come a relief somehow -- she seems very well and happy...Well what next? You haven't given me an idea as to who you will invite to Council yet?" 

The letter ends wishing "love to dear Julia."
29. June 22, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Avery has recently adopted a baby girl, which apparently "mortified" Anthony because "her young associate had deceived her by keeping the impending adoption a secret from her but not from other NWSA suffragists, and she was distressed beyond measure because she had been hoping that Foster eventually might succeed her." This letter begins referring to a letter enclosed to the baby, Miriam Alice Foster: "You will see I have told the little lady what will be her fate -- if -- & if!!" 

She tells Avery that Lucy Anthony will be able to "arrange the copy for the pamphlet report -- and I think she had better try and see what she can do." 

Anthony reveals to Avery that she knew about the adoption when she was in Cleveland and that 'I wrote Mrs. Sewall -- so you can't keep the little affair from her -- she replies -- after more than three weeks -- saying Rachel hasn't told her of it -- it was a vague story -- and I guessed it was Julia's baby -- but there's no telling what next with our Rachel." 

The letter is signed "Lovingly, Aunt Susan" 

Enclosed is the letter addressed to Miriam Alice: "It is doubtful whether Aunt Susan welcomes your little ladyship to the home of 748 19th St. Phila--! --She is thinking whether you will not divest all of the love of the Foster mama's [sic] from the great work for the emancipation of woman -- to the little business of carrying for the material & moral wants of the one wee one -- your little self." Anthony asks her to "deport yourself as to help the junior Aunties to be more -- to do more -- for the woman general than ever before you came to them. So shall it be with your great aunt, Susan B. Anthony."
30. June 24, 1887 (1)
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has included a letter from May Wright Sewall dated June 19, 1887. Sewall writes to Anthony that "your remarks about Rachel appall me. She's given me no hint of all these changes, the adopted child, etc. etc." Anthony says that she has included the letter "to show you that 'the cat is out of the bag' -- and to tell you that I have sent her your last letter to me in which you answer my 'what next' you may as well open your own dear heart to May about your undertaking to be mama without evenconsulting Aunt Susan or her!! But honestly -- I am hoping the little love is just the thing to fill your & Julia's hearts." Anthony again worries that the baby will interrupt her work and writes that she should "let Julia be the boss of it - & all the rest that are to come." 

Anthony discusses travel plans and excitedly reports that "we got 42 -- autographed demands with the International Call & appeal -- and History leaflet...and today Suzy is at work on the report -- and I must -- take hold and help her -- though I cannot feel a bit of heart in it -- Somehow." 

Anthony gives love to Julia and the baby and asks her to send a picture of her to May, who she promises "won't scold -- a bit more than I do -- in fact -- I think I feel rather glad."
31. June 24, 1887 (2)
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that she has decided to spend October "making the circuit" in Kansas and asks Avery if she will come with her. She excitedly tries to persuade her to come, telling her that it will help her develop her public-speaking skills and that May Wright Sewall and her family will be " have you all to themselves in their own lovely home!!" 

The letter continues on the last leaf of a letter from Mrs. Clara Dorothy Bewick Colby dated June 20. Anthony explains that she is sending it to Avery so she can look over Colby's ideas about who they should invite to the Council. Anthony tells Avery she is happy that Colby is taking responsibility for this aspect of the Council and that Suzy E. Anthony would help her greatly if she were there, although Anthony advised her not to "go west during the hot weather...and not at all this year -- unless you found you could get on without her."
32. August, 1887
This note is on the second leaf of a letter from Ellen H. Sheldon to Anthony dated August 16. Anthony tells Avery that the enclosed letter will explain why her note to Sheldon was not answered. 

Anthony closes by telling Avery that Suzy E. Anthony is visiting a friend of hers and does not know Anthony is back home. Anthony plans to let her relax for a while because "she has had no rest this summer -- but hardest work and worry for the afflicted authority of this city."
33. August 28, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Anthony says that Mrs. Lillie Devereux Blake has written to her arguing that the NWSA should have a demonstration at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia that was coming up. Anthony responded that she would not be able to attend and neither would May Wright Sewall or, most likely, any of the state vice presidents. She believed that if an "eloquent statement of the Nation's failure -- & a demand for immediate recognition -- of the half of her people -- wholly ignored during the first century -- could be written...I should feel it a good thing." She explains that if they want to do this, it would be entirely the responsibility of her and Avery. 

Anthony regrets that they had not planned anything for this event earlier, and tells Avery that at this date this is the most that they can do. 

She and Lucy Anthony send love to Julia, Avery and the baby, about whom Anthony asks for news.
34. September 5, 1887
This postcard from Deborah A. Pennock to Anthony was apparently sent to Avery with the following note: "Aunt Dinah Mendenhall -- wants to bequeath money to us of the National -- and I want her [to] permit you to help her adjust the will." Pennock's note said she thought this would be possible.
35. September 5, 1887
Anthony has enclosed Lillie Devereux Blake's statement to be read at the Consitiutional Convention celebration, and she asks Avery if she thinks it is good enough to present. Anthony stresses that "no protest would be better than a weak one" and that she has sent copies to Gage and Sewall and will only sign her name to it if they and Avery are satisfied with it. 

Anthony tells Avery that her first meeting will be September 19 and 20 in Milwaukee and she is worried that she will not be able to "clear off the files of things on my table by that time!!" 

She stresses that Lucy "must learn not to disturb the equanimity of others -- grind her own teeth together and go on heroically." Anthony tells Avery she can "start her in the work you want done" soon.
36. September 7, 1887
Anthony has included a postcard from Lillie Devereux Blake and confides in Avery that Blake is still misunderstanding the role Anthony will be able to take in the Constitutional Convention statement; "all I could do about the matter would be to give my name as acting president to the paper after it had been approved & signed by Mrs. Gage, Mrs. Sewall & Miss Foster...and ...I had at once sent a copy of her protest to each of these I thought, I had done all I was to do -- I surely can do no more!!" 

Anthony advises Avery not to listen to what she has said about the matter and to use her own judgment as to whether or not to sign it or not, because she has complete faith in her ability to judge how well written it is. 

She then discusses how the statement should be laid out and asks Avery to be sure that Blake works with her (Avery) on the layout. 

She closes with news about Suzy Anthony and Susan B. Anthony's sister Mary.
37. September 16, 1887?
This note lists the "places at which the Wisconsin Conventions are to be held." She discusses the first part of her trip, and ends wishing that "the mountain loads are lifting & you seeing the way out of them -- with whale head, heart & body!! And I do hope Suzy E. will give close ear so that she sill be able to exact the right things in the right way. "
38. September, 1887?
This letter discusses the death of US Senator Aaron A. Sargent. Anthony regrets that his family "conformed to the old custom of [dressing in] black." This reminds her of the first time she saw Avery: "I shall never forget how thankful I felt when I first met you...on that December day & saw you were dressed in your ordinary colors!" 

Anthony says that she read in the papers that "the estate was $150,000 -- I am rejoiced -- for that divided by 4 will give Mrs. S. nearly $40,000 and with that she can live very easily." Anthony suggests that Avery write to the family. 

Anthony gives news of Lucy and tells Avery that she will soon be visiting Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Miller in Geneva and wishes Avery could be there with her. 

She worries that if "Stanton doesn't get home till February or March she'll have no worthy address -- there'll be no worthy resolutions written by her -- so nothing done...if I only had the cash today to her I'd pay her way to the Riggs House." The letter ends here unfinished.
39. November 8, 1887
Anthony says that she will be coming home with May Wright Sewall on the 12th, which is Stanton's 72nd birthday and "the 2nd new birth-day of your precious mother [?]...the daughters good works are making the mother's heart glad!" 

She has enclosed an itinerary, and regrets that she cannot go to May Wright Sewall's until December seventh. She hopes that this will not upset Avery's plans, and explains that she had to do it because otherwise she would not have had time to go to each congressional district, "and I couldn't bear to leave a single one out." 

She ends wistfully hoping that "maybe you'll be homesick enough to see Sister Mary and Aunt Susan to come to Indianapolis..."
40. November 11, 1887
Bloomington, Indiana 

Anthony reports that May Wright Sewall has given her Avery's Chicago address. 

Anthony stresses that "no special invitation needs to go from us to Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell any more than to any other delegate from any other association." 

She discusses travel plans and hopes that she can catch Avery before she leaves for her own traveling. If they cannot meet, she laments that "May & you must finish up the decisions of women & things without me -- I see no other way -- for they must be settled upon now!!" 

She tells Avery that she has not received news from Lucy Stone about the proposed AWSA-NWSA merger, and worries that "if she makes the overture and nothing comes of it -- the failure, as niece Lucy E. sees, will be thrown upon Susan B.A.!!" Anthony and Stone often disagreed on the best way to approach their goals, and this letter seems to reflect this as Anthony tells Avery that "we'll hope all things will together for the fair showing of the honest & true women." 

Anthony discusses her desire to include all women, including "all of you young people" in the movement, and believes that both groups should be unified under the NWSA name, for it is "the name since the war and now!!"
41. December 28, 1887
Rochester, New York 

"What a silence!!" Anthony begins this letter. She tells Avery that she has sent all the money she collected for memberships and contributions to the treasury, which adds up to $199. She advises Avery to ask her sister Julia for a loan, telling her that she has asked her own sister Mary to borrow money "which makes her groan in spirit -- and hurts me too awfully." 

If she cannot raise $600, Anthony tells Avery to telegraph her immediately to they can decide what to do. 

Anthony asks Avery when she will be "through with jollification's for the New Year and want me to settle down at work?" 

She discusses financial matters more and closes wishing a happy New Year to Julia, Avery and Marion "& all the dear girls, niece Lucy and friend Adeline included."
42. December 29, 1887
Rochester, New York 

This letter begins discussing the proposed NWSA-AWSA merger, the logistics of which has made Anthony rather distressed. She tells Avery that she is coming to Philadelphia soon to oversee the situation and that "there are so many stitches dropped around here that I am full of work to pick up a few of them." 

Anthony has been looking into train ticket prices for the Council speakers and tells Avery of her findings, and that Helen Gougar has volunteered to try to get reduced fares. Anthony asks Avery to oversee her and gives her ideas on what to tell her to do, for "it will be a big & difficult job -- and whoever does it well -- ought to get the large advertisement of her name!!" 

Anthony discusses financial matters and tells Avery that she is "awfully ashamed that I have to fall back on you & Julia -- but really -- it is awfully good, too, that these are two such splendid girls to fall back on. Always before S.B.A. has had to go ahead alone in all financial responsibility..."
43. 1887
Anthony tells Avery that she has received her letter and that it is not possible to rent a theater for the Council for February. When Anthony agreed to rent the Albaugh theater in March there were only a few dates open and they decided that March would be the best choice. The only change that could be made -- moving it to July, August or September -- Anthony believes is unacceptable. She tells Avery that they must make the best of the dates in March that they have. Anthony says she will not mind making travel arrangements for speakers at the Council and can pay for them from convention money, unless the speakers want to pay their own way, and that "winter is the very best time for them to see the southern states,...and if they can come earlier -- we will try and see that their time is well spent for the cause." She tells Avery that she thought she told her long ago that the dates were confirmed and at this late date it would be impolite as well as impossible to change the convention dates because of a few people, so they should instead focus on "making the last week of March 1888 -- do more & better work for woman -- than the whole forty years before shall have done!!!" 

Anthony says she will write to women leaders in England, encouraging them to "send over the very best women to represent their different phases of work." 

She encourages Avery again to leave the task of raising the baby to Julia ("she is the older sister"), although Anthony stresses that she is a beautiful and lovely-mannered baby. 

She tells Avery that Lucy is there with her, after having "got through the last ordeal nicely" and is looking forward to visiting her in a week or so and she is feeling up to coming, "except that her 'healer' here would like to see her through the coming event." However, she says that if Avery has work she can do she had better come stay with her, because although Anthony has work for her, she doesn't "want you go to without her a single day she can be of use to you."
44. 1887-1888?
Anthony has been to visit Maude Powell's father and he has told her that she can put Powell on the program for the Council, "so a piece on her violin will...electrify our audiences." 

Anthony reports that "Frederick Douglass will gladly speak...on Pioneer's day" at the Council. 

She tells Avery that there is to be a program of all the school superintendents in the nation next week and that she is going to try to hear some of it. 

Anthony discusses more plans for the council and ends lamenting that it is "too cruel the way Lucy E. has to fall back into the slough of despond!! She is very hard-pinchedwhen she throws up & goes to bed!!" (?) 

Anthony says that "the membership fees of $1 each are coming in daily - fives, tens & twenty-fives come less frequently." 

Anthony tells Avery to note that Mrs. Leslie will read a short paper on "women & self support." at the Council. 

The rest of the letter discusses the International Council. 

Historical Background: 1888 

Anthony helps lead the International Council of Women. Meets and enlists orator Anna Howard Shaw as an NWSA lecturer. Merger negotiations between NWSA and AWSA proceed. Anthony, disturbed by Rachel Foster's marriage to Cyrus Avery, intensifies her search for a future top suffrage leader.
45. February 23, 1888
This unfinished letter is written on the back of a letter to Anthony from Sarah C. Hall discussing costs for the delegates of the Council. 

Anthony tells Avery she is sending her the letter because it is a "fair sample of the scores of letters from our very best women -- that are coming now with every day's mail." 

She says that the most they can do for the delegates will be to pay their board for four days, and she asks Avery to "do tell me what to say and do -- it is a great pain -- to dash cold water on their enthusiasm -- if I knew we would get money enough at the door -- I would say we would pay our National Officers and delegates way right through" 

The rest of the letter discusses other financial matters relating to the International Council.
46. November 23, 1888
Chicago, Illinois 

Anthony tells Avery her travel plans and asks if she can meet her and May Wright Sewall in Chicago on Saturday. 

Anthony tells Avery where she will be staying and speaking in Chicago and again encourages Avery to meet up with her at some point. 

Historical Background: 1889 

Anthony travels to South Dakota to help state suffragists commence their planning for that state's woman suffrage campaign. As merger negotiations proceed, Anthony is forced to handle protests against the merger from dissenting NWSA leaders Olympia Brown, Joslyn Gage, Lillie Devereux Blake, and others.
47. March 19, 1889
Tenafly, New Jersey 

This letter begins with a secret: "I want to whisper something into your ear alone -- I want to take with me to Washington & before our Senate & House Committees just two girls I know -- Rachel Foster & Harriet Stanton -- the latter (it is a dead secret -- & her mother even don't [sic] know) has promised me to go -- & she has actually commenced her speech...and now my dear if you will only make Rachel Foster write back to me 'I'll go too'!! I shall be, oh so very, very happy." She encourages her to begin a speech and tells her it would "delight my heart to have you two young spirits by my side." 

She explains that "Hattie" visited her and gave Anthony an envelope for Avery, which Anthony says she hasn't "the least idea what she is writing to you about -- for I haven't told her of my wish to have you go with me too..." 

She asks Avery not to "get up a lecture for me [in Philadelphia] -- I really have nothing I could say...the most I can do this spring must be to go before these Congress Committees." 

Historical Background: 1890 

Anthony supervises the first convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), the new merger organization of the NWSA and the AWSA, and successfully struggles to have Cady Stanton elected its first president. Travels to South Dakota for its state suffrage campaign. After working on the campaign with NAWSA activists Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw, Anthony becomes aware of their strong leadership potential.
48. November 18, 1890
Leavenworth, Kansas 

This letter is written on the new NAWSA letterhead. 

Avery's sister Julia Foster passed away on November 16, and Anthony tries to comfort Avery in this letter: "My darling Rachel, my thoughts were with you all the day of yesterday -- and this lonely morning -- I am with you still in spirit, feeling your absolute loneliness that the dear Julia is no more to be -- in the material -- only in the affections -- only to be ever present in thought -- and may you be able to look back at the days when the dear Julia was her lovely self -- dropping out of your thought the last sad year for her & all who loved her -- -- Oh -- it is sweet that she has passed out of her suffering dispensation into one of freedom -- as we all must." Anthony tells her that she feels like "flying to you" but instead will take the train to Atchison, Kansas "where you were with me but three short years ago!!" 

Anthony tells Avery to "always think of me as your loving elder sister -- who would gladly lighten all of your ...cares...though knowing full well that each soul must 'press alone' no matter how surrounded with earth's loved ones -- among whom -- is always happy to be included is your adopted and loving Aunt, Susan B. Anthony." 

In a PS Anthony asks if her sister Mary is with her and suggests that they stay together for a while. She also asks if Julia's will has been found "because it would be adouble wish -- that her portion of principled interest should go to you & your Rose."
49. November 23, 1890
Leavenworth, Kansas 

Anthony tells Avery that a recent letter from her told her "just what I knew you would - of sweet and loving courage to bear up under the unlooked for ending of dear, dear Julia's sufferings." 

Anthony gives Avery her travel itinerary and tells her that after her travels "I must surrender myself to my Dentist, my Dressmaker, & my shoemaker -- for a week or more and then I hope to be free and ready to go to Philadelphia & thence to Washington." 

She tells Avery that she wishes she lived in Rochester, "so I could see you every single day -- and so you could help me to plan the work...I do so long to have you back at my side -- or at my head -- rather -- in the work before us." 

However, Anthony assures Avery that she thinks it lovely that she can have her husband by her side because "none other can fill his place." 

She asks if she has found Julia's will because it will "strengthen your case -- since it gave all of hers to you -- and made no bequest, ever, to Heron -- it will be a third testimony. In the direction of the intention of your father and mother & Julia all being against placing the estate in Heron's hands." She continues to discuss this case, and tells Avery she believes it cannot but end positively. If she does not find the will, Anthony volunteers to testify on her behalf: "Remember: I will always stand ready to give any comfort I can to you."
50. December 24, 1890
Rochester, New York 

Avery had sent Anthony her sister Julia's bedroom furnishings as a remembrance of her, and Anthony writes that "so I have worn the dear mother's beautiful little embroidered shawl with loving gratitude -- because of her two daughters thought of by me -- so I shall use the dear Julia's things with the loving memory of her dear spirit." Anthony tells Avery that "the one sad regret all summer long" was that she is working on the South Dakota campaign and was too far away to visit Julia before her death. She thanks Avery again for thinking of her. 

She says she will be in New York at her cousin's for Christmas but will come to Avery in Philadelphia for New Years. She discusses plans for the holiday. 

Avery had won the case against Heron, and Anthony congratulates her. She assures Avery that "Heron will have too much sense to try his hand at breaking dear Julia's will." 

Historical Background: 1891 

Anthony establishes a permanent home with her sister Mary Anthony at the family home in Rochester. Cady Stanton declines Anthony's invitation to live with her, to her deep disappointment.
 51. February 4, 1891
Washington, DC 

Riggs House 

Anthony arrived in Washington yesterday and tells Avery that she thought of her when the train passed Philadelphia. She regrets that she did not have time to stop in Philadelphia. 

Avery will be coming to Washington soon, and Anthony tells her she is happy that she too will be staying at the Riggs House. 

Anthony has met and welcomed Jane Spofford and Anna Shaw, and tells Avery that Lucy E. "is on her high-heels again." 

Anna Shaw has said that Anthony should take her traveling expenses out of a fund that had been set up, and Anthony discusses the merits of this idea. 

Anthony's handwriting changes slightly, and she tells Avery that she took a break in writing because Lucy Anthony and Anna Shaw came over and talked for a while. She must get to bed soon, she tells Avery, so she can get up tomorrow morning "with the real-old-work-spirit on." 

She closes by telling Avery that "I really am very well & ought to be full of vim & fire & go-ahead -- and am bound to be tomorrow -- so many have called and it has been talkee -- talkee -- all the blessed day & evening."
52. April 9, 1891
Washington, DC 

Riggs House 

Anthony reports that "your good checks came yesterday...with your better letter -- it is the greatest comfort to feel your love wrapped about me -- as I do & have felt ever since the summer of 1881. Avery had apparently come into some money, and Anthony tells her that she is happy for her and hopes she will invest the money wisely. 

Anthony is staying at the Riggs house, and she describes the accommodations, especially the bed, which has been recently replaced and is now very comfortable. 

In a postscript Anthony tells Avery that she does "not care for the $1,000 -- unless you would prefer to be rid of it. If you do -- I presume Lucy's father could get a good mortgage for it." 

Historical background: 1892-1894 

1892: Anthony is elected president of the NAWSA. She struggles to have women's achievements made a prominent part of the upcoming 1893 World's Fair. 

1893: Anthony attends the World's Fair and the ICW in Chicago. Attends many national political conventions in the hope that a political party will add a woman suffrage plank it its platform, but none complies. Lucy Stone dies. Anthony supervises the Colorado suffrage campaign from the East. Colorado becomes the first state to enact woman suffrage by a popular referendum, thanks to the efforts of a rising power in NAWSA, Carrie Chapman Catt. 

1984: Spends the year campaigning in two long, grueling suffrage battles in Kansas and New York. Both efforts fail.
53. April 3, 1894
Rochester, New York 

This letter is partly typewritten. Anthony tells Avery she has received her recent letter and refers to an episode that cannot be positively identified: "I have no doubt that you have taken a wise course in acting according to your own judgment rather than my feelings..." 

Anthony has received a letter from Anna Shaw telling her news and that she may come visit Anthony next week. Anthony says she wishes Avery could come up and visit as well. She reminds Avery to "keep [me] posted on every new turn in the Wheel of Fortune." 

She is considering traveling around the "Northern circle" until July with Carrie Chapman Catt. 

The typewritten portion ends here. Anthony asks Avery "how is this for the raw dictation...for] three months [of a] stenographer & typewriter?" 

She discusses possible plans for her and the Avery family to meet up.
54. April 6, 1894
This typewritten letter discusses locations and other plans for next year's Suffrage Convention in Washington, among them when to hold it. Anthony says that "if I were enough of an Episcopalian to know when Lent opens, I would suggest that our Convention open immediately after that season begins." 

She encloses a letter from Mrs. Ellen Foster, which shows that "Mrs. Foster can be of no use to us as a delegate to a Republican Convention to secure political endorsement. She is too intensely partisan to help the suffrage cause unless the managers of the Republican Party wished her to do so." 

Anthony had recently begin grooming Carrie Chapman Catt for a top leadership position and asks Avery if she thinks it wise to make her the "Chairman of the Committee on these various political Conventions...I believe that she would be the best...I do not believe any very strongly Republican woman could do the work for us at the National League, because she would be like clay in the hands of the politicians." Anthony says that if Avery was "not resting for the next 10 years" she would make her the head of the committee.
55. 1894
This note is a New Year's greeting: Anthony and her sister Mary wish "love to each & all -- who shall be under the...roof on Jan 1, 1895 -- and also the wish for a happy new year to each -- and many another as the years roll by." 

Historical Background: 1895 

Anthony travels to California to prepare state suffragists to lead an 1886 campaign for woman suffrage. Cady Stanton's publication of The Woman's Bible embroils Anthony in controversy and protests.
56. March 15, 1895
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses routine business matters, and tells Avery she hopes she is rested ready to begin working again. 

Harriet, she says, is writing her report, and Anthony asks Avery if she will make sure that every relevant point is included in the book. 

Anthony discusses meetings she has had with other suffragists, including Carrie Chapman Catt, who "came to Mrs. Stanton's hut (?) -- her head was too full of Southern Campaign & Political Study Work (?) to see into the [word here] of our four score leader." 

Anthony tells Avery that she cannot write much because she got in late last night, went tonight to a meeting of the Women's Ethical Club and now must answer a "mountain" of letters. 

In this letter Anthony wonders if putting the $5,000 Avery had raised for her into an $800 annuity is the best plan. She tells Avery to "do as you think best -- but I shall surely try to hold on till I get the $5,000 back anyhow -- but you have studied the matter -- I haven't -- my it is a feeling!! Mr. James said he felt with me -- but thought you had taken all the responsibility so should decide."
57. March 31, 1895
Anthony has received Avery's letter to a Mrs. Dickenson and tells her that "it is just right." Anthony tells her that she is enclosing several letters and an invitation that she does not have the address for.
58. April 7, 1895
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has enclosed letters and the Texas Equal Rights Association's annual report. Anthony has been trying to explain to everyone involved what happened at the convention (they elected a president illegally) and she tells Avery that if she "can make clearer my attempt to make each & all see the one and only way to either faction to secure recognition of the National -- do so." She asks Avery to write to the surviving members of the committee that attended the 1894 convention and explain what happened. Anthony tells her that "I need to turn over to you these puzzling dilemmas in the future."
59. April 12, 1895
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has enclosed a letter from Lillie Devereux Blake discussing her displeasure at the National Council organizing Elizabeth Cady Stanton's 80th birthday celebration, as well as Anthony's response defending the decision. Anthony discusses how she believes this should be organized. 

Anthony asks Avery who she believes should "be our national Committee to attend that & similar political educational & religious -- national conventions -- to keep upon them the adoption of a favorable expression for woman suffrage. It is our best way to keep the 'pot-boiling' all round." 

Anthony writes that "as I get you back into my thought in everything -- I see & feel I have one who will second me not only -- but at once begin to execute it." 

60. 1895 

This note again discusses the Texas Equal Rights Association problems. Anthony tells Avery that although damage has been done because they did not follow the correct procedure in electing a president before, all they can do now is "induce them to proceed now according to parliamentary law." 

Historical Background: 1896 

NAWSA leads a successful suffrage compaign in Idaho, and the state votes to enfranchise women. Anthony spends eight months working on the California siffrage compaign, the most extensive state struggle of its time. Ida Husted Harper agrees to write her biography. NAWSA leaders vote to censure The Woman's Bible, which enrages Anthony.
61. December 21, 1896
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that "this noon's mail brought the two Turkish towels" and asks if one is "really to wash people is too fancy." 

Anthony wishes Avery well and tells her that she wishes she could see her over the holiday season. 

She tells Avery that she has written thank you notes to several women who sent her gifts, and tells her that "I can never hope to return the lovely gifts save by working on and on to make conditions for women...better -- in kind -- I am powerless!" 

Anthony asks Avery what her upcoming travel plans are and discusses several ideas for meeting up at some point: "it would be very nice if we two could go gypsing together as we did 14 years ago...well those were good days -- and so are these -- though they are so very different!!" 

A note is attached wishing her a good Christmas. 

Historical Background: 1897 

Anthony compiles her two-volume biography with Husted Harper in Rochester. (A third volume is written and published in 1908, after Anthony's death.)
62. January 8, 1897
Anthony tells Avery that she has found out that only one basketful of Mary Grew's letters has been saved from fire. Anthony was "greatly shocked...when I found that her papers had not been carefully looked over and important historical facts taken from them." 

She says that Clara Bewick Colby had written to tell her that she had not been notified of the names of any of the women activists who have died in the past year. Anthony encourages Avery to be sure to send her this information.
63. January 11, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses travel plans to Chicago to meet Avery, and tells her that Mrs. Sweet, who will be traveling with her part of the way, does not want to pay her own expenses, so she discusses ways to pay her fare. 

Anthony has been using Sweet to answer the many letters that had accumulated while she was traveling, and she tells Avery that "every day brings more letters than I can answer decently."
64. January 13, 1897
Anthony tells Avery her velvet dress is "out of its camphor trunk & airing, ready to go to Des Moines -- but won't the Pres. & Cor. Sec'y look rather stunning?" 

She has been answering letters and tells Avery that she thinks it a good idea to send all requests for information to the headquarters in Philadelphia.
65. January 18, 1897
Anthony has received news that the Woman's Club of Chicago will be holding a reception for her and all "the suffrage women" are invited. Anthony promises "not to take nearly all the time but that there will be room left for each and every one of you to be introduced and say a little word for yourselves." 

Anthony asks Avery to send her ten copies of each of the National Reports from 1895 and 1896. She wishes that all officers of all state societies could understand 'the importance of their keeping every report, and transmitting them from one set of offices to another." 

She closes discussing travel plans and telling Avery that "Mrs. Johnson of St. going to do her own washings and ironings long enough to pay her expenses [to and from Des Moines]; in order to serve the Suffrage Association, she is cheating her washerwoman, but I think she will be pardoned for the time being."
66. January 24, 1897
This note is written on a letter to Anthony from Addison Ryman of the Ryman Interview Syndicate asking for a copy of her speech on "Teaching Politics to Girls." 

Anthony asks Avery what she can send him.
67. February 9, 1897
Anthony discusses ways to reuse last years letterhead because "I think the paper is too good to be used for scratch paper for biography work or anything of that sort." 

Anthony tells Avery she was happy to get Dr. Elizabeth Sargent's report and reports that Ida Husted Harper is working on condensing and fixing up several reports. 

Anthony asks Avery not to send Harper any more press work this year because she is so busy with writing Anthony's biography. 

She tells Avery about her travels. She spoke at the Indiana legislature on February 5th and "made one solid historical statement of the advance of our cause, and rounded up with demanding of them that they submit a proposition to strike 'male' from their constitution." 

She discusses packing her trunk: "it was no small job to fold up velvet dress and velvet cloak, and I wished very minute I hadn't a single one of them." 

May Wright Sewall and Anthony discussed plans for the fiftieth anniversary of the Seneca Falls Woman's Rights Convention, and Anthony tells Avery that Sewall will be writing her shortly with her ideas. 

Anthony tells Avery she wishes she could be in Rochester on the 15th of February because representatives from all the women's clubs in the city planned a reception for Anthony's 77th birthday. 

Anthony closes telling Avery that she is asking that all the annual reports be sent to Avery in their entirely along with the summaries that Ida Husted Harper has written so that if Avery did not like the changes she could rewrite them.
68. February 11, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has enclosed her financial statement for the treasury and discusses it with Avery. 

She asks Avery to send her proofs of the report from the printers so that Anthony can make any necessary corrections. 

Anthony suggests that Avery read an article in the January Atlantic Monthly which describes "the Peabody Fund by President Gilman of Johns Hopkins University" which Anthony believes will help Avery to "help me advise in regard to the committee and the way in which the money should be expended after suffrage has been gained in all the states." 

Anthony again expresses a wish that Avery could visit on the 15th, but admits that "it isn't best for you to leave home again, either for the babies' sake or the report's sake, and so I shall not urge it." 

In a postscript Anthony tells Avery that "I do hope after all that you will just put your...dress into a box & come on to the Monday night reception."
69. February 12, 1897
Anthony tells Avery that "these girls [friends who are visiting for the birthday reception] are having a good if I only had all of the rest of my life guard & Staff Officers! To stand in line for Rochester's 400 to see what a splendid lot of girls I have to back me -- wouldn't it be splendid." 

In closing Anthony says that Ida Husted Harper has asked her to tell Avery that she will not have time to do the press work she sent.
70. February 21, 1897
Indianapolis, Indiana 

Anthony tells Avery she thinks the NAWSA stationery should have "its year printed upon it" instead of the year of its founding (1848). 

Anthony asks Avery to send her a copy of an officer's report. 

She tells Avery that "May had a big round of Legislators & ladies last evening -- & everything was very nice -- she wore her black velvet & corn colored dress." 

Anthony discusses travel plans and tells Avery what she will be doing until she leaves for Rochester the next evening.
71. February 23, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that she is trying to cut down the report of California's suffrage activities, "but, really, to get such an immense work into two thousand words is a big job." However, since some of the states have not been very active this year and will not take up much space in the annual report Anthony says "California and Idaho should have enough said about them to make an object-lesson for everybody who reads the report." 

Anthony discusses plans for the convention in Washington scheduled for next year. Avery had suggested that it take place in February so there could be a celebration for Anthony's birthday on the 15th, but Anthony objects because "I don't believe we can get an opera house that birthday next year ought not to be allowed to cut any sort of figure, that the one thing we are to glorify at the Washington convention is the work that has been accomplished during the first half century of our movement." 

She gives her opinion on whether or not the NAWSA should move their offices because the rent is currently so high ($550). After weighing the options for a long paragraph, Anthony decides that they should stay where they are. However, she "want[s] you young folks to decide the matter." 

Anthony discusses plans that she had heard from Mary Garrett Hay and Carrie Chapman Catt about where the NAWSA should focus their energies this year. 

Anthony asks Avery what she wants her to do with the Idaho report that she has sent her, and gives her advice about what portions to print.
72. February 26, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony begins with the news that the South Dakota legislature passed a suffrage amendment resolution and that she has received a letter from a senator in California who believes the Legislature will pass an amendment as well. "That will make two states," she says, "and the women are sure it is going to be submitted in Washington and Montana." She debates the best way to help them. 

Anthony pressures Avery to "use your influence with Mrs. C[att] to stick to Iowa and the States in which amendments shall be pending" instead of "scatter[ing] fire all over the country" and giving money to states with no amendment pending. 

She closes asking Avery how she is coming with the report and requesting that she send her a draft of her work.
73. February 27, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony asks Avery to send her 100 leaflets that she can "slip into every letter I write to strangers -- or persons I feel may not know of them....what I want is that every one of us who wishes to agitate & educate -- shall enclose some of these letter messengers to every one we write." 

Anthony tells Avery she has edited the California report as much as she can and that "I don't see but you will have to replace the adjectives to your liking." She discusses what to include in the Annual Report in more depth. 

She hopes that the amendments in South Dakota and California will pass "so we can have two states...for our special & practical battle ground for 1898!!" 

Anthony discusses a plan that is being revived to "keep all the states under national power at the same time." She doesn't agree with this idea and tells Avery that "when we have not amendment campaigns on hand in a state -- I think we should urge our women to do all they can to agitate and educate...the clubs are helping more and more -- agitate to get laws or amendments through their legislatures -- and organize all they can -- without national help." She believes that the top goal right now should be getting suffrage amendments passed in every state, and asks Avery, "how can we make our women see & feel this duty!!" 

Anthony relates to Avery news about people she has seen.
74. February 28, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that to "change the type for each committee's paper" will be very expensive and she discusses alternatives.
75. March 3, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony asks Avery what is being done with the four typewriters owned by the NAWSA. She tells her that she needs one in Rochester and if Avery is not able to spare one of the NAWSA ones Anthony will buy one herself. 

Anthony gives Avery advice on how to make "everything jingle" in the Annual Report. 

"The New York State President and the Legislature Com. are having a great annoyance from Mrs. Blake," which Anthony discusses at length. She tells Avery that "if there ever was anybody that needed curb and bit and hold-backs to keep her in her proper sphere, it is 'Our Lillie' can we make her understand that answering questions that people ask her, or giving advice when it is asked, does not demand of her to absolutely dictate policies in every possible direction?"
76. March 7, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony begins the letter noting that "March 7, 1850 is the day that Daniel Webser killed himself politically -- by his pro fugitive slave speech!!" 

She gives Avery tips on how to further revise the Annual Report and again mentions that she must have a typewriter to herself. 

Anthony discusses someone she is considering hiring as a stenographer. She is an excellent writer and scored "100% on her examination as to speed and all...the only question is the get-a-long-a-ble-ness-together & that can only be learned by trying it!!"
77. March 8, 1987
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that in her previous letter she "made no attempt at typographical corrections except what caught my eye as I ran over it" and again asks whether or not a typewriter is being sent to her. 

She says she has received news that the California amendment will most likely pass both houses of the legislature. She has also received and passed along news that the NAWSA will hopefully have a three day council at the Tennessee Centennial. 

There is a PS at the bottom telling Avery that the telegram "saying typewriter is shipped, just received. Very much obliged, for it comes in the nick of time."
 78. March 10, 1897
Rochester, New York 

This note was written in her stenographer's hand and tells Avery that the typewriter has arrived "and will soon be clicking out my work. It will be a great help and convenience, and I send you many deserved thanks for it."
79. March 16, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery her recent check was received and apologizes for not letting her know she had received it earlier. 

She tells her how her new stenographer is faring ("I have need of the article called patience!!") and asks her to make sure the National Headquarters has several copies of the annual report. As well, she tells her why she believes they should put out a National Report every two years and asks her to make a note of this idea. 

She laments the fact that the California amendments didn't pass, and consoles herself with the thought that "we have our two states -- South Dakota and Washington in hand, needing all the help of women & money we shall be able to send."
80. March 23, 1897
Anthony says she believes the NAWSA should give a Mrs. Kendrick a hundred dollars so she does not have to pay her own traveling and miscellaneous expenses. Anthony believes this is a good idea because perhaps Kendrick could take Ida Husted Harper's position doing National press work when Harper is ready to retire. She tells Avery that "we will never get the brainiest women to give their time to our Association if we are going to compel them not only to give their whole thought and energies, but also to foot the bills for all expenses connected therewith." 

Anthony gives her thoughts on whether or not the NAWSA should hold meetings at the Nashville Exposition. She believes no one will come and it would be better for local men and women to speak instead. Anthony hopes that Avery agrees, because, after stating her reasons for believing so, she tells her that "I decline positively to go to Nashville in May, and I shall continue to decline every proposition to go away from home this summer...I must concentrate all of myself upon [the biography]." 

Anthony discusses how the biography is progressing and states that she is pleased with Harper's writing style. 

She returns to the idea of publishing biannual instead of annual reports and suggests that they bring it up at the annual convention. 

Anthony praises Avery and May Wright Sewall's plans for the fiftieth anniversary celebration of the NAWSA.
81. March 28, 1897
Anthony discusses what to do with the typewriters the NAWSA currently owns and what brand to choose if they buy new ones. She says that if they buy new ones she would "greatly prefer a Smith Premier." 

She has decided not to "give up finding a house & home secretary -- and go back to employing Mrs. Sweet" so Anthony has decided to return the typewriter sent to her.
82. March 30, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony says she will hold on to the typewriter until she hears from either Avery or Carrie Chapman Catt about where it should be sent. She explains that "it is now in splendid order and does beautiful work, but I got sick and tired of trying to get any one to be on hand. I haven't the time to teach nor to tell anybody what I want done." 

Anthony has been invited to a friend's house to stay and she tells Avery that she and her children should go in her place because she wants to stay at home and work. 

In a handwritten postscript Anthony tells Avery that the letter was typed by Sweet on "Mrs. Catt's new Smith Premier."
83. April 14, 1897
Rochester, New York 

This letter discusses typewriters. Anthony tells Avery that Catt has presumably received Anthony's old machine and that "Harriet seems to have a great deal of trouble with her machine...all I wish to say is that if any one of the officers comes to the point of buying a new Remington, I would prefer her to take this one and let me buy a new Smith Premier." 

She explains that she is not writing on the stationery with the NAWSA sunflower because "when I came to give my paper to Mr. Mann to have it corrected, as is yours, I found that nearly all of it was blank, and so I let him set an entire new heading and cut off the old heading from the few sheets on which it was printed, and now I have paper enough, both large and small, to last quite a while."
84. May 4, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she has received her "statement relative to Mrs. Dietrick's book" and Anthony hopes she can get enough people to "subscribe for the book to make it possible to publish it." 

She tells her she wishes they lived close enough that they could meet "every day or so...this trying to discuss and decide affairs with a pen is very unsatisfactory." 

Anthony gives her opinion on several NAWSA activities, including her belief that the NAWSA should not " responsibility in a State, unless we have made up our minds to begin work and stick to it until we get an amendment passed by the Legislature and adopted at the ballot-box." To give money to a group without this goal "is like a slight shower on the parched earth -- better than a running fire, but it does not reach the root and accomplish anything lasting." 

Anthony asks Avery what she is doing for the summer and writes in a PS that it seems unbelievable that it has been seven years "since I got the telegram...announcing the arrival of little Rose!! My what a great girl she is now."She asks how both children are doing. 

She asks Avery to collect all of the letters Anthony has sent to Avery and send them back to Anthony, as "Mrs. Harper very much wants to go over every letter of mine in existence."
85. May 14, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has enclosed several subscriptions for the Dietrick book. 

She discusses ideas for the fiftieth anniversary celebration and tells Avery that "you have so long taken all the thought of the program of our meetings -- that I am all out of it -- and so must leave it to you in this all the same." She gives Avery names of women who should attend from the US and around the world. 

Anthony discusses the difficulties she and Harper are having in writing the biography. She says she "never was so void of inventive thought for work in my life -- the reason is -- I am all swallowed up in the struggles of the past -- I got on very well -- so long as the opposition was from our enemies -- that is to 1860 -- but now when we come to 1866, 67, 68, 69 -- with the "negro's hour" cry from our very best friends...-- and the utter repudiation of me -- then in 1870-71 the secession -- then the Woodhull!! I wish I had just you & May to sit down here -- & help settle upon the best way of treating the question..."
86. May 1897
 This note is on the back of a letter to Anthony from Laura Clay, president of the Kentucky Equal Rights Association and Chairman of the Committee of NAWSA for Work at Tennessee Exposition. The letter is about the Tennessee Exposition and other activities that the Kentucky Equal Rights Association has been working on. 

Anthony tells Avery she just wrote to Clay "rejoicing over their success at the Tenn. Exposition." Clay had asked if someone from NAWSA could come to the South and speak. Anthony says that she regrets losing "such a splendid occasion to preach our gospel down there" but since Avery cannot go, Anna Shaw is spending the summer "at her Haven on the Cape -- and..I cannot leave this digging & delving into the past," they must. 

Anthony tells Avery she has received her box of letters and it will be returned to her shortly. 

Avery has apparently told Anthony that she believes Carrie Chapman Catt might take some time off from suffrage work at the end of this year and Anthony asks Avery if she really believes this is true. "I hope not," she tells her, "for...who can fill her place!!" She resigns herself to the fact that even if she is no longer involved with NAWSA, "I am sure Mrs. Catt can't stop working to help all womankind -- even though she should not do it in the way I like best -- she must act on her own best judgment." 

Anthony asks Avery who she thinks should take over Catt's work if she does take time off.
87. May 19, 1887
Letter removed
88. May 28, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony asks Avery for her signature on a paper from 1890 on which her signature has become too pale to read. She has been going though her papers with Ida Husted Harper and tells Avery she has noticed several "blunders of this sort" and has been writing to the people involved to get them corrected so all her documents will be correct and in order. 

Anthony tells Avery she wishes she could see her more often and talk things over. She has accepted an invitation to the Berkshire County "Mass. Historical Society's annual picnic meeting -- to be held in my grandfather Anthony's [homestead] in Adams on Thursday July 29th and I want every one of my best girls to meet me there & see the old places & people." 

Carrie Chapman Catt has written that she will be passing through Rochester but might not be able to meet with Anthony. Anthony confides that she is "dreadfully cut-down -- her letters seem so much as if she were sick & disheartened -- she says she's going to resign." 

Anthony hopes that suffrage work is continuing "while I am mewed (?) up among these old papers -- once out of them -- and you'll see me rush into the thicket of the fray -- again!!" 

She invites Avery's family to spend a week with her around July 29th in Adams. 

An attached paper reminds Avery to read Clara Bewick Colby's letter then to send it to Harriet Taylor Upton. Anthony wants Avery to read it so she can see "her explanation of her motives in voting against you in their very informed ballot -- so we see again how appearances made Mrs. Colby very disloyal -- when she had no intention of being so."
89. June 15, 1887
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses plans for her and other NAWSA officials to meet in Adams, Massachusetts for events and meetings. One woman cannot afford the trip and Anthony asks Avery if she thinks the NAWSA should pay her expenses. She decides that "it won't do to propose to pay one more than another -- for none of us can well afford the expense." 

Anthony reports that "a streak of splendid good came to us while I was in Auburn last week...I found a letter from Paris...with two checks enclosed for $100."
90. June 17, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony begins discussing the business meeting she has planned in Adams. She tells Avery that "by hook or by crook, we must somehow get five there" and that so far Catt, Shaw, Avery, her and possibly Harriet Taylor Upton are planning to come. She says she is putting Avery in charge of making sure that five officers do come. They will stay in her grandfather's "old homestead" and will discuss "what and how to do." 

She has appointed Avery as a delegate to the annual meeting in Washington and discusses business associated with that title. 

Anthony reminds Avery that she gave her her vote "for Mrs. Catt as editor of the 'Bulletin,' and Chairman of the committee to prepare the fiftieth Anniversary calendar." 

Anthony advises Avery to let Catt manage state suffrage campaigns in Iowa, Washington, and South Dakota. If the National group is going to give states financial help, Anthony tells Avery that she firmly believes that the NAWSA "must have the absolute power of control" because none of the states "manifest the slightest knowledge of how to proceed, while Mrs. Catt...certainly does understand how to conduct the whole business." Anthony says these issues will be discussed in Adams. 

On the back of the letter is a note discussing prices for a the Columbia theater which Anthony wants to have meetings in every Sunday. Anthony gives her ideas on how they can raise the money for the rent of the theater ($100 each Sunday).
91. June 21, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she is trying to get Sewall, Laura Clay, and Alice Stone Blackwell to come to Adams. 

A new paragraph is dated the next day and tells Avery that she has just written to Blackwell for the third time asking her to come to Adams. 

She reports that "it is now settled that you three oarswomen -- Upton, Catt & Avery -- must be at South...Adams July 26th" because that is the only day Anna Shaw can come. Anthony says that they cannot count on Blackwell coming so if Upton or Catt can't afford to come the NAWSA should pay their expenses because "we must have them there. So I leave you to see to it that we have a quorum there the 26th."
92. July 8, 1897 (1)
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has mailed invitations to the NAWSA annual meeting and tells Avery that it might be a good idea to write to the people she has invited personally. 

She discusses travel plans and asks where and how Avery is "these hot days." Anthony plans for the meeting in Adams and asks if Avery can come on the 24th.
93. July 8, 1897 (2)
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she has just received a letter from her. 

She has decided to send $40 to Upton to cover travel expenses to Adams. She tells Avery she has justified this because "I am using my clerk a good deal on Biography work so can justify to myself...a fraction off of each months [sic] $50 and so help Mrs. H to go -- for we must have her at Adams." She again advises Avery to come on the 24th and gives directions for what to do when she arrives. She tells Avery that it is beautiful in Adams and "I am very very happy to have you & my other see & hear & enjoy." She is sending information on "anything & everything pertaining to the life & work of any one home (?) in Berkshire County...and I want each of you to have a 5 or 10 minutes expression of something ready -- so that other (?) descendants of the old green mountains may hear as well as see the girls that compose my lady guard of honor." 

Anthony tells Avery she has received news that Ellen Battelle Dietrick's husband had died. 

Anthony returns to the subject of the Adams meeting, again urging Avery to come earlier than the 26th.
94. July 12, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that "the fates rubbed off the stamp from my envelope carrying the $40 check to Mrs. Upton." She decided to cut up the returned check and tell Harriet that Anthony's sister Mary sent $50 "for the general treasury & that Sister M. forgot to tell her so -- therefore if...Harriet has not already posted it all on to Mrs. C.C.C. supposing it to be for the organization fund -- that she shall take out of the general treasury the sum she needs for travel expenses...isn't it a shame that her father and her husband should have stripped her of everything -- all for her brother -- of whom her father wrote me fifteen years ago -- that she had more sense in her little finger that the boy in his whole brain -- and yet he threw into the scale of the boy every dollar he had in the world -- thus reducing the child that has always sacrificed everything for him -- to absolute poverty." 

Anthony discusses plans for her and Lucy to come to Adams. She tells Avery that she and Harper will stop work on the biography on July 16 and are planning to begin work again September first. Anthony "intend[s] to have one or two more bright girls to cut and trim and paste my clippings into scrap books." Harper is currently writing chapters on 1871 and 1872, and Anthony tells Avery that she soon "shall come to when you & dear sister Julia made your first appearance at our Wash. Con. In 1879!!" 

Anthony closes wishing Avery lived closer so they could talk more frequently, but consoles herself that they will see each other soon in Adams. She tells Avery she is "glad you have found good women to care for the girls -- -- young ladies? -- almost --." 

 95. August 21, 1897 

Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery news about May Wright Sewall and Clara Bewick Colby, then discusses various financial matters. 

She asks Avery how plans are coming for the fiftieth anniversary celebration, and informs her of upcoming travel plans. 

Anthony says that 'the only lack in my full enjoyment of Adams was the going away of all of you girls." And discusses the trip. 

She ends telling Avery that "I must find a stenographer...I haven't the patience to scribble awfully even."
96. August 24, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses plans to place histories of woman suffrage in libraries throughout the country, then discusses plans for the fiftieth anniversary meeting. She wants to have delegates from all suffrage groups to give progress reports on their groups. This will "emphasize the fact that English women are demanding...full suffrage as well as American women." She wishes that "we were rich and could offer to pay their expenses" and gives her ideas on financial and publicity matters relating to the council. 

She gives Avery news about Anna Shaw, Lucy Anthony, and others.
97. August 30, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony answers several questions about the upcoming annual meeting posed by Avery in her last letter. Avery had wanted to make up calendars to give out as souvenirs for the meeting, and Anthony tells her she thinks this is a fine idea but "if we have no woman who will give her time and thought to preparing the statistics we cannot have it...all of my girls have their hands so full that it seems a sort of cruelty to animals for me to even think of adding another iota to their work." 

Anthony gives her advice on raising her children that she had heard from a woman who brought up eight children: "leave children to settle their own difficulties and fight out their own little long as she, as a mother, interfere and gave the weight of her influence on one side or another, nothing was done to strengthen the minds or the bodies of the children to do their own work." 

Anthony tells Avery she heard Annie Besant speak in Rochester on the "Philosophy of Development." 

She spoke with Besant about possible English speakers for the conference, and gives Avery her recommendations. 

She will begin work on the biography again this week, "when [Mrs. Harper] will wonder and perhaps scold at the very little progress I have made since my return." 

The letter is typed and a handwritten note at the bottom confides in Avery that "my little girl had been used to the Smith Premier -- but we shall after a while [see] what she can do --."
98. August 31, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses and gives advice on speakers for the annual meeting.
99. September 1, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery prices for accommodations in Washington for the meeting. She wants the Riggs House to be "our hotel headquarters" and worries that there will be a large crowd there because the Daughters of the Revolution might be having a meeting at the same time. She is also worried about asking for a lower rate at the Riggs House, which she feels would be fair because so many people will be staying there, and tells Avery she will wait until she hears her advice on the matter before asking him.
100. September 2, 1897
Rochester, New York 

"Whom the gods love they send winged messengers to -- so Katharine intuitively answers your want for Sweden -- & knowledge thereof," Anthony tells Avery. 

She gives her ideas for speakers for the annual meeting from Scotland and France.
101. September 8, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she has discussed the annual meeting with Stanton and reports that Stanton thinks Anthony should make the opening remarks, "setting forth how absolutely nil woman was fifty years ago" after which Stanton will speak, then some "second generation" suffragists will speak, which Anthony expresses reservations about because "the voices of each well as their subject-matter, would fall very far below that of Mrs. Stanton." 

The advantages and disadvantages of various speakers for the meeting is discussed at length. Anthony believes that "there is no reason for bringing any man into those evening sessions unless he possesses the two most important qualities, -- that of reputation to draw an immense audience, and of being a splendid speaker."
102. September 20, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony thanks Avery for wanting to keep letters and other papers on file, "for my head is so full of the contents of the attic and the work to be done there that there is little room left for anything else at present." 

She discusses the question of delegates to the convention and tells Avery she should "pursue your own ideas" on how to best attract women from around the world. 

Anthony lists women who have been or should be contacted about helping plan the meeting. As well, she lists ideas she has for making the meeting more special ("I do not want an ordinary programme for the evening sessions which are to celebrate our fiftieth anniversary," she tells Avery), but admits that there is most likely not enough people working on planning the meeting to be able to carry out her ideas. 

She closes asking Avery to make sure the Call for the meeting is sent out right away. She tells Avery she should get her husband to write the Call and Anthony will sign it.
103. September 27, 1897
Rochester, New York 

This letter discusses financial matters related to the annual meeting.
104. October 1, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has been continuing to work with Ida Husted Harper on her biography, and she confides in Avery that "it is mighty hard to know which of the years or even decades of my life I am keep myself straight in the several past years -- & also in the work of the present requires a head that can think of more than one thing at a time." 

She asks Avery if she has written the Call yet and inquires how she is coming on other plans for the meeting.
105. October 5, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony encloses several letters and tells Avery that she is leaving tomorrow morning and has had to employ three stenographers "to get me sort of eased up so I can get out."
106. October 5, 1897
Anthony tells Avery that on her travels she will try to meet with Harriet Taylor Upton and Anna Howard Shaw to "compare notes" and laments the fact that "no two of us can have our heads together in one place, but since I have made up my mind to hold my head stationary and no other head will come to me, we must remain apart as we are." In the "good old times," she recalls, she "flitted around to Lucy Stone, Antoinette Brown, [and] Elizabeth Cady Stanton...But none of them ever came to me, I always had to go to each in turn." 

The rest of the letter discusses speakers and other plans for the annual meeting. After three pages of discussion, Anthony closes assuring Avery that Anthony should not worry, because "you have it all in your head well mapped out and well in progress. I hope I shall have the good sense not to criticize a single thing: but if I should prove lacking, I know your love and charity will forgive." 

There is an undated handwritten postscript from Ida Husted Harper at the bottom explaining that the stenographer has been ill and has given this letter to Harper. She apologizes for the spelling errors in some of the names Anthony mentioned, and hopes that in spite of them Avery will know what Anthony meant.
107. October 13, 1897
Anthony and Harper have gone over the draft of the Call for the meeting that Avery has sent, and Anthony gives her opinion on it. 

Anthony tells Avery that she has written several letters personally inviting select women to speak at the meeting. She asks Avery to "make it clear to each speaker who goes on the program that most of her time should be given to noting the gains -- the good we have reaped from the agitation with the optimistic rather than pessimistic view of the nearness of the goal of perfect equality in every department." 

She continues to the discuss the meeting at length.
108. October 18, 1897
Somerton, Pennsylvania 

Avery asks Anthony if she will find out what Elizabeth Cady Stanton plans to speak on at the meeting, for a letter Avery has received from Stanton is unclear. Avery apologizes for writing to Anthony about this matter, but she says that "I do not think it wise to write Mrs. Stanton directly, and, therefore, have to go about it in this round-about fashion." 

Avery tells Anthony she will think about the order in which Matilda Joslyn Gage, Olympia Brown, and Isabella Beecher Hooker will speak at the meeting, and assures Anthony that she will "do my best to help smooth their ruffled feathers." 

Avery agrees with Anthony that they should discuss the progress that has been made in a strictly optimistic light at the meeting, and informs her of one speaker who, she has found out from "an informant of undoubted probity" has been asked to speak on "Some Pen Pictures of the Progress of Cookery during the Past Fifty Years" and intended to "astonish the natives when her turn came; that she meant to show that, in stead [sic] of making any advance in this department of work, it had entirely retrograded...She was described as chuckling over the prospect." She asks Anthony what to do about this situation. 

The rest of the letter discusses other matters related to the meeting.
109. October 18, 1897
Anthony has enclosed a clipping addressed to the Corresponding Secretaries of all "state...district, county and local" Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) groups. The article is a questionnaire for all Corresponding Secretaries to fill out and return so that the National WCTU will know how local groups are functioning. Anthony tells Avery that this might be a good strategy for the NAWSA. 

In response to her letter, Anthony assures Avery that Stanton will be speaking on either "'The Past, Present and Future,' or 'The Triumphs and Defeats of Fifty Years.'"
110. October 31, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has returned to Rochester after spending ten days in Nashville. The bulk of the letter discusses speakers and topics for speeches at the annual meeting. Anthony tells Avery that when she returned home last night the house was filled with relatives visiting, and she had to sleep with Ida Husted Harper because there were no free beds.
111. November 5, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony lists several speakers she thinks Avery should look into for the annual meeting. She tells Avery that "our difficulty is sure to be that the men & women, too, will use up their precious minutes with platitudes -- & philosophies -- and leave no time or space for facts -- & what we want is facts & figures -- but it is such an appalling job -- that I quail (?) before it -- And am glad every minute that your (sic) young, have head & heart all equal to the task." She tells Avery she (Avery) is acting chairman and must find speakers who will fulfill their requirements. 

Ida Husted Harper has told Anthony that she has no time to prepare a paper to present, and Anthony apologizes for keeping her so busy with the biography. She tells Avery that she cannot travel while Harper is working on the biography because Harper cannot write without asking Anthony questions. She discusses when the biography should be finished and tells Avery that she wants to "go over every word of it -- carefully -- even after Mrs. Harper thinks it all perfect." 

An enclosed note discusses speakers and the program for the meeting.
112. November 7, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony asks "what has become of our grandiloquent Jubilee Ball?" 

She tells Avery she has asked the National Press Bureau for money and discusses publicity for the meeting. 

Anna Shaw will be coming to Rochester tomorrow and Anthony wishes she had not agreed to go "gypsing in the far north west with her or any one else" because of the damage her absence does to the biography work.
113. November 13, 1897
Somerton, Pennsylvania 

This is a copy of a letter from Avery discussing various matters relating to the annual meeting. She begins with the single tax issue and tells Anthony that she believes that discussing the Single Tax issue at the meeting will "violate...every precedent we have ever made in our Conventions. That is certainly a side issue and one which would bring endless discussion and open the door for all sorts of other isms to crowd upon our platform." 

In response to a question Anthony has asked, she tells her that she believes the proposed speech on "Equality of Rights for the Homemakers" does not fit in the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary. 

Returning to the single tax issue, Avery states that she does not believe, as it has been proposed, they should devote a committee to "Single Tax the Basis of Equality." 

She is trying to get John Temple Graves to speak at the meeting, and is waiting to hear from Harriot Stanton Blatch and Ellen Henrotin to see whether or not they will speak. She believes that Lillie Devereux Blake and William Howells should not be allowed to speak because "they make pretty speeches but they do not make strong ones or statistical ones." If Isabella Beecher Hooker is going to speak, she tells Anthony she needs her topic immediately. 

She informs Anthony of the progress of the Call, and tells her she hopes she can find money to continue to do press work, "for I have for a long time felt as if that were one of our most valuable means of work." 

The rest of the letter discusses speakers for the meeting in more detail.
114. November 16, 1897
Somerton, Pennsylvania 

Ida Harper has told Avery that Anthony does not like the picture of herself Avery has selected to be included in Anthony's biography because the sleeves on her gown are too large. Avery tells Anthony that if she wants to use her picture she must use this one because "it is by far the best picture of me that I have had taken for years and at present I have not the cash nor the time nor the gown to make any new attempts in the photographic line." She admits that the sleeves on the gown are "ridiculously large" but believes that at least "this picture is a great deal better than those I used to have with that immense pompadour on my head."
115. November 19, 1897
This note is written on the back of a draft of a letter announcing and asking for funds for a press bureau that the NAWSA was creating. 

Anthony discusses the annual meeting.
116. November 19, 1897
This note is written on the back of a letter from Lillie Devereux Blake, President of the New York City Woman Suffrage League. Anthony comments on Blake's letter and discusses speakers for the annual meeting.
117. November 20, 1897
There have been several controversies about who should speak at the annual meeting, and Anthony gives her opinion on who should be allowed to present speeches and discusses other matters relating to the meeting.
118. November 22, 1897
Avery has been asked by the a man who runs the theater they will be using for the convention to not use it from four to five-thirty on February 14, and Avery tells Anthony she is enclosing the letters from him, Avery's reply, and that she awaits Anthony's instructions on what to do about this problem.
119. November 24, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery addresses several concerns pertaining to the annual meeting celebration. She gives her opinion on whether or not several women should speak, and if so, when. She also discusses when certain sessions should be scheduled.
120. November 26, 1897
Anthony tells Avery she has received her letter and that she is currently in Ohio. In response to her letter of the 22nd, Anthony believes that "of course we couldn't" give up the theater for that time without disrupting the flow of the day. 

The rest of the letter discusses speakers and responds to questions and concerns Avery posed in her letter of the 24th about the annual meeting. She ends the three page letter assuring Avery that "I am sure all 

of us will say amen to whatever you find best to do -- I surely feel that I cannot give mine [sic] council at this distance."
121. November 30, 1987
Rochester, New York 

Anthony assures Avery that she wants her picture in her biography and attempts to convince her to get her picture taken. She tells her that "as far as the expense is concerned, I would vastly rather pay for a new picture...than put in the one you sent me. Apart from the sleeves, yours has not the best expression, and I want you to keep at it till the artist catches your very best look." 

She tells her that they are coming along well on the biography -- Harper hopes to be finished with it by the first of February, although Anthony doubts it will be done so soon. 

The five conferences she has just returned from were a success. They raised some money, although not as much as they had hoped, and Anthony writes that "this trip has made me feel more than ever that the age demands that we shall utilize the press of the country." She strengthens her resolve to create a National Press Bureau, "with a woman at its head who has not only experience and ability, but the leisure and the disposition to give her whole time to reading the press clippings of the entire country, and putting herself in communication with every editor who says a word for or against our movement." She has Ida Husted Harper in mind for this task, and urges Avery to join her in making it a reality. 

The rest of the letter discusses the annual meeting. 

A handwritten postscript tells Avery that she has run out of letterhead and asks her to send her some if she has any.
122. December 1, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery tells Anthony that her family have "finally moved in to [sic] the city and are comfortably settled in our new quarters doing light housekeeping and quite enjoying it." 

The rest of the letter is devoted to the annual meeting. Avery tells Anthony that the people from the theater they will be using have offered to let them use the theater the Sunday after the conference for free in exchange for not using it for an hour and a half on February 14. She asks Anthony's opinion on this matter. 

Avery believes that they should have the business meetings in the mornings and leave the afternoons for "jubilation" because "we are all so much fresher and better able to discuss things and to decide wisely" in the mornings. 

She discusses various plans for editing the papers that are to be presented. 

Anthony has asked Isabella Beecher Hooker to comment on programs for a hearing that the Business Committee has been overlooking. Avery is mildly upset by this because "it does not seem to me that we are at all in a position to ask for outside help in this way...My own impression is that she [now] thinks she is invited for the Hearing as well as for the Celebration proper. If you agree with me as to my idea on the subject, will you please undeceive her." 

Avery discusses several possible and confirmed speakers, and, in a section of the letter titled "Disgruntled People," assures Anthony that "I shall do all I possibly can to smooth down the ruffled feathers of the suffrage flock for your sake chiefly, because I know they always go for you more than they do for the rest of us." 

She closes the letter telling Anthony that she will send her stationery tomorrow.
123. December 1, 1897
On the back of a letter from Carrie Chapman Catt discussing hotel rates for the convention attendees, Anthony writes to Avery that although Catt was upset that the rates were three dollars and two fifty for a shared room, Anthony doubts that they will find rates less than two dollars anywhere. Catt has suggested that Mary Garrett Hay should go to the Riggs house, where they had been planning to put everyone, and ask for cheaper rates. Anthony suggests another hotel that might be cheaper, but tells Avery that she believes all the top people should stay together at the Riggs house, although it is a bit more expensive.
124. December 6, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery has made an appointment to get her photograph taken, and she assures Anthony that "I promise not to wear large sleeves." 

Avery tells Anthony that while she agrees with the demand for a National Press Bureau to be established, she is not sure if the NAWSA has money for it and fears that Anthony is forgetting "the immediate necessity of raising money for the Anniversary." 

As well, she reports that the Call should be sent out as soon as possible but they do not currently have the money for printing or postage. 

At a recent convention it was decided to make "new State banners to mark the delegations." However, Avery fears that no one is taking charge of this project and asks Anthony to see if her niece Lucy can do this job. 

In response to Catt's letter of December 1 and Anthony's comments on it, Avery does not think that Hay could get a better rate at the Riggs house and believes she should rather spend her time in Washington working on advertising for the convention instead.
125. December 7, 1897
Rochester, New York 

She asks Avery if she has minutes from their meeting at Adams, Mass, because apparently Clara Bewick Colby has suggested a plan for the convention that contradicts what was decided at Adams.
126. December 8, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony responds to Avery's concern for raising money for the convention, and discusses whether or not they should charge for admission to the sessions. In response to Avery's concern that the NAWSA treasury has no money, Anthony tells her to not worry about it because they have never really had any money and they have always survived. Anthony is not going to focus her energies on raising money, she tells Avery, because "I feel as if I were plunging into the dark -- where others may have been begging before me." If someone tells her which people have not given money this year, Anthony says she will ask them. 

She tries to give Avery ideas and hope for the convention because "really your letter is awfully blue -- totally unlike my darling Rachel."
127. December 14, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery tells Anthony that before she answers her recent letters she must ask her if Harriot Stanton Blatch has told anyone that she will definitely come to the convention, because Avery is worried that Anthony is counting on her speaking and no one has heard from her. 

She tells Anthony that she (Avery) has received a letter from Elizabeth Cady Stanton informing her that she does not wish to speak at the convention because she might not feel well enough to come. She tells Avery she will send two speeches that can be read in her absence. 

Avery is worried that if Stanton does not attend, her daughter might not either, and she wonders if Anthony's "enthusiasm over the meeting has misled you into construing into a promise to be present what only may have been the expression of a wish." 

Avery gives her opinion on issues Anthony has raised or commented on, including the question of selling tickets for the programs; whether or not Isabella Beecher Hooker should speak; the outline of the program; music at the celebration; whether or not Anthony should "forget" to give Avery a letter about a Mrs. Perkins; Clara Bewick Colby's speech; finances; the payment of the hall rent; who should go to Washington before the conference to prepare and advertise; which hotels she believes they should use in Washington, and the Call.
128. December 17, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has not definitely heard that Blatch will attend the conference, in fact she has heard from Stanton that Blatch is in London and does not want to make the journey. Stanton has told her that she will send her promised speeches along shortly in case she cannot attend. Anthony believes Stanton wants to give the time allotted to her to speak to Blake, which Anthony tells Avery she "totally decline[s] to do -- preferring to take myself in case Mrs. S. fails to be on hand." Anthony believes Stanton is being "very modest in her demands on account of her priority in years & quality of service to the cause!!" She explains that Stanton's "yielding everything to...every and anybody -- and feeling that she cannot go -- are the chronic conditions of her mind before [a conference] -- for the whole fifty years -- the inertia she has to overcome at the last moment -- when I strike down upon her en route to Washington.

She asks Avery to write to Blatch and see if she is coming or not and responds to Avery's recent letter. She tells her not to worry about making her own decisions: "I do not feel that you as Chair Program Committee are inhibited or prohibited from allowing any one to give an idea -- new or old -- simply because we at Adams or since or here haven't thought of it ourselves -- I wouldn't for the life of me strangle any good thought more than a good baby from getting born!!" 

She disagrees with Avery's belief that a summary of the effort the NAWSA has put into the suffrage question over the last fifty years will not be "just the thing to rouse them [Congress] & shame them into action." Anthony tells Avery of an encounter she had with a judge in Ohio who told her that "'If you had only begun this sort of work with Congress ten years ago -- you would have had an [amendment] resolution passed through both houses long ago.' & he was amazed when I told him we had been doing this twice ten years!!" You see each new set of men imagine we have come before them the first." 

Anthony suggests that someone should be doing some advertising, but tells Avery simply to 'do the best you can -- I don't want to add one feathers weight to your load -- each of us is carrying about all possible." 

Anthony gives an update on the biography work and informs her that "there has never been a time in my life when I had to carry along more different things in my head than now" because "every ten minutes [Harper] shouts down 'Miss Anthony' -- and asks me if it was this and so!!"
129. December 19, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery spends considerable time discussing the merits of various hotels in Washington and finally decides that the NAWSA headquarters should be at the Regent hotel. 

In response to Anthony's belief that Avery should make decisions on her own, Avery responds that "even you dislike to stand alone against the fair Lillie [Devereux Blake] and it seems to me as if I must have a backing either in accepting or declining her much urged appearance upon the hearing program; of course, I mean much urged by herself." 

Avery reports that Anthony is alone in wanting to prepare a history of suffrage work for the last fifty years and present it to Congress. 

In regards to the question of Harriot Stanton Blatch attending the conference, Avery writes that "I am quite astonished to have you ask me whether I have not written to Mrs. Blatch, since you undertook to attend to that matter entirely, but now I will do so at once." 

She answers several more of Anthony's questions and closes asking if she has received the new picture she sent to be included in the biography.
130. December 21, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony votes for the Riggs House as the hotel headquarters and gives her reasons for this opinion. 

She has written to Stanton and discusses her place in the convention in relation to that of other speakers. Anthony tells Avery that Blatch might come to the conference to be with her mother, who Anthony believes is "very far from being her old self, either in bodily or intellectual strength, at least so it seems to me." 

Anthony is pleased with the new photograph Avery has sent and tells her which other women will have their pictures in the book. 

The last section of the letter gives Avery some ideas for speakers at the convention.
131. December 23, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery she has just finished reading materials for the program of the conference. She states that it would be hard not to discuss the "Negro equality question" in a speech on "Social Changes in the South" and asks who thought of that topic. 

She reminds Avery to make sure someone is writing up "the proper word" on all the women involved with the NAWSA who have died in recent years so they can be remembered at the meeting. 

Anthony gives her opinion on the schedule of various events at the convention.
 132. December 28, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery reminds Anthony that "you have as yet made no appointment of the person to draft the resolutions for the Memorial Hour, and, on the occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary, it seems an important position that ought to be filled with care." Avery believes Anthony will want Clara Bewick Colby to fill the position but warns her that she is quite busy at this time.
133. December 29, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery thanks Anthony for her Christmas greetings and plunges into a long discussion of the convention. She tells Anthony that she has decided that the Regent hotel is the best place for the hotel headquarters and gives Anthony many reasons for this decision, including the fact that the management of the Riggs House has changed and "it will be so entirely different from being there when the Spofford's had it and when it was like a home to us all." 

Avery has dropped Harriot Stanton Blatch's name from the program, as she does not believe she will truly come. 

She has added Clara Neymann to the program but has not as of yet put her name in the program because she believes the name of her address is misleading: "as she gives it to me, it is 'Fifty Years of Progress in the Marriage Relation,' and to the general reader that would suggest the progress of some one couple married fifty years." 

Avery has dropped several subjects from the program because it was getting too long. 

She discusses Antoinette Brown Blackwell's address, the president of a Missouri chapter speaking, and the work being done in Ohio at the time.
134. December 29, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony states that the program looks very good and asks when she will receive copies of the Call for the convention. 

She tells Avery she now has four stenographers at her house trying to help her answer letters. As well, Anthony has almost 300 requests for autographs that she is trying to fulfill. She tells Avery that she includes copies of appeals for money and informational articles in each letter she answers but she "has not closed up one without a pang, because it did not also contain the Call for the fiftieth anniversary." She does not mind the hotel or travel reservations being in flux, she tells Avery, as much as she minds not having Call she can give to people to tell them about the convention and ask them for financial support.

       As she was lying in bed the other night she had "a very bright thought": President McKinley and his wife should come to the opening session of the convention and the President should speak. She asks Avery if she wants to write to him or if Anthony should.

She will soon be writing to all the "pioneers" to try to get them to write something for the program because she does not believe any of them will be able to attend. 

Anthony tells Avery that she has inferred from a letter from Harriet Taylor Upton that Avery has chosen the Riggs House as the headquarters, and she congratulates her on this decision. She admits that they are more expensive, but argues that "I propose to dip a little deeper if need be into the small pocket" because "I shall not probably be here to join in the celebration of the next fiftieth anniversary of our movement." She again thanks Avery for the money she raised for her and tells her that "my head, heart and hands are all grateful to you as every quarter of the year comes and goes." 

Anthony has enclosed a letter from Elizabeth Cady Stanton's daughter that discusses her mother's failing health. In spite of the letter, Anthony believes that Stanton is in the same condition she has been in for the last two years. Anthony believes they should be prepared either way. If she cannot come Anthony will "take great pleasure in reading her papers." However, she reminds Avery that "all that she says about dreading the journey has been just as true of her on every occasion for the last forty years, as to-day." She asks Anthony to return the letters she has sent her, as "I have a feeling that every pen-scratch I receive from her may possibly be the last. Therefore I keep them all as sacred as so many nuggets of gold." 

She discusses transportation questions and asks either Avery or Lucy Anthony to take care of that aspect of the planning. 

There has been a motion to elect another vice-president at large in order to help the president, and Anthony asks Avery who she would suggest.
135. December 30, 1897
Rochester, New York 

Anthony writes that she believes they should not take collections at the evening sessions of the council but that they should sell reserved seats. 

She discusses financial and leadership issues relating to the state suffrage groups. 

She asks Avery if she agrees that some time should be set aside at the convention to honor "those who have gone before and blazed the way for those whose lines are now cast in pleasant places because of these pioneers." Anthony believes Colby and herself should work on this project together.
136. December 31, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery tells Anthony she will put a place for a Miss Moore on the program to give a "report on the colored race." Avery thinks "she ought to be a good representative of the possibilities of her race. I only hope she is not too light to stand for the colored people." 

Since Anthony has so many requests for her autograph, Avery suggests she sell them for a quarter as a fundraiser for the NAWSA. 

Since the hotel headquarters issue has been resolved (Avery tells Anthony that she should know by now that Avery had made the decision not to use the Riggs House as the headquarters), Avery assures Anthony that the Call will be finished and sent off to her soon. 

Avery thinks is it doubtful that Stanton will be at the convention, but she tells Anthony she will leave her on the program if she wishes. 

The idea of having President McKinley come to the convention seems like a sound one to Avery, but she believes Anthony should be the one to invite him. 

Avery lists several "pioneers" who might be able to attend the convention. 

She tells Anthony not to feel nervous about the travel plans, as they are being handled well so far. 

Lillie Devereux Blake is her choice for a second vice-president-at-large. 

She updates Anthony on several possible speakers for the convention. 

137. 1897 

Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses the creation of a trust fund she and Avery had discussed and regrets that she cannot start work on it until after the fiftieth anniversary convention. 

She reports that she has seen a copy of the preliminary program and doesn't see "what I can do about it." She regrets that she is too busy with the biography work right now to do anything else.
138. 1897
This letter seems to be giving suggestions for a Call for the convention. 

Anthony again complains of the time she is devoting to the biography: "I am getting awfully sick of the delving in the past when there is so much waiting to be done in the present." 

Anthony tells Avery she wants to make sure no one is raising money for her personal expenses.
139. 1897
This note lists the "pioneers" that Anthony believes should be listed in the convention program.
140. 1897
Anthony asks Avery to send her copies of several annual reports. Anthony wants to bind them and put them in libraries. 

Historical Background: 1898 

Husted Harper's two-volume biography, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony, is published. February 13-19 the annual meeting of the NAWSA is held in Washington, DC, at which is celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the first Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York.
141. January 5, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery responds to Anthony's letter of December 30th by telling her that the Call should be done by now, she is enclosing a letter she has written to Colby about "the matter of her appointment," and that she is returning a letter which has news about Carrie Chapman Catt's travel plans.
142. January 5, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony writes that "I hope my shot of Tuesday night didn't kill you dead! I thought sure I'd get a letter today -- & some calls, too." She worries that she was "a growler" in her last letter and hopes Avery is not angry and refusing to write to her. 

She asks her to help her with her annual address like Avery did with a speech she gave in London fifteen years ago. She reminds her of the trip to Europe they took together. She admits that she feels "stripped" tonight but will feel better tomorrow when they finish going through the last scrapbook for the biography and her stenographer can concentrate on answering letters for a while.
143. January 7, 1898
Anthony received four copies of the Deitrich book Avery was helping to publish and thanks her for sending them. 

She discusses plans for the upcoming Washington state suffrage convention. There apparently have been no suffrage activities there and Anthony has received word that several Washington women were finally trying to organize suffrage events there. Anthony is happy for this activity because "we certainly cannot carry the state in the hollow of our hands when its condition is that of absolute inertia." 

The rest of the letter addresses the celebration in Washington DC.
144. January 10, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery writes that the program is getting quite filled up and she is "hoping that I shall not be brought to a condition of constant prayer that some of the folks may get sick and stay home in order to leave the condition somewhere within bounds." 

She comments on the issues Anthony has raised in recent letters.
145. January 11, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

In response to Anthony's apologetic letter of January 5th, Avery tells her that she never received the original "growl," so her feelings were never hurt. She asks Anthony several questions about the schedule of the convention.
146. January 13, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony thanks Avery for her recent letters and discusses entertainment and other matters relating to the convention.
147. January 13, 1898
Rochester, New York 

This letter primarily discusses where the hotel headquarters should be for the convention. O. G. Staples, the proprietor of the Riggs House, has written to Anthony upon hearing that the headquarters has been changed from the Riggs to the Regent Hotel. He is upset because it was his understanding that his hotel would be the headquarters and believes they are being unprofessional in moving. Anthony is now worried that the NAWSA leaders appear to be breaking their agreement. Anthony asks Avery to help her repair the situation. In addition to her letter, Anthony encloses a list of "questions that S.B.A. would like answered" about the hotel situation.
148. January 14, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony answers questions Avery had posed in her recent letters about the convention. She also asks if she would like to become "Chairman of National Com[mittee] on Libraries" and give her duties as Corresponding Secretary to Carrie Chapman Catt.
149. January 15, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony has received a letter from Catt in which she seems less than enthusiastic to be Corresponding Secretary. Anthony writes that she "would like to know what you two chief spokes in the Association -- if not the best of the entire rim of the wheel -- expect to become of the rest of the spokes rattling around without any fastening at either end. If I weren't made of sterner stuff than old iron sides himself -- I'm sure I would drop dumb!!" She asks if Avery has thought of some way to ensure that the work she wants to give up will still get done.
150. January 16, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony continues the hotel headquarters discussion. She is amazed that Avery has told Staples that they will not be staying there and believes that "all this comes from our being so far apart -- & not able to know what the other is thinking & doing."
151. January 17, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony sends Avery a note that O.G. Staples has written her expressing his displeasure at the Riggs House not being chosen for the headquarters. On the letter Anthony asks Avery if she has spoken to him since this letter and has decided definitely not to stay at the Riggs House.
152. January 18, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery attempts to straighten out the hotel problem. She tells Anthony that she is free to stay at the Riggs house if she wants, and writes that "Mr. Staples is a slippery customer...You yourself always spoke so of him in the old days when the Riggs House was run by Mr. Spofford. Is not your twenty-five years' friendship for him a rather sudden development?" 

Avery tells Anthony that she thinks it is a good idea to print up copies of the 1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments for the convention. She asks Anthony if she believes they should charge for them or give them away.
153. January 18, 1898
Rochester. New York 

Anthony encloses a letter from Lillie Devereux Blake and confides that "I wish she thought more about helping to make the Convention a grand success than about getting herself properly represented among the men in Congress." 

She adds, "Between the women who tell me I am nothing but a piece of putty in your hands, and those who feel that you are simply a little Jack-in-the-box to obey my bidding, I am a good deal puzzled to know just who I am and what I am worth." 

She asks Avery to handle Blake's letter.
154. January 19, 1898
Rochester, New York 

This letter includes a note from the wife of a former senator of Mississippi who speaks highly of a speaker they were planning to have for the convention. Anthony tells Avery that she has not yet seen the speaker's name on the program for the convention. 

The rest of the letter discusses speakers and other matters relating to the convention.
155. January 21, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony encloses a letter from someone who wants to sing at the convention. She does not think she is a good singer, and asks Avery to write to her and tell her they cannot accept her. "At the time of the celebration approaches I expect we shall be overwhelmed with offers of assistance from every quarter. I wish it might be from people whose names would bring prestige and whose artistic skill would add to our entertainment!!" 

She gives Avery advice for how to list the names of the speakers in the program, and discusses the speakers for the convention generally. 

She discusses the hotel question, and writes that "I really am getting to the point that I do not care." 

Anthony tells Avery her upcoming travel plans. 

Anthony thinks she should print "solid but cheap" copies of Volume I of The History of Woman Suffrage and sell them at the convention. In answer to Avery's question, she believes they should sell copies of the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments for five cents each. 

She asks Avery how they should organize tables to tell "picture tracts, papers, or, if anybody should wish to put them there, books?"
156. January 25, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery begins this long letter discussing Lillie Devereux Blake. She has resigned herself to the fact that "we will simply have to depend upon Miss Shaw who will have charge of one Hearing and myself at the keep Mrs. Blake in the background or at least not to put her up into the foreground as she wishes to be put." 

Avery responds to several issues Anthony has raised in recent letters.
157. January 25, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony asks Avery where they should print the copies of the Declaration of Sentiments and asks if she thinks that the profits of everything sold at the convention should go to the treasury of he NAWSA.
158. January 27, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony will be visiting Philadelphia soon and tells Avery her travel plans so they can meet. 

She believes that anyone selling newspapers, books, anything else at the convention should give a portion of the profits to the NAWSA and asks Avery to tell this to the people who will be selling things. 

She asks Avery to enforce rules on selling things during the convention. However, she admits that "I expect you will say 'Aunt Susan will be the first to step over the line.' I do not want any of my things, spoons, medallion or biography to be treated any different from everybody's else." 

She tells Avery which pioneering suffragists have told her they will come and which will not. 

She agrees with Avery that after the convention everyone will be too tired to have a business meeting, so she suggests having it earlier.
159. January 30, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery sends Anthony a list of the "pioneers" who have contacted her about coming to the convention.
160. February 1, 1898
Anthony sends Avery instructions for various events at the convention.
161. February 3, 1898
Avery tells Anthony she has made arrangements for several people to sell books and other items at the convention, as well as for the NAWSA to have a table to distribute supplies and literature. 

Avery also addresses the question of her position in NAWSA: "Dear Aunt Susan, I by no means forgot that I promised to remain in the Secretaryship (if elected) as long as you remained in the Presidency and wanted me there but the promise comes into direct conflict with the implied promise to do the best possible for my children, and since the two are in conflict in this case (owing to the money question) I must stand by the one which seems to be the more imperative duty. Your promise to see that my expenditures in suffrage work are reimbursed if I were to stay is lovely and kind but entirely impracticable."
162. March 2, 1898
This short note tells Anthony that Avery is enclosing papers that she believes she needs.
163. March 4, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony begins this letter discussing speakers for NAWSA's Autumn National Conference. She stresses the need for each speaker to be well-known enough to draw a crowd and for the speaker's subject to be inspiring. 

She tells Avery that it is her duty to ask each state suffrage organization when they are having their annual meeting and then pass this information on to Catt, Shaw, and Anthony so that they can attend them. 

Anthony tells Avery that she "hope[s] you are feeling well rested and feeling ready" to handle the recent attacks on suffrage that Anthony has heard about. She will be "glad when we have one...woman who has no other duty but answering all such fellows."
164. March 11, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery tells Anthony that one of the speakers they had discussed, Mrs. Fenwick Miller, is "not at all a speaker to inspire audiences; in fact,...there are very few of the English women who have that faculty, at least, in my judgment." She suggests other possible speakers for the conference. 

Avery does not know if it is really her duty to "urge the State Conventions to secure a National Officer and arrange their dates in such a way as to make it possible for a National Officer to take in a number of them," as Anthony suggested in her previous letter, but she tells her she will do it nonetheless. 

The rest of the letter discusses other issues Anthony had raised in her letter.
165. March 11, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony believes they should rent the Horticultural Hall for a bazaar they were planning. 

She discusses a Mrs. Campbell, who is working on the bazaar, and tells Avery that she does not agree with her "requirement" that they have a lottery at the bazaar. 

Anthony discuses an idea she had had to raise money for the bazaar: she believes they should offer each state suffrage organization a fraction of the profits of the bazaar "so that each auxiliary society would feel that in helping the National it was also helping itself." After discussing this plan at length, Anthony states that "I feel sure we have struck the sure thing now -- But my -- it is a big job for you to bear -- & get well executed." She suggests the first week in December as the date for the bazaar. 

Anthony writes at length about the new policy of paying NAWSA officials for their work and congratulates Avery for spearheading this effort.
166. March 14, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Several other women also agree to rent the Horticultural Hall, as Anthony suggested in her last letter, so Avery will make the arrangements for it. 

Avery reminds Anthony that she has not volunteered to take charge of the plans for the bazaar, but she assures her that she will do as much as she can for it. 

In regards to the idea of giving the states organizations as part of the bazaar profits, Avery tells Anthony that "you are the only one who has made this proposal and I scarcely think it would meet with general approval." 

Avery writes that the idea to have a lottery at the bazaar was not Campbell's, and Avery believes that they should write in the program that "no chancing will be allowed." 

Avery has set the date of the bazaar for December 5-10. 

She tells Anthony that she is "rather unsettled in my own mind on the subject of [the corresponding secretary's] salary...I am not particularly disturbed at being the first one in our ranks to have the salary, but neither am I entirely sure that I think it a wise thing."
167. March 14, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses what the Connecticut suffrage association has been working on and tells Avery that she should ask for a report from them on their activities. 

Anthony focuses on the question of what to call people who do publicity work for the NAWSA.
168. March 17, 1898
Avery answers Anthony's questions and responds to the concerns raised in her last letter.
169. March 20, 1898
Rochester, New York 

This letter continues the question of what publicity people, primarily Ida Husted Harper, should be called in the NAWSA minutes and on letterhead.
170. March 23, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery continues the discussion of what to call Harper. 

She also tells Anthony that she is inserting a clause in the lease for the bazaar that if a war breaks out the NAWSA will not have to pay for the hall because the bazaar will not be able to occur. 

As well, she encloses a letter from a woman who is apparently upset that her greeting is not going to be included in the minutes from the convention in February. She asks Anthony for her advice on this matter.
171. March 24, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that "Anna -- our Anna -- is here." She continues the discussion of the press bureau and titles associated with it.
172. March 31, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

This short note tells Anthony that Avery will "act upon your regard to Mrs. Stebbins' greeting [the woman mentioned in Anthony's letter of March 23.]" She also asks for a copy of Anthony's trial proceedings to be sent to a woman.
173. March 1898
This note on the back of a letter from Harriet Taylor Upton (treasurer of the NAWSA) tells Avery to keep a woman's name on the Congressional Committee (which Upton's letter had discussed).
174. March 1898
This note is also in the back of a letter from Upton. Anthony responds to the parts of Upton's letter that pertain to Avery and discusses the bazaar .
175. April 8, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that she definitely believes the bazaar should be in the Horticultural Hall. She congratulates her on a letter she has published in the "Woman's Journal" about the upcoming bazaar and tells Avery they are lucky "to have you as a sort of permanent fixture to look after the work." 

She and Carrie Chapman Catt have decided to have a conference on April 29 and 30 in Rochester and most of the letter is devoted to these plans. 

She also tells Avery she will be making the "New England sweep" with Carrie Chapman Catt and other suffragists in May. 

She tells her that Ida Husted Harper has "scolded" her because of the "ungrammatical reports of SBA's speeches published in the pamphlets gotten out by you and Mrs. Upton, as well as those published in the Journal and the Tribune...I want you whatever you report as to my saying, to cut out everything that is not properly phrased and I think the editor of our reports should always make sentences straight or else draw the blue pencil across them absolutely."
176. April 9, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery asks Anthony to appoint the Chairman of the Committee on Platforms as soon as possible. 

She asks Anthony again if she thinks the Horticultural Hall is the right place for the bazaar when the possibility of war is taken into account. 

She also asks her to "search out the right person to stand for suffrage" at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition.
177. April 11, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony votes for the Horticultural Hall for the bazaar regardless of whether or not there is a war. Anthony believes Ida Husted Harper should be Chairman of the Committee on Platforms, although she admits that she is not sure if she will accept the position or not. She discusses this issue at length. 

Anthony suggests someone to attend the Trans-Mississippi Exposition.
178. April 11, 1898
Avery tells Anthony that she wants to know if they should still rent the Horticultural Hall with the knowledge that the proprietor refuses to insert a clause in the lease that would free the NAWSA from paying for it if a war were to break out. Avery has sent out letters to the Business Committee asking their opinions on this matter because "I must have the Business Committee back me solidly if I am to make that lease under present possibilities." She asks Anthony to consider the question again with these facts in hand.
179. April 14, 1898
Avery has heard Anthony's opinion on the subject of the Horticultural Hall, and tells her she will go ahead and rent it. 

She encloses a letter to Ida Husted Harper asking her to be the Committee on Platforms Chairman. She tells Anthony that she wishes "you had asked Mrs. Harper before you asked me to put her on as it simply involves my writing to her and waiting for her reply." 

She asks Anthony to send her any information she has on the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, tells her that the minutes will be finished shortly, and that she will put Ida Husted Harper's name down as Chairman of the Press Committee.
180. April 17, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery that "our dear...old friend -- Robert Purnis is gone." 

Anthony and Ida Husted Harper are almost finished working on the biography. 

Ida Husted Harper accepted the position of Chairman of the Committee on Platforms, and Anthony reports that "she longs to be through with this book work so she can plunge into the Press Bureau work." 

She discusses upcoming conferences and the layout of the new NAWSA stationery.
181. April 22, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses upcoming conferences. 

She tells Avery that "it looks now as if there were no escape from the clash of arms, and of course, when so many families have the men of their households at the front, and are constantly fearing news of their death, it will be exceedingly hard to rouse them to work for woman's enfranchisement. There never has been a good time, a free time, for women to press their claims and I do not know as there ever will be, but it does seem as if there could not be a time in the future when the people would be so entirely engrossed in some other question as they, the next few months, are likely to be."
182. April 26, 1898
Somerton, Pennsylvania 

Avery responds to issues raised in Anthony's recent letters.
183. May 12, 1898
Rochester, New York 

In this postcard Anthony asks Avery to print a letter from Matilda Joslyn Gage in the NAWSA minutes then return the manuscript of the letter to Gage's daughters. The letter was the last thing written by Gage.
184. May 18, 1898
Somerton, Pennsylvania 

Avery tells Anthony that she returned Matilda Joselyn Gage's manuscript immediately after the March Convention.
185. May 27, 1898
Rochester, New York 

In response to her inquiry, Anthony tells Avery she has not answered a greeting she has received from Norway. 

She has arranged for Carrie Chapman Catt to address the Chautauqua Assembly Avery mentioned in a previous letter. 

Anthony asked Catt to "get up a celebration program and publish it in the [NAWSA] bulletin," but it seems she has not yet done so. She runs through the contents of recent bulletins and stresses the need for a notice about the local celebration to be in the next one. 

She gives her opinion on who to appoint for the "chairman of plan of work committee," and also gives Avery advice on the design of the letterhead for the national minutes.

She discusses the logistics of an upcoming conference in Iowa.
186. May 27, 1898
Rochester, New York 

This postcard continues to discuss the Chautauqua Assembly and the Iowa convention. Anthony tells Avery she has dictated a response to her recent letters that discuss these issues more in depth and she will send it as soon as possible.
187. June 8, 1898
Somerton, Pennsylvania 

Avery reminds Anthony that the Iowa convention has already been discussed in Washington and the issues she has raised in recent letters have already been settled. 

Avery gives Anthony an address for where to send the Norwegian greeting she is waiting to answer.
188. June 11, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony believes the NAWSA should "try to get our work more widely published in the English-speaking papers of the two continents" and discusses strategies for doing so. 

Ida Husted Harper and her daughter are with Anthony because the printer has told them that either they need to print the biography in three volumes or they need to cut 40,000 or 50,000 words from it. They are going to try to cut it down, because they believe three volumes would be too much. 

The Omaha, Iowa convention is discussed at length. 

Anthony writes that she thinks a convention they were planning to hold in Grand Rapids this spring must be moved. In the spring, "the money from last year's crops and enterprises has been pretty well expended...and farmers have spent their last dollar and are putting in their crops, and I don't believe that with our convention in the Spring we should secure anything like the number of delegates from the different States that we could in the winter." 

Anthony gives her opinions on matters relating to different state amendment campaigns.
189. June 13, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery responds to Anthony's ideas on the Omaha conference, and tells her that there should be someone to handle foreign correspondence.
190. June 15, 1898
Rochester, New York 

In this postcard Anthony gives Avery an address she had asked for.
191. June 20, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery it is very hot in Rochester and asks her if she will visit her when Anthony and Harper finish with the biography work in two weeks. She discusses places they could visit if she came and tells her she and her sister Mary could " amusing the children -- and give you a rest -- and a change." She asks Avery make sure she does not "allow yourself to be worn out with the Phila. heat and worry the coming two months -- I wish I had a sea-shore house -- I wouldn't take no for an answer to your coming to me instantly." 

In a footnote she tells her that the biography is "well done" and she wishes all the NAWSA leaders could "conspire to bring our...heads together so we could talk over things."
192. July 3, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony discusses several plans she has to meet with NAWSA leaders, including Carrie Chapman Catt and Avery. 

She tells Avery that she is "immersed with the terrible butchery that is going on -- Niece Maude's there at the front -- I think of the dear girl -- what will she do when the fearful word comes -- as it looks like it must -- not only to her but thousands of others."
193. September 9, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony asks Avery to meet her in Portland, Maine this coming Monday, as "it would be just a nice outing for you, and would give us a chance to have a talk over business matters too."
194. September 16, 1898
Portland, Maine 

Anthony discusses her trip so far and tells Avery she wishes she were there with her. 

She discusses the dates for the Grand Rapids convention mentioned in her letter of June 11, 1898.
195. October 7, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery writes of plans she is making for the Omaha, Iowa convention. It does not appear that enough cabinet members will be able to attend to make a quorum for a business meeting, so she tells Anthony it might be a better idea to try to meet up at a later date.
196. October 10, 1898
Anthony believes the convention in Iowa will not be a success if "all the other affiliated societies' delegates flunk as have ours...Somehow our forces seem weakened almost to paralysis."
197. October 12, 1898
Anthony tries to convince Avery to go to the Omaha, Iowa convention.
198. October 15, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery tells Anthony she is "very sorry you feel so disappointed about more of us not going to the Council meeting at Omaha. You are too modest to realize that the probability is that most of the audiences at the public sessions would ten times rather hear you and Miss Shaw than anybody else that we could give them, so any of the rest of us dropping out from the public program would make but little difference." 

Avery tells Anthony that although she agreed to work on the conference, she is "very sure that I was careful not to make any promise in connection with going to Omaha." As well, she reminds Anthony that she has been the only one to take responsibility for setting up the meeting and, because Anthony did not respond to her letters about the matter until recently, she took it upon herself to make the decision to abandon the meeting. 

Her primary responsibility right now is to take care of her children and to do the work connected with her Corresponding Secretary position, and she tells Anthony that this falls outside of these duties and "when I have distinctly stated...that I cannot be responsible for any assistance, I do not feel that it is fair for anyone to think that I am failing in a matter of duty or friendship."
199. November 29, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery asks Anthony questions she has about a convention she is planning.
200. December 2, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony reminds Avery that today is "the 105th anniversary of our dear mother -- and the 39th anniversary of the hanging of...John Brown." 

She answers she questions Avery posed in her letter of November 29 and discusses the convention at length. 

Anthony gives a report on the Omaha convention and responds to recent letters from Avery.
201. December 5, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony plans the upcoming convention.
202. December 17, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony tells Avery of the plans she has been making for the convention. 

She discusses the need for suffrage bills in Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico, and tells Avery that she thinks it is more important, however, that they focus on working with "Congress to prevent the word 'male' from going into the constitutions of the newly-acquired Territories in the Antilles and East Indies than to be fighting to get it out of those of the states where it already is." 

She asks Avery to write to Congress to protest Hawaii granting suffrage only to male citizens. 

She wishes her a merry Christmas, and tells her that her gift to Avery will be a copy of the newly-printed biography, although it might be late because of snow blockades.
203. December 20, 1898
Rochester, New York 

Anthony thanks Avery for her Christmas gifts to her and her sister. 

She tells Avery what she has been planning for the convention. 

Ida Husted Harper is taking over press work, and Anthony tells Avery that in order for her to do this they must find someone to take charge of the national headquarters. Anthony gives her ideas for this.
204. December 29, 1898
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Avery acknowledges receipt of Anthony's recent letters and tells her she is writing to several NAWSA leaders urging them to come to a business meeting. 

Historical Background: 1899 

Anthony leads the US delegation to the International Council of Women in London. She focuses attention on selecting a leader to succeed her as president of NAWSA.
205. January 28, 1899
Rochester, New York 

Anthony responds to Avery's recent letters and discusses logistics for the upcoming convention. 

Historical Background: 1900 

Anthony resigns as president of NAWSA but remains active in the organization. Carrie Chapman Catt is elected NAWSA president with Anthony's support. Anthony is instrumental in securing the admission of women to the University of Rochester. Her youngest sibling, Jacob Merritt Anthony, dies unexpectedly.
206. June 5, 1900
Anthony asks Avery if she will be at home for the Republican Convention, and asks her to attend a meeting she, Carrie Chapman Catt, and other suffragists are having at the Convention. 

A conference and a bazaar are also discussed, and Anthony reiterates her desire to see Avery in order to discuss issues with her in person.
207. November 9, 1900
Anthony confides to Avery that "yesterday -- I felt so badly I would have said 'no' most emphatically -- but today -- I feel better -- and it looks as if I might go to New York." She tells Avery that she does not feel like herself and asks her when she must know whether or not she will go to New York. She asks if she can let her know in one week. She writes that 'I wish you were here to help me -- you know your promise -- 'not to let me go before the public after I wasn't myself.' You remember." 

Historical Background: 1901-1904 

1901: Anthony spends months recovering from a stroke suffered in 1900. Works on compiling and completing volume 4 of the History of Woman Suffrage with Ida Husted Harper. 

1902: Makes final appearance before the Senate Select Committee on Woman Suffrage. Grieves for Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who dies at the age of 87. Volume 4 of theHistory of Woman Suffrage is published. 

1903: Distributes hundreds of volumes of the History of Woman Suffrage to public schools, colleges and libraries. Attends the NAWSA convention in New Orleans. 

1904: Travels to Europe to attend the International Council of Women and the first convention of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance in Berlin. Rushes to Leavenworth, Kansas, for final visit with her dying brother, D.R. Anthony. Persuades Anna Howard Shaw to become president of NAWSA when Chapman Catt steps down.
208. December 7, 1904
Avery is in Switzerland. Anthony tells Avery she sent her fifty dollars for her to get opera glasses and buy Christmas gifts. She tells her she is sending a letter Avery has written to several people. Anthony is happy that she has been attending meetings with other suffragists and that she likes those she has met. She gives Avery news of what is happening in the States. 

Note: there are several undated, seemingly unrelated notes in the collection at this point that I have not chosen to annotate because it would be too confusing to annotate letters that refer to specific events out of their historical context. 


Lagusta Yearwood (UR, class of 2000) 
English 394 
Fall 1999 - Spring 2000 
Lagusta Yearwood views the 1901 portrait of Susan B. Anthony by Sarah James Eddy. 
The painting is on loan to the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections from the Smithsonian Institution