Florence, Franklin

Date range: 1962-1972
Location: D.167
Size: 8 boxes, 1 package, 1 tube


Franklin Delano Roosevelt Florence came to Rochester, NY, from the segregated south as a young preacher in 1959. He was born August 9, 1934 in Miami Florida to Hozel and Bertha Florence. At age 16, Florence was drawn to the ministry by the influential Church of Christ evangelist Marshall Keeble. Florence attended Nashville Christian Institute from 1948-1952, a black elementary and secondary school affiliated with the Church of Christ where he met Mary, his future wife. He attended Pepperdine College in Los Angeles (also affiliated with the Church of Christ) but dropped out after 2 years. He returned to Florida and was ordained a minister in West Palm Beach where he became the pastor of the 18th Street Church of Christ. At the age of 25, Florence was recruited to become the pastor of the Reynolds Street Church of Christ in Rochester, NY, where he moved with his wife and children.

During the 1960s Florence emerged as a prominant civil rights leader and advocate of black power. In the early '60s Florence developed a friendship with Malcolm X who spoke in Rochester shortly before his assassination. In response to the Rochester race riots of July 1964, The Board of Urban Ministry (BUM) a group of local Protestant clergy, began encouraging black religious leaders to organize their community. The ministers originally invited the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to come to Rochester to initiate a campaign. After sending delegates to Rochester to appraise the situation the SCLC declined the invitation but recommended that the Board turn to the Chicago based Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) and its "radical" leader Saul Alinsky.

The bid to bring Alinsky to Rochester was met with fierce opposition by many. In the midst of the controversy Alinsky sent two of his associates, Ed Chambers and Ron Jones, to the Flower City to begin to organize the Black community. Florence was chosen to head the steering committee of the newly formed community based black activist organization that was given the name FIGHT; an acronym for Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today (the "I" was changed in 1967 to stand for "Independence"). For Alinsky, it was paramount that communities organize themselves. He remained in the background in the role of consultant and white liberals interested in the civil rights movement in Rochester were asked to step aside and allow blacks to speak for themselves. These white activists formed Friends of FIGHT (later to become Metro Act) which developed alongside FIGHT as a separate organization. Florence was formally elected president of FIGHT at the first annual FIGHT convention in June 1965. He held the presidency from 1965-1967 and again in 1968.

Rochester's urban problems were typical of many northern cities which experienced a rapid immigration of blacks from the south between 1950 and 1970. As white residents and businesses moved to the suburbs, inner city blacks faced high unemployment, poor housing and substandard schools. FIGHT's mission was to address this defacto segregation and the social problems that resulted from it. FIGHT pledged to train unskilled blacks and move them into the prosperous Rochester economy, to develop and renew urban neighborhoods, to create quality education and, perhaps most importantly, to develop political activism and community participation amongst poor urban blacks. For example, FIGHT insisted that there be greater black representation in other anti-poverty agencies like the city controlled Action for a Better Community (ABC). While these platforms put Florence and his organization into the Rochester news it wasn't until FIGHT took on Rochester's largest employer, the Eastman Kodak Company, in 1966 that Florence and his organization were brought into the national limelight.

As part of FIGHT's ongoing effort to expand employment opportunities for urban blacks, the organization demanded that Kodak implement a job training program and hire 500-600 newly trained black Rochester residents as part of their workforce. These demands triggered a two year controversy between FIGHT and Kodak. The FIGHT campaign was a significant attempt to challenge rooted patterns of institutional and economic discrimination in the north, during a critical period of transition and reassessment for 'the movement' nationally. The FIGHT crusade against Kodak represented an attempt to expand the notion of civil rights in the wake of national legislation ending dejure segregation in 1964 and '65. The campaign is well documented in these papers. Kodak and FIGHT eventually reached an agreement in the summer of 1967 and in the interim, Rochester Jobs Incorporated (RJI) was formed with Florence as vice-president. RJI, formed by a group of interdenominational clergymen in March 1967, aimed to connect unskilled workers with training and jobs. It was intended to diffuse the FIGHT-Kodak controversy. While RJI did not do this, the organization was successful in placing over 700 people in jobs within 8 months of its creation.

While Florence lost the presidency of FIGHT in 1969 to Bernard Gifford, the controversial social and political activist remained a force to be reckoned with in Rochester. Along with his continued participation in FIGHT, Florence was involved with the Rochester anti-poverty agency ABC and The Rochester Northeast Development Corporation (RNED). His papers chronicle these and other political endeavors. The collection is arranged thematically, beginning with Florence's papers from the Reynolds Street Church of Christ. Following these are documents from FIGHT, primarily those of the early years when Florence was in power. Documents from the conventions and steering meetings as well as the specific FIGHT campaigns are included. Also included are Florence's records of FIGHTON the Black owned and operated metal stamping plant that came about through the planning of FIGHT, Xerox, and the Rochester Business Opportunities Corporation (RBOC).

Following Florence's FIGHT papers are materials concerning ABC, incorporated in December, 1964 to effectuate the Federal Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. A large portion of the agency's funding came from the federal Office of Economic Opportunity which allocated money through the state. During its early years, Florence and FIGHT blasted ABC on the grounds that it failed to represent Rochester's poorest citizens. By 1966, Minister Florence was on the Board of Directors as well as participating in two of ABC's committees. Over the years, FIGHT and ABC would come to work together on various campaigns.

Following Minister Florence's papers concerning ABC are papers from RJI. Readers will find references in this section to the Concentrated Employment Program, (CEP), ABC, and Operation Mainstream. CEP was a federally funded program sponsered by RJI. The New Careers Program, a component of CEP was subcontracted to ABC. CEP was the parent organization for Operation Mainstream which provided in part, the funding for FIGHTON.

The last major section of the collection are papers concerned with the Model Cities Program and the Rochester Northeast Development Corporation (RNED). The Model Cities Program was a federally funded operation to revive selected neighborhoods in various US cities. In 1968 Rochester had three proposed Model Cities projects. FIGHT announced it would block the Model Cities program unless it had control of the planning process. FIGHT elected a Model Cities Board that they claimed represented the poor in the three city wards targeted by the program.

RNED arose out of the desire for meaningful citizen participation in the Model Cities Program. In order to ensure an equal partnership between the City of Rochester and the Model Neighborhood Council, 36 voting members of the council formed RNED as an advocacy group for the council. RNED was incorporated August 6, 1969. Minister Florence became its executive director the following year. As well as addressing housing issues, RNED became involved in various education campaigns including the federally funded Talent Search program.

Following the RNED documents are papers from UNITED Incorporated, a consulting firm set up by Minister Florence and Ron Jones, one of Alinsky's original organizers in Rochester and a man active in RNED as well.

In 1972 Florence ran for State Assembly for the Liberal Party. There is a small folder on this unsuccessful endeavor.

Minister Florence's papers contain a large number of publications from various organizations around the country as well as articles from magazines and journals reflecting his interest and involvement in race relations, poverty, urban development and other social justice issues. These are arranged thematically with folders concerning race relations and civil rights followed by specific issues such as the war in Vietnam and the uprising at Attica State Prison. Florence was active on the Observer Committee as a negotiater following the Attica uprising. He was said to have delivered one of his most effective speeches while being held with other observers in the compound.

The collection is divided into two parts: church and social activism. This, however, is a somewhat artificial division. Clearly, Florence and other Rochester Ministers saw their role as clergymen as requiring them to be involved in social justice issues. Florence's Reynolds Street congregation became divided over Florence's outspoken and controversial role in FIGHT and ousted him as their pastor in 1970. Florence and several dozen followers went on to establish the Central Church of Christ (on Plymouth Avenue since 1974) where he is still the minister today (1998).

The user of the collection will find a scattering of sermons, speeches, press releases and personal correspondence written by Minister Florence. The majority of the collection, however, consists of official agency correspondence, budgets, and proposals. Much of the material has been photocopied due to water and mold damage. Originals have been kept wherever possible. Researchers interested in the early days of FIGHT should also consult the collection of papers on the Rochester Race Riots (D.185).

Gift of Minister Franklin D. Florence, 1980







REYNOLDS STREET CHURCH OF CHRIST, Boxes 1-2 Box 1a (34 folders)

  1. Programs and Newsletters 1968-1969
  2. Church By-Laws
  3. Leadership Training


Membership Committee: folders 4-10




  1. Committee Members and Training 1966-1969
  2. Senior Citizens Sunday-August 10, 1969
  3. Membership and Visitation Lists, 1959-1972 ( see also Box 8, folder 10)
  4. New Member Packet
  5. Personal/Evangelistic Work
  6. Correspondence re removal of membership of Edgar D. Brown
  7. Correspondence re problems with Northside Church of Christ
  8. Efficiency Committee
  9. Worship Committee


Box 1b

Building and Grounds Committee: folders 13-21






  1. Building and Grounds Committee
  2. Correspondence with other Churches re Building Fund
  3. Correspondence with Paden Company re new building plans and contract
  4. Purchase orders for building and subcontract agreements
  5. Materials purchased for building: receipts 1964-1965
  6. Materials purchased for building: receipts 1964-1965
  7. Records of building cost
  8. Building Fund Correspondence
  9. Building Committee for Peace Memorial Free Methodist Church, Chili NY


Education: folders 22-29






  1. Teacher Training: meetings and information
  2. Training Class for Young Men
  3. Sunday School/ Youth Program
  4. Adult Bible Study


Box 1c






  1. Parent Education and the Family Program
  2. Lessons: Teens and Adults
  3. Bible School Records 1958-1961
  4. Vacation Bible School sign-up (undated)


Sermons: folders 30-34






  1. Sermon for Baccalaureate Service, Class of 1961, N.C.I. (Nashville Christian Institute?)
  2. Batsell Baxter Radio Sermons, Church of Christ, Nashville Tenn. 1953-1954
  3. ?
  4. Sermons (not written by Franklin Florence)
  5. Notes and Sermons: Franklin Florence


Box 2a (29 folders)






  1. Church Bulletins
  2. Announcements


Finance: folders 3-14






  1. Financial Committee
  2. Financial Reports and Budget Proposals 1966-1969
  3. Bank Statements and Cancelled Checks
  4. Bank Statements and Cancelled Checks
  5. Records of Weekly Offerings 1964
  6. Receipts, bills, past due notices: 1964-1969
  7. The Bond Program


Box 2b






  1. Correspondence and records re Bond Fund w/ Nashville Securities Incorporated
  2. Correspondence and records re Bond Fund w/ National Plan and General Plan, Fort Worth TX
  3. Correspondence and records re Bond Fund w/ Leake, Henry, Golden, Burrow & Potts
  4. Payroll: Paden Company/Reynolds Street Church of Christ 1962-65 (incomplete)
  5. Miscellaneous financial
  6. Central Ladies Class (Central Church of Christ)
  7. Chorus
  8. Miscellaneous meetings and reports
  9. Bulletins and Publications from other Churches of Christ
  10. Bulletins and Publications from other Churches of Christ
  11. Religious Publications and materials from other churches (other denominations)


Box 2c






  1. Religious publications used for Worship Planning
  2. Religious Catalogues
  3. Fall Revival 1969
  4. Miscellaneous Correspondence 1957-1972
  5. Literature and notes on Roman Catholicism, 1960
  6. Radio and Newspaper Advertising
  7. Administrative documents from other Churches
  8. Miscellaneous photographs
  9. Miscellaneous



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ACTION - Boxes 3-8 Box 3a (43 folders)

Rochester Area Churches

  1. Statements on 1964 Rochester Racial Riots, Council of Churches and Canon St. Julian Simpkins
  2. Race and the Church
  3. Rochester Area Minister's Conference
  4. Board for Urban Ministry (a part of the Rochester Area Council of Churches)
  5. Rochester Area Council of Churches
  6. Catholic Interracial Council/ Dioces and Bishop's Task Force/ U.S. Catholic Conference
  7. Presbyterian Interracial Council
  8. 'Development of a Protestant Work Ethic', correspondence to Franklin Florence
  9. Miscellaneous Correspondence
  10. Black Churches of Rochester
  11. Rochester Churches miscellaneous


Box 3b FIGHT




  1. Saul Alinsky and the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF)
  2. NBC Newscast 1967: McGee, Alinsky, Florence, Finks, Sheen, Hunt
  3. 1st FIGHT Convention/ Constitution/ Delegates Caucus/ Member Groups 1965
  4. 2nd FIGHT Convention, 1966
  5. 3rd FIGHT Convention, 1967
  6. 1968 Delegates Council
  7. 5th FIGHT Convention 1969
  8. FIGHT Conventions/ Constitution, 1970-1971
  9. FIGHT Policies and Issues
  10. FIGHT Committees
  11. 'The FIGHTER', 2 publications: February 1967 and tribute to Malcolm X
  12. FIGHT Steering, 1965
  13. FIGHT Steering, 1966-1968
  14. FIGHT Steering, 1969
  15. FIGHT Steering, undated
  16. Administration
  17. Correspondence and Press Statements re: Personnel


Box 3c FIGHT- Eastman Kodak Company Dispute - folders 29-33a






  1. FIGHT - Kodak Dispute, 1966
  2. FIGHT - Kodak Dispute, 1967
  3. FIGHT's 'Focus on Flemington' April 1967
  4. Articles/ Newspaper Clippings re FIGHT and Kodak
  5. FIGHT - Kodak Dispute, 1968 and undated
    1. "Kodak, FIGHT, and the Definition of Civil Rights in Rochester, NY: 1966-67" by R. Wadhwani. Published in The Historian, Fall 1997.


FIGHT- Jobs and Job Training - folders 34-43






  1. FIGHT JOBS, Program Proposal 1968
  2. FIGHT: Job Training
  3. Affirmative Action Program for the Rochester Area
  4. Job Program with Sibleys, Star Market and A&P
  5. Civil Service Job Training Program
  6. Government Programs and Funding
  7. Inner City Welding - Ritter Pfaundler
  8. Self Determination Symposium December 12, 1968
  9. Jobs and Job Training Miscellaneous
  10. Operation Mainstream (see also CEP, folders 38 and 39)


Box 4a (42 folders)




FIGHTON - folders 1-10

  1. FIGHTON Proposal "Operation Mainstream": Joint Study, FIGHT and Xerox
  2. FIGHTON Proposal "Operation Mainstream": Joint Study, FIGHT and Xerox, 2nd copy
  3. FIGHTON By-laws and Overview
  4. FIGHTON Term Loan Agreement
  5. Agreement with Xerox
  6. Meetings of Board of Directors
  7. Interoffice Memorandum
  8. Financial Statements
  9. "FIGHTON Today: Beginning of the Beginning"
  10. FIGHTON miscellaneous
  11. Xerox Training Proposal "Step Up"
  12. "Step-Up" and Correspondence with Xerox


Box 4b FIGHT Education - folders 13-18




  1. FIGHT Education
  2. Fight and Rochester City School District
  3. Head Start Program
  4. Reports and Articles on Education
  5. Speaking Invitations/ meetings/ reports
  6. FIGHT Education miscellaneous


FIGHT Urban Development and Housing - folders 19-29






  1. FIGHT Urban Renewal
  2. State Publication: "Survey Moderate-Income and Low-Rent Housing Need and Demand Rochester NY" October, 1962
  3. Third Ward Urban Renewal Project
  4. "Third Ward Development Plan": FIGHT Publication


Box 4c






  1. Eleventh Ward Urban Renewal
  2. High Falls Area Urban Renewal
  3. FIGHT Square
  4. FIGHT Housing miscellaneous
  5. Local Housing information from other organizations
  6. Proposal for "We, Ourselves": Community Action Organization of Erie County Incorporated, September, 1966
    1. Report on Resident Participation in Poverty Program: Correspondence from James Cunningham 1966
  7. Reading materials on Urban Renewal, Poverty, Housing


FIGHT Financial - folders 30-33






  1. Charities Registration Form
  2. Project Budget - Operation Mainstream
  3. Receipts, creditor's notes etc.
  4. FIGHT Financial miscellaneous


Box 5a (50 folders)






  1. FIGHT media contacts
  2. State Supreme Court Decision re 1970 FIGHT election
  3. Speech to BUILD Organization in Buffalo, NY by Florence (1967?)
  4. Write ups on FIGHT
  5. FIGHT Press Releases Miscellaneous


FIGHT Correspondence - folders 6-15






  1. Ron Jones file (IAF consultant sent to Rochester by Alinsky)
  2. 1964-1965
  3. 1966
  4. 1967
  5. 1968
  6. 1969
  7. 1970-1971 (includes note from Mrs. Harper Sibley)
  8. 1972
  9. undated
  10. Telegrams (includes telegram from Nelson Rockefeller)



  1. FIGHT Miscellaneous
  2. Photocopied Newspaper Clippings on FIGHT and FIGHT related issues
  3. Friends of FIGHT


Box 5b Action for a Better Community (ABC) - folders 19-34




  1. ABC Constitution and Structure
  2. Correspondence with NY State Office of Economic Development (OEO)
  3. ABC Board of Directors
  4. Financial Reports and Funding Information
  5. US Deptartment of Labor Invoices
  6. Personnel
  7. Market Research Project - ABC and Urban League of Rochester
  8. Media Representation and Proposals to the Media
  9. FIGHT Proposition re ABC
  10. ABC elections
  11. Summer Program Report
  12. Summer Youth Opportunities
  13. Neighborhood Service Information Centers (NSIC)
  14. NSIC Health Care
  15. New Careers Program (see also CEP)
    1. Planned Variations Coalition
  16. ABC miscellaneous


Box 5c Rochester Jobs Incorporated (RJI) folders 35-41






  1. Formation of RJI
  2. By-laws, Working Principles
  3. Meetings of the Board of Directors
  4. Concentrated Employment Program (CEP) - (see also Operation Mainstream and ABC)
  5. CEP Contractors Invoices
  6. RJI miscellaneous
  7. Training Resources Incorporated (TRI) (became RJI)



  1. Rochester Business Opportunities Corporation (RBOC)


Model Cities Incorporated - folders 43-50




  1. Model Cities and Citizen Participation - SCLC and FIGHT Grievances
  2. FIGHT Proposal for Economic Development of Model Cities Neighborhood
  3. Model Cities Council Administration, Jeffrey Swain 1971 correspondence
  4. HUD Planning Requirements
  5. Model Neighborhood Area
  6. Model Neighborhood Program - Baden Street Settlement House
  7. Montgomery Neighborhood Center
  8. Model Cities miscellaneous


Box 6a ( 51 folders)

Rochester Northeast Development of Model Cities Incorporated (RNED) - folders 1-51 through box 7 - folders 1-8






  1. RNED Overview, Structure, By-laws
  2. Housing
  3. Proposed Housing Program with HWD Service Corporation
  4. Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  5. Land Lots Available after August, 1971 due to Foreclosure
  6. Tot Lot Evaluations
  7. Citizen Participation Project
  8. Training Agreement: RNED and Model Cities
  9. Grant Money
  10. UTAP signed petitions
  11. Security Guard Recruitment Program
  12. RNED Board Meetings
  13. Interoffice Memos
  14. Administration
  15. Mr. S.S. Huja (RNED Executive Director) correspondence
  16. Correspondence


Box 6b RNED Education






  1. "Application Information and Program Manual: Talent Search, Upward Bound, Special Services" US Department of Health, Education and Welfare
  2. Talent Search: Overview/ Proposals
  3. Talent Search Advisory Council
  4. Talent Search Annual Report June 30, 1971
  5. Annual Report 1970-1971: Miami Dade Junior College Talent Search and University of New Hampshire Talent earch Information
  6. Paperwork from other cities' Talent Search programs
  7. Student Lists: RNED Talent Search Program
  8. Educational Opportunities Program (EOP)
  9. Counselor Aide Program
  10. Upward Bound Program
  11. Learning Now Academy - Summer Program 1971
  12. Learning Now Academy - Youth Opportunity Projects
  13. Street Academy
  14. Right to Read Program
  15. College Orientation Seminars
  16. Paperwork for US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education
  17. Education Committee/ Parent Committee
  18. Parent Association
  19. Evaluations and Statistics re Education Programs
  20. Informations from the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology


Box 6c






  1. Information from other Universities/ "Black Studies" Programs
  2. Consolidation: Talent Search, Upward Bound, Special Services, EOP
  3. RNED Education: Office Memos
  4. Staff Meetings
  5. Personnel


Correspondence with Staff Members:






  1. James Winston
  2. James Cantrell
  3. Rowena Monts
  4. Ned Adams
  5. Hubert Smith
  6. Mary Farrar
  7. Planning Research Associates (P/RA)
  8. P/RA Financial Dispute
  9. Correspondence with Accountants
  10. Grants/ Finances


Box 7a ( 37 folders)







  1. RNED Education miscellaneous


RNED Financial - folders 2-8






  1. Financial Statements 1970-1971
  2. Pre-Christmas Ball
  3. Receipts/ Bills
  4. Bank Notices
  5. Expenditure Authorization Forms 1971-1972
  6. Disbursements
  7. Miscellaneous Financial


UNITED Inc. - folders 9-13






  1. Purpose/ Overview
  2. Client: Kentucky Fried Chicken
  3. Client: Black Congressional Caucus
  4. Work Folder and Budget
  5. Funding


Elections - folders 14-15






  1. "Operation Breakthrough": Florence's bid for State Assembly 131st District, 1972
  2. Miscellaneous City Elections


Racial Issues - folders 16-25






  1. Florence on racial issues
  2. "Race Relations '67: Where do we Stand?" Rochester Times Union Publication
  3. SNCC literature (see also Vietnam)
  4. SCLC literature
  5. Black Panther literature
  6. 1966 National Conference on Black Power
  7. National Black Political Convention - Gary, Indiana 1972


Box 7b






  1. Articles on Race and Civil Rights
  2. Articles on Race and Civil Rights
  3. Miscellaneous information and publications on Racial Issues



  1. Urban League of Rochester
  2. National Urban League
  3. Vietnam (Voters for Peace, SNCC and others)
  4. Attica
  5. Welfare Reform
  6. "The Meaning of Rochester NY" - author and date unknown
  7. Petition to deny relicensing of WOKR
  8. Charitable Foundations: Rules for collection of contributions
  9. Community Police Evaluation Program
  10. Neighborhood Health Council
  11. Miscellaneous Helth Care
  12. Information on Disabilities


Box 8a (9 folders plus book and audio tape)




  1. Magazines plus a listing of magazines, books and newspapers too damaged to keep
  2. Newspaper Clippings 1964-1968
    • Killens, John Oliver. "Explanation of the ‘Black Psyche.'" The New York Times Magazine. 7 June 1964. 3 pp.
    • "Shriver Proposes School Changes." Democrat and Chronicle. 20 November 1966.1 p.
    • "Editorial: Segregation, Solomon." Democrat and Chronicle. 28 December 1966.1 p.
    • "Rochester: A City in Torment Hunts in Vain for Race Harmony." Miami Herald. 25 April 1967. 1 p.
    • "Dr. Cooper: The Ghetto's Great Need is a Sense of Community." The Brighton-Pittsford Post.  1 February 1968. 2 pp.
    • "US Jury Indicts 16 In Chicago Rioting." Publication unknown. 21 March 1968. 1 p.
    • "Former FIGHT president Florence to speak in Poplar Ridge Sunday." The Citizens-Advertiser. 2 May 1968. 1 p.
    • Boller, Charles. "Interfaith Body OKs Training." Democrat and Chronicle. 18 October 1968. 1 p.
    • "Advertisement: Rochester: Time for Thanks." Publication unknown.  20 November 1968. 1 p.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "FIGHT Raps Reading Test in Inner City." Democrat and Chronicle. 14 December 1968. 1 p.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "Push Is on for Inner-City School Control." Democrat and Chronicle. 17 December 1968. 1 p.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "'Third R' Trips Third Graders." Democrat and Chronicle. 18 December 1968. 1 p.
  3. Newspaper Clippings 1969

    Colgate Rochester Divinity School Occupation

    • McLoughlin, John. "Black Students Seize Divinity School." Democrat and Chronicle. 3 March 1969.  2 pp.
    • Tammeus, William D. "Black Seminarians Contacting Groups." [Times-Union]. 1969.  1 p.
    • Ashworth, William. "A Brief Look Inside ‘Fortress.'" Democrat and Chronicle. 6 March 1969.  2 pp.
    • Tammeus, William D. "Protesters, School Deadlocked." Times-Union. 7 March 1969. 1 p.
    • Nauer, Mike. "Blacks Keep Doors Barred." Democrat and Chronicle. 9 March 1969.  2 pp.
    • Tammeus, William D. "Seminary Meeting ‘Fruitless.'" Times-Union. 12 March 1969. 1 p.
    • Lovely, Dan. "CRDS Students Polled—Reopen School or Not?" Democrat and Chronicle. 12 March 1969.  1 p.
    • "Divinity School Talks Still Go On." Democrat and Chronicle. 16 March 1969.  1 p.
    • "Sit-In at Seminary To End Thursday." Times-Union. 18 March 1969. 1 p.
    • Lovely, Dan. "Seminarians To End Sit-in." Democrat and Chronicle. 19 March 1969.  1 p.
    • Lovely, Dan. "Colgate Dilemma: ‘Quicksand.'" Democrat and Chronicle. 19 March 1969.  1 p.
    • Lovely, Dan. "Divinity School Woos Mrs. King." Democrat and Chronicle. 19 March 1969.  2 pp.
    • Tammeus, William D. "12 Blacks Named For Trustees at Colgate-Bexley." Times-Union. 30 March 1969.  1 p.

  4. UR BSU Occupation of the Frederick Douglass Building
    • Williams, Jack. "Blacks U.R. Aide Huddle." [Times-Union]. [March 1969]. 1 p.
    • Wiliams, Jack. "Whites Hold UR ‘Rap-In.'" Times-Union. 5 March 1969. 1 p.
    • "Reply Unacceptable' Blacks Inform UR." Times-Union. 7 March 1969. 1 p.
    • "Black Students Union Ends Takeover at UR." Times-Union. 10 March 1969. Partial. 1 p.
    • Wiliams, Jack. "Sit-In Over, Issues Stay Alive at UR." Times-Union. 11 March 1969. 2 pp.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "UR Tells Efforts: Black Personnel Hard to Find." Democrat and Chronicle. 18 March 1969.

    Rev P. David Finks
    • Finks, David P., Reverend. "Church and the City: The Decentralization Issue."  Courier-Journal. 28 February 1969. 2 newspaper clippings. 1 p each.
    • Finks, David P., Reverend. "Church and the City: FIGHT's Positive Record Overlooked."  Courier-Journal. 4 April 1969. 1 p.
    • Finks, David P., Reverend.  "Letter to the Editor: Criticizes Newspapers on Racial Issues." Times-Union. 30 April 1969. 1 p.

    • Tammeus, William D. "New Fighton Plant Celebrates ‘History in Making' Start." Times-Union. 28 January 1969. 1 p.
    • O'Brien, Bill. "FIGHTON Called Another Step." Democrat and Chronicle. 29 January 1969. 2 p.
    • "Fighton Factory Praised." Times-Union. 1 February 1969. 2 duplicate clippings. 2 pp.
    • "A ‘Fight' Becomes Business." The New York Times.  9 February 1969. 1 p.

    FIGHT and Education
    • "FIGHT Attacks Busing." Democrat and Chronicle. 11 December 1968. 1 p.
    • "Editorial: Decision of Parents Key to Busing." Democrat and Chronicle. 8 January 1969. 1 p.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "Florence Challenges on Schools." Democrat and Chronicle. 11 February 1969.  2 original clippings. 2 pp.
    • Power, Mike. "FIGHT Calls Schools of Inner City ‘Worst'." Democrat and Chronicle. 28 February 1969.  1 p.
    •  "FIGHT Disputes Violence Claims." Democrat and Chronicle. 19 March 1969.  2 original clippings. 2 pp.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "Shouts Block School Meet." Democrat and Chronicle. 21 March 1969. 1 p.
    • Hooper , Ken. "FIGHT Disrupts, Halts School Board Meeting." Times-Union.  21 March 1969. 1 p.
    • "School Board to Reconvene, Meeting Halted by FIGHT."  Democrat and Chronicle. 22 March 1969. 1 p.
    • "FIGHT Attempts Intimidation." Democrat and Chronicle. 25 March 1969.  1 p.
    • Wilson, Joyce. "FIGHT Bolts Meeting—Spoke ‘Out of Turn.'" Democrat and Chronicle. 28 March 1969. 1 p.
    • Hooper , Ken. "Ashford Questions FIGHT Stand." Times-Union.  28 March 1969. 1 p.
    • "Editorial: Does FIGHT Seek Only a Fight?" Times-Union.  31 March 1969. 1 p.
    • "Board Rule Not a Concern." Times-Union.  1 April 1969. 1 p.
    • "Pupil Names For Tutoring Given FIGHT." Democrat and Chronicle. 7 April 1969. 1 p.

    Education—School 4, Violence, RTA
    Community Development and Business
  5. Newspaper Clippings - undated FIGHT vs Kodak
    • Callaway, Marvin. "Civil Rights Leader Contends Negroes Demand ‘Freedom Now.'" [Oregonian].  1 p.
    • "FIGHT Attempts Intimidation." publication unknown. 1 p.

  6. FIGHT and Education
    • Power, Mike. "FIGHT Calls Schools of Inner City ‘Worst.'" [Democrat and Chronicle]. 1 p.
    • Boller, Charles. "Control Kay In Schools, FIGHT Says."  [Democrat and Chronicle]. 1 p.

  7. Newspapers:
    • Frederick Douglass Voice. 20-27 March 1969. Front page: News from the University  of Rochester.
    • Home Town News. 23 May 1967.
    • National Guardian. 16 September 1967.
    • National Guardian. 26 March 1966.
    • National Guardian. 18 June 1966.
    • National Guardian. 29 July 1967.
    • Program Toward Black Liberation. n.d.
    • Outlet. August 1971.
    • Souvenir Edition. 12 March 1972.
    • National Guardian. 4 June 1966.
    • Muhammad Speaks. 20 December 1963.
    • Muhammad Speaks. 27 January 1967.
    • Muhammad Speaks. 10 June 1966.
    • Muhammad Speaks. 28 October 1966.
    • Harambee. 25 August 1966.
    • Harambee. 15 September 1966.
  8. Photographs; includes pictures of Florence, Malcolm X, FIGHT (see also package)
  9. Miscellaneous
  10. Rochester Democrat and Chronicle Upstate Magazine, July 21, 1985: feature article on Franklin Florence
  11. "We Must Make Our Own World... LeRoi Jones": small textile banner with a graphic of Jones and a LeRoi Jones quote. [Silk screened?].
  12. Membership records for Reynolds Street Church (see also Box 1, folder 6)


Box 8b:




  • "Hearings before the Subcommittee on the War on Poverty Program, 1965"
  • FIGHT Convention Recording (reel to reel) 6-11-65
  • FIGHT Convention Recording (CD) 6-11-65, Part 1 of 2. Runtime: 1:10:00.
  • FIGHT Convention Recording (CD) 6-11-65, Part 2 of 2. Runtime: 1:14:00.
  • Notes on FIGHT Convention Recording 6-11-65; includes excerpts from Minister Franklin Florence's speech at the end of the convention. Taken April 2010, TS, 3 pp.

Tube: FIGHT Banner